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为什么噪音有害健康-你又能为它做些什么

Why noise is bad for your health — and what you can do about it

Do you hear that?
听到了吗?
You know what that is?
知道那是什么吗?
Silence.
是安静
The sound of silence.
安静的声音
Simon and Garfunkel wrote a song about it,
西蒙与加芬克尔曾写了一首关于它的曲子
but silence is a pretty rare commodity these days,
如今安静却变得尤其罕见
and we are all paying a price for it, in terms of our health.
并且我们都在用健康为此付出代价
A surprisingly big price as it turns out.
事实也证明此代价大得惊人
Luckily, there are things we can do right now
幸运的是 无论从个人还是社会的角度出发
both individually and as a society to better protect our health.
都还能用行动更好地保护我们的健康
They give us more of the benefits of the sounds of silence.
通过行动 我们就能从安静中裨益更多
I assume that most of you know that too much noise is bad for your hearing.
我想你们大都知道 过多噪音有损听力
Whenever you leave a concert or bar
如果你离开音乐会或酒吧时
you have that ringing in your ears
你的耳朵嗡嗡作响了
you can be certain that you have done some damage to your hearing,
你的听力就一定受到了一些损伤
likely permanent,
还可能是永久性的
and that is very important.
并且这个问题很严重
However, noise affects our health in many different ways beyond hearing.
然而 噪音还影响着健康中听力之外的方方面面
They are less well known,
虽更不为人所知
but they are just as dangerous as the auditory effects.
但和听力损失一样危险
So what do we mean when we talk about noise?
那么我们所说的噪音是什么意思呢?
Well, noise is defined as unwanted sound
噪音呢 定义为不想听到的声音
and as such both has a physical component — the sound,
如上的定义包括物理方面的声音
and a psychological component—
以及心理方面
the circumstances that make the sound unwanted.
致使不想听到某个声音的环境
A very good example is a rock concert.
摇滚音乐会就是一个很好的例子
A person attending the rock concert being exposed to 100 decibels,
一个暴露在摇滚音乐会100分贝音乐中的人
does not think of the music as noise.
并不认为音乐是噪音
This person likes the band and even paid $100 for the ticket.
因为他喜欢那个乐队 甚至花费100美元买了票
So no matter how loud the music,
所以不论音乐有多喧闹
this person doesn’t think of it as noise.
他都不会视其为噪音
In contrast,
反之
think of a person living 3 blocks away from the concert hall.
一个住在离音乐厅3个街区以外的人
That person is trying to read a book,
他正想看书
but cannot concentrate because of the music.
音乐却使他无法专注
And although the sound pressure levels are much lower in this situation,
在此情景下音量虽小了很多
this person still thinks of the music as noise,
他却视音乐为噪音
and it may trigger reactions that can,
并且长期以往
in the long run, have health consequences.
可能会诱发影响健康的不良反应
So why our quiet space is so important?
那么安静的空间为何如此重要?
Because noise effects are held in so many ways beyond hearing.
因为噪音的影响还波及到听力之外的方方面面
However, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to find quiet spaces,
然而 想要找到安静的空间变得愈发困难
in times with constantly increasing traffic, growing urbanization,
在这个时代 交通越发拥挤 城市持续扩张
construction sites, air conditioning units, leaf blowers, lawn mowers,
越来越多的建筑工地 空调设备 吹叶机 割草机
outdoor concerts and bars, personal music players,
室外音乐会 酒吧 个人音乐播放器
and your neighbors partying until 3:00 a.m.
以及你凌晨3点还在派对的邻居们
In 2011, the World Health Organization estimated that
2011年 据世界卫生组织估计
1.6 million healthy life years are lost every year
仅西欧成员国 每年就有160万的健康寿命年的折损
due to exposure to environmental noise in the Western European Member States alone.
就是因为暴露在周遭的噪音中
One important effect of noise is that it disturbs communication.
有碍交流是噪音的一大影响
You may have to raise your voice to be understood.
为使他人理解 会不得不提高音量
In extreme cases, you may even have to pause the conversation.
极端情况下 甚至可能不得不终止对话
It’s also more likely to be misunderstood in a noisy environment,
嘈杂的环境里人们也更容易被误解
and these are all likely reasons
而这些也可能正好解释了
why studies have found that children who attend schools in noisy areas
为什么研究表明在嘈杂地区上学的孩子
are more likely to lag behind their peers in academic performance.
学业上更可能落后于同龄孩子
Another very important health effect of noise is
噪音对健康的另一大影响
the increased risk for cardiovascular disease
即长时间暴露在一定级别的噪音中
