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为什么噪音对你的健康有害?你能做些什么? – 译学馆
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为什么噪音对你的健康有害?你能做些什么?

Why noise is bad for your health -- and what you can do about it | Mathias Basner

你们听到了吗?
Do you hear that?
你们知道那是什么吗?
Do you know what that is?
寂静
Silence.
那是寂静的声音
The sound of silence.
西蒙和加芬克尔二人为它写过一首歌 (《寂静之声》)
Simon and Garfunkel wrote a song about it.
但现如今寂静变得尤其罕见
But silence is a prettyrare commodity these days,
而我们都在为此付出的代价
and we’re all paying a price
——尤其是在健康上
for it in terms of our health —
而且是非常巨大的代价
a surprisingly big price, as it turns out. Luckily,
幸运的是 我们现在还是可以做些什么
there are thingswe can do right now,
不管是个人还是社会
both individually and as a society,
来保护我们的健康
to better protect our health
以及让我们享受到更多寂静带来的好处
and give us more of the benefits of the sounds of silence.
我想大部分人
I assume that most
应该知道过多的噪音对听力会有损害
of you know that too much noise is bad for your hearing.
你在离开一个演唱会或者酒吧的时候
Whenever you leave a concert or a bar
如果耳中还有余音
and you have that ringing in your ears,
那你的听力
you can be certain
肯定已经受到损害了
that you have done some damage to your hearing,
而且很可能是永久性的
likely permanent.
这很重要不过
And that’s very important. However,
噪音对健康的影响远不止于听力
noise affects our healthin many different ways beyond hearing.
这些影响不为人所知 但却和听觉受损同样危险所以
They’re less well-known, but they’re just as dangerous as the auditory effects.
当我们在谈论噪音时 究竟在谈论什么?
So what do we meanwhen we talk about noise? Well,
噪音是“不被欢迎的声音”
noise is defined as unwanted sound,
它包括物理层面
and as such, both hasa physical component, the sound,
即声音本身以及心理层面 即该声音不受欢迎的原因
and a psychological component, the circumstances that makethe sound unwanted.
摇滚乐演唱会就是个很好的例子
A very good example is a rock concert.
参加摇滚演唱会的人会被100分贝的声音环绕
A person attending the rock concert,being exposed to 100 decibels,
但却不认为那是噪音
does not think of the music as noise.
他喜欢那个乐队
This person likes the band,
甚至花了100美元买票
and even paid a hundred dollars for the ticket,
所以不管音乐有多大声
so no matter how loud the music,
他也不会认为那是噪音
this person doesn’t think of it as noise.
反过来 想想住在演唱会场馆
In contrast, think of a person living three blocks away
三个街区以外的一个人
from the concert hall.
他正想看书
That person is trying to read a book,
但因为音乐声而无法集中注意力
but cannot concentratebecause of the music.
尽管在这里
And although the sound pressure levels
音量已经小了很多
are much lower in this situation,
但他仍然会认为这是噪音
this person still thinksof the music as noise,
而且还可能触发
and it may trigger reactions that can,
引起长期健康问题的反应
in the long run, have health consequences.
所以为什么安静的地方如此重要?
So why are quiet spaces so important?
因为噪音对我们的影响远远大于听力损害但是
Because noise affects our healthin so many ways beyond hearing. However,
现在要想找到安静的地方难上加难
it’s becoming increasinglydifficult to find quiet spaces
交通更拥挤
in times of constantly increasing traffic,
城市化加速 到处工程施工、
growing urbanization, construction sites,air-conditioning units,
空调运作还有吹叶机和除草机的声音 包括户外音乐会和酒吧、独立音乐演奏者
leaf blowers, lawnmowers, outdoor concerts and bars,personal music players,
你的邻居还夜夜笙歌至凌晨三点
and your neighbors partying until 3am.
呼!
Whew!
2011年 世界健康组织预计
In 2011, the World HealthOrganization estimated
每年人们的健康生命年总损失达160万年
that 1.6 million healthy life yearsare lost every year
仅仅因为环境噪音
due to exposure to environmental noise
而这还只算了西欧国家
in the Western Europeanmember states alone.
噪音的一大影响是它阻碍了沟通
One important effect of noiseis that it disturbs communication.
人们需要提高音量来让别人听到
You may have to raise your voiceto be understood.
在极端情况下 你可能还要中断对话
In extreme cases, you may evenhave to pause the conversation.
而在嘈杂环境中 人们也更容易被误解因此
It’s also more likely to be misunderstoodin a noisy environment.
