Do you hear that?
You know what that is?
The sound of silence.
Simon and Garfunkel wrote a song about it,
but silence is a pretty rare commodity these days,
and we are all paying a price for it, in terms of our health.
A surprisingly big price as it turns out.
Luckily, there are things we can do right now
both individually and as a society to better protect our health.
They give us more of the benefits of the sounds of silence.
I assume that most of you know that too much noise is bad for your hearing.
Whenever you leave a concert or bar
you have that ringing in your ears
you can be certain that you have done some damage to your hearing,
and that is very important.
However, noise affects our health in many different ways beyond hearing.
They are less well known,
but they are just as dangerous as the auditory effects.
So what do we mean when we talk about noise?
Well, noise is defined as unwanted sound
and as such both has a physical component — the sound,
and a psychological component—
the circumstances that make the sound unwanted.
A very good example is a rock concert.
A person attending the rock concert being exposed to 100 decibels,
does not think of the music as noise.
This person likes the band and even paid $100 for the ticket.
So no matter how loud the music,
this person doesn’t think of it as noise.
think of a person living 3 blocks away from the concert hall.
That person is trying to read a book,
but cannot concentrate because of the music.
And although the sound pressure levels are much lower in this situation,
this person still thinks of the music as noise,
and it may trigger reactions that can,
in the long run, have health consequences.
So why our quiet space is so important?
Because noise effects are held in so many ways beyond hearing.
However, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to find quiet spaces,
in times with constantly increasing traffic, growing urbanization,
在这个时代 交通越发拥挤 城市持续扩张
construction sites, air conditioning units, leaf blowers, lawn mowers,
越来越多的建筑工地 空调设备 吹叶机 割草机
outdoor concerts and bars, personal music players,
室外音乐会 酒吧 个人音乐播放器
and your neighbors partying until 3:00 a.m.
In 2011, the World Health Organization estimated that
1.6 million healthy life years are lost every year
due to exposure to environmental noise in the Western European Member States alone.
One important effect of noise is that it disturbs communication.
You may have to raise your voice to be understood.
In extreme cases, you may even have to pause the conversation.
It’s also more likely to be misunderstood in a noisy environment,
and these are all likely reasons
why studies have found that children who attend schools in noisy areas
are more likely to lag behind their peers in academic performance.
Another very important health effect of noise is
the increased risk for cardiovascular disease
in those who are exposed to relevant noise levels for prolonged periods of time.
Noise is stress,
especially if we have little or no control over it.
Our body excretes stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol
that lead to changes in the composition of our blood
and in the structure of our blood vessels,
which have been shown to be stiffer after a single night of noise exposure.
Epidemiological studies show associations between the noise exposure
and an increased risk for high blood pressure, heart attacks and stroke.
And although the overall risk increases are relatively small,
this still constitutes a major public health problem,
because noise is so ubiquitous
and so many people are exposed to relevant noise levels.
A recent study found that US society
could save 3.9 billion dollars each year
by lowering environmental noise exposure by five decibels,
just by saving costs for treating cardiovascular disease.
There are other diseases like cancer, diabetes and obesity
that have been linked to noise exposure,
but we do not have enough evidence yet
to in fact conclude that these diseases are caused by the noise.
Yet another important effect of noise is sleep disturbance.
Sleep is a very active mechanism
that recuperates us and prepares us for the next wake period.
A quiet bedroom is a cornerstone
of what sleep researchers call a good sleep hygiene,
and our auditory system has a watchman function.
It’s constantly monitoring our environment for threats
even while we’re sleeping.
So noise in the bedroom can cause a delay in the time it takes us to fall asleep,
it can wake us up during the night,
and it can prevent our blood pressure from going down during the night.
We have the hypothesis that if these noise
and your sleep disturbances continue for months and years
then an increased risk for cardiovascular disease is likely the consequence.
However, we are often not aware of these noise-induced sleep disturbances,
because we are unconscious while we’re sleeping.
In the past, we’ve done studies on the effects of traffic noise on sleep,
and research subjects would often wake up in the morning
and say “I had a wonderful night”
“I fell asleep right away never really woke up.”
When we would then go back to the physiological signals we had recorded during the night,
we would often see numerous awakenings
and a severely fragmented sleep structure.
These awakenings were too brief to… for the subjects to regain consciousness
and to remember them during the next morning,
but they may nevertheless have a profound impact on how restful our sleep is.
So when is loud too loud?
A good sign of too loud is once you start changing your behavior.
You may have to raise your voice to be understood or you increase the volume of your TV.
You are avoiding outside areas or you are closing your window,
you are moving your bedroom to the basement of the house,
or you even have sound insulation installed.
Many people will move away to less noisy areas,
but obviously not everybody can afford that.
So, what can we do right now
to improve our sound environment
and to better protect our health?
Well first of all, if something’s too loud, speak up.
首先 如果某些事物太吵了 说出来
For example, many owners of movie theaters seem to think that
only people hard of hearing are still going to the… to the movies.
If you complain about the noise and nothing happens,
demand a refund and leave.
That’s language that managers typically do understand.
Also, talk to your children about the health effects of noise
and that listening to loud music today will have consequences when they are older.
You can also move your bedroom to the quiet side of the house
where your own building shields you from road traffic noise.
If you’re looking to rent or buy a new place,
make low noise a priority.
Visit the property during different times of the day
and talk to the neighbors about noise.
You can wear noise-cancelling headphones when you’re traveling,
or if your office has high background noise levels.
In general, seek out quiet spaces,
especially on the weekend or when you’re on vacation,
allow your system to wind down.
I, very appropriately for this talk,
attended a noise conference in Japan 4 years ago.
When I returned to the United States and entered the airport,
a wall of sound hit me.
This tells you that we don’t realize anymore
the constant degree of noise pollution we’re exposed to
and how much we could profit from more quiet spaces.
What else can we do about noise?
Well, very much like a carbon footprint,
we all have a noise footprint,
and there are things we can do to make that noise footprint smaller.
don’t start mowing your lawn at 7:00 a.m. on a Saturday morning.
Your neighbors will thank you.
Or use a rake instead of a leaf blower.
In general, noise reduction at the source makes the most sense.
So whenever you’re looking to buy a new car,
air conditioning unit, blender, you name it,
买空调 买搅拌机 等等
make low noise a priority.
Many manufacturers will list the noise levels the devices generate,
and some even advertise with them.
Use that information.
Many people think that stronger noise regulation and enforcement are good ideas,
even obvious solutions perhaps.
But it’s not as easy as you may think,
because many of the activities that generate noise also generate revenue.
Think about an airport and all the business that is associated with it.
Our research tells politicians
at what noise level they can expect a certain health effect
and that helps inform better noise policy.
Robert Koch supposedly once said,
“one day, mankind will fight noise as relentlessly as Cholera and the Pest.”
I think we are there,
and I hope that we will win this fight,
and when we do,
we can all have a nice, quiet celebration.
Do you hear that?