in those who are exposed to relevant noise levels for prolonged periods of time.
会增加患心血管疾病的风险
Noise is stress,
噪音是一种压力
especially if we have little or no control over it.
尤其是几乎无法控制它的时猴
Our body excretes stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol
我们的身体会分泌肾上腺素和皮质醇等应激激素
that lead to changes in the composition of our blood
导致血液成分发生变化
and in the structure of our blood vessels,
研究也表明经受一夜噪音后
which have been shown to be stiffer after a single night of noise exposure.
血管构造会变得更加僵硬
Epidemiological studies show associations between the noise exposure
流行病学研究表明
and an increased risk for high blood pressure, heart attacks and stroke.
噪音与高血压 心脏病和中风风险的增加是有关联的
And although the overall risk increases are relatively small,
尽管总体增幅相对较小
this still constitutes a major public health problem,
但仍构成一个严重的公共卫生问题
because noise is so ubiquitous
毕竟噪音无处不在
and so many people are exposed to relevant noise levels.
人们就暴露在不同程度的噪音中
A recent study found that US society
最近的一项研究表明
could save 3.9 billion dollars each year
美国可以通过降低5分贝的环境噪音
by lowering environmental noise exposure by five decibels,
从而节省治疗心血管疾病的开销
just by saving costs for treating cardiovascular disease.
且每年可达39亿美元
There are other diseases like cancer, diabetes and obesity
癌症 糖尿病和肥胖症等疾病
that have been linked to noise exposure,
都和接触噪音有关联
but we do not have enough evidence yet
但至今我们还没有足够的证据
to in fact conclude that these diseases are caused by the noise.
真正去推断噪音是这些疾病的元凶
Yet another important effect of noise is sleep disturbance.
睡眠障碍是噪音的另一大危害
Sleep is a very active mechanism
睡眠机制是非常主动的
that recuperates us and prepares us for the next wake period.
会使我们恢复体力并为醒后的阶段做好准备
A quiet bedroom is a cornerstone
而一个安静的卧室
of what sleep researchers call a good sleep hygiene,
则是睡眠研究人员认可的“良好睡眠习惯”之基石
and our auditory system has a watchman function.
而听觉系统就是看门人
It’s constantly monitoring our environment for threats
它持续监测着环境中存在的威胁
even while we’re sleeping.
睡眠期间也如此
So noise in the bedroom can cause a delay in the time it takes us to fall asleep,
所以卧室的噪音会推迟我们的入睡时间
it can wake us up during the night,
在夜间吵醒我们
and it can prevent our blood pressure from going down during the night.
然后使血压在夜里难以下降
We have the hypothesis that if these noise
假设长年累月下去
and your sleep disturbances continue for months and years
你一直遭受着噪音和睡眠障碍的困扰
then an increased risk for cardiovascular disease is likely the consequence.
那么心血管疾病就很可能找上门来了
However, we are often not aware of these noise-induced sleep disturbances,
然而 我们往往意识不到这种噪音引起的睡眠障碍
because we are unconscious while we’re sleeping.
因为睡着时我们是无意识的
In the past, we’ve done studies on the effects of traffic noise on sleep,
以前 我们研究过交通噪音对睡眠的影响
and research subjects would often wake up in the morning
研究对象往往在早上醒来后
and say “I had a wonderful night”
说 “昨晚睡得真好”
“I fell asleep right away never really woke up.”
“我一下就睡着了 整晚都没醒过”
When we would then go back to the physiological signals we had recorded during the night,
而我们返回去看夜间记录的生理信号时
we would often see numerous awakenings
往往能发现无数次的苏醒
and a severely fragmented sleep structure.
以及严重分裂的睡眠模式
These awakenings were too brief to… for the subjects to regain consciousness
这些苏醒短暂到不至于让主体恢复意识
and to remember them during the next morning,
也不至于到了早上还能记得
but they may nevertheless have a profound impact on how restful our sleep is.
但还是对我们的睡眠质量有着重大影响
So when is loud too loud?
那么多大声音才算太吵呢?
A good sign of too loud is once you start changing your behavior.
一旦你开始改变行为 就表明太吵了
You may have to raise your voice to be understood or you increase the volume of your TV.
你可能会提高音量使对方理解 或增大了电视音量
You are avoiding outside areas or you are closing your window,
你躲避着室外 又或是关上了窗户
you are moving your bedroom to the basement of the house,
你把卧室移到了家里的地下室
or you even have sound insulation installed.
你甚至装上隔音装置
Many people will move away to less noisy areas,
许多人会搬到噪音较少的地区
but obviously not everybody can afford that.
但显然不是人人都能承担得了
So, what can we do right now
那么 我们现在能做些什么
to improve our sound environment
去改善我们所处的声音环境
and to better protect our health?
更好地保护我们的健康呢?
Well first of all, if something’s too loud, speak up.
首先 如果某些事物太吵了 说出来
For example, many owners of movie theaters seem to think that
例如 许多电影院老板似乎认为
only people hard of hearing are still going to the… to the movies.
只有听力不好的人才…还去电影院
If you complain about the noise and nothing happens,
如果你抱怨了噪音 却什么都没发生
demand a refund and leave.
那就要求退款并离场
That’s language that managers typically do understand.
这才是电影院管理者听得懂的话
Also, talk to your children about the health effects of noise
另外 把噪音对健康的危害告诉你的孩子
and that listening to loud music today will have consequences when they are older.
现在听歌音量过大 长大后只会自食其果
You can also move your bedroom to the quiet side of the house
你还可以将卧室移至房内更安静的一边
where your own building shields you from road traffic noise.
你的房子即可为你阻挡道路交通的噪音
If you’re looking to rent or buy a new place,
如果你想租赁或买下一个新居所
make low noise a priority.
让低噪音成为优先考虑的条件
Visit the property during different times of the day
在一天的不同时段去参观房子
and talk to the neighbors about noise.
并同邻居聊聊噪音的问题
You can wear noise-cancelling headphones when you’re traveling,
在旅途中 可以戴上降噪耳机
or if your office has high background noise levels.
或者在你嘈杂的办公室里
In general, seek out quiet spaces,
总而言之 去寻找安静的地方
especially on the weekend or when you’re on vacation,
特别是周末或度假的时候
allow your system to wind down.
给你的身体放松下来的机会
I, very appropriately for this talk,
我自己是很适合这个演讲主题的
attended a noise conference in Japan 4 years ago.
四年前 我去日本参加了一个有关噪音的会议
When I returned to the United States and entered the airport,
当我回到美国 并抵达机场时
a wall of sound hit me.
声音就像堵墙一样 向我袭来
This tells you that we don’t realize anymore
这是要告诉你 我们并没有意识到
the constant degree of noise pollution we’re exposed to
我们一直暴露在一定程度的噪音污染中
and how much we could profit from more quiet spaces.
以及更加安静的空间能使我们裨益多少
What else can we do about noise?
关于噪音 我们还能做些什么?
Well, very much like a carbon footprint,
和碳足迹非常类似
we all have a noise footprint,
我们也有噪音足迹
and there are things we can do to make that noise footprint smaller.
我们也可以采取行动来减少噪音足迹
For example,
例如
don’t start mowing your lawn at 7:00 a.m. on a Saturday morning.
不要在周六早上7点就开始修剪草坪
Your neighbors will thank you.
你的邻居们会感谢你的
Or use a rake instead of a leaf blower.
或者用耙子代替吹叶机
In general, noise reduction at the source makes the most sense.
总之 从源头上削弱噪音是最有效的
So whenever you’re looking to buy a new car,
所以无论你何时想买新车
air conditioning unit, blender, you name it,
买空调 买搅拌机 等等
make low noise a priority.
让低噪音成为优先考虑的条件
Many manufacturers will list the noise levels the devices generate,
许多制造商会列出产品的噪音级别
and some even advertise with them.
有的甚至借其打广告
Use that information.
利用好这些信息
Many people think that stronger noise regulation and enforcement are good ideas,
许多人赞同加强噪音监管与执法力度
even obvious solutions perhaps.
并可能是显而易见的对策
But it’s not as easy as you may think,
但没你想的那么简单
because many of the activities that generate noise also generate revenue.
因为很多产生噪音的活动也产生着收入
Think about an airport and all the business that is associated with it.
想想一个机场以及所有与其相关的产业
Our research tells politicians
我们的研究告诉政治家们
at what noise level they can expect a certain health effect
级别多高的噪音会对健康产生一定影响
and that helps inform better noise policy.
以助于出台更好的反噪音政策
Robert Koch supposedly once said,
罗伯特·科赫曾说过
“one day, mankind will fight noise as relentlessly as Cholera and the Pest.”
“人类终有一天必须极力对抗噪音 如同对抗霍乱与瘟疫一样”
I think we are there,
我想我们已身处此境
and I hope that we will win this fight,
我也希望我们能在这场战斗中胜出
and when we do,
而当我们做到时
we can all have a nice, quiet celebration.
我们可以举办一个 美好且安静的庆典
Thank you.
谢谢

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视频概述

讲述噪音对人体健康的危害,与疾病的联系,以及面对噪音污染日趋严峻的情况,人类应该怎样应对

听录译者

🍀趁年轻🌴

翻译译者

亿珀

审核员

审核员LAMB

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=85fPhzcFCBg

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