研究发现
These are all likely reasonswhy studies have found
在嘈杂地区上学的儿童
that children who attendschools in noisy areas
更倾向于在学术表现上比同龄人落后
are more likely to lag behind their peersin academic performance.
另一个重要的噪音带来的健康影响是
Another very importanthealth effect of noise
它会提高人们得心血管疾病的几率
is the increased riskfor cardiovascular disease
尤其是那些在较高噪音水平中
in those who are exposedto relevant noise levels
生活了很长时间的人
for prolonged periods of time.
噪音带来压力 尤其是在我们无法控制噪音的情况下
Noise is stress, especially if we have little or no control over it.
我们的身体会分泌荷尔蒙 如肾上腺素和皮质醇
Our body excretes stress hormoneslike adrenaline and cortisol
它们会改变我们的血液组成
that lead to changesin the composition of our blood
还会改变我们的血管架构
and in the structure of our blood vessels,
比如当我们经历了一晚的噪音后 血管就会变硬
which have been shown to be stiffer after a single night of noise exposure.
流行病学研究发现
Epidemiological studies show associationsbetween the noise exposure
噪音会带来高血压的风险
and an increased riskfor high blood pressure,
以及心脏病发作、
heart attacks and stroke,
中风等风险虽然这样的风险增加度不高
and although the overall risk increasesare relatively small,
但这仍然是影响大众健康状况的很大因素
this still constitutesa major public health problem
因为噪音无处不在
because noise is so ubiquitous,
太多人一直在不同程度的噪音当中
and so many people are exposedto relevant noise levels.
近期一个研究发现
A recent study found that US society
美国每年可以省下39亿美元
could save 3.9 billion dollars each year
只要把环境噪音降低5分贝
by lowering environmentalnoise exposure by five decibels,
而这也是为治疗心血管疾病省下成本
just by saving costs for treatingcardiovascular disease.
还有其它疾病如癌症、糖尿病和肥胖症
There are other diseaseslike cancer, diabetes and obesity
它们都和噪音暴露有关系
that have been linked to noise exposure,
但我们目前实际上还没有足够的证据
but we do not have enough evidence yet to,
来说明这些疾病是由噪音造成的
in fact, conclude that these diseases are caused by the noise.
噪音另一个重要影响是睡眠
Yet another important effect of noiseis sleep disturbance.
睡眠是一个非常活跃的机制 来为我们恢复活力
Sleep is a very active mechanismthat recuperates us
让我们准备好迎接下一个清醒时段
and prepares us for the next wake period.
一个安静的房间是一些研究者口中的
A quiet bedroom is a cornerstoneof what sleep researchers call
“一个好觉”的基石
“a good sleep hygiene.”
我们的听力系统有一个“看门人”的功能
And our auditory systemhas a watchman function.
它持续地检测着我们所处的环境中
It’s constantly monitoringour environment for threats,
是否有威胁即便是在我们睡觉的时候
even while we’re sleeping.
所以房间里的噪音
So noise in the bedroom can cause a delay
会延迟我们的入睡时间
in the time it takes us to fall asleep,
还会让我们在半夜醒来
it can wake us up during the night,
它会阻碍我们的血压在夜晚降低
and it can prevent our blood pressure from going down during the night.
我们有个假设 如果这种被噪音性睡眠障碍
We have the hypothesis thatif these noise-induced sleep disturbances
持续几个月或几年
continue for months and years,
那么心血管疾病的发病概率将会提高然而
then an increased risk for cardiovasculardisease is likely the consequence. However,
我们常常无法意识到这些噪音性睡眠障碍的存在
we are often not awareof these noise-induced sleep disturbances,
因为我们在睡觉时没有意识
because we are unconsciouswhile we’re sleeping.
我们曾经对在交通噪音环境中
In the past, we’ve done studies on the effects
睡觉的人做过研究
of traffic noise on sleep,
研究对象们经常在早晨
and research subjects would often wake up
起来后说“啊
in the morning and say, “Ah,
我昨晚睡得很好
I had a wonderful night,I fell asleep right away,
马上睡着了中途也没有醒
never really woke up.”
“ 但当我们回头看各种前晚记录的
When we would go backto the physiological signals
身体数据时
we had recorded during the night,
我们常常看到大量的身体唤醒
we would often see numerous awakenings
以及严重片段化的睡眠结构
and a severely fragmented sleep structure.
这些唤醒太短 不至于让被研究者恢复意识
These awakenings were too brieffor the subjects to regain consciousness
或者在第二天早上还能记得
and to remember themduring the next morning,
但它们将会带来深远的影响
but they may neverthelesshave a profound impact
决定了我们的睡眠带来的休息价值有多少
on how restful our sleep is.
所以什么时候声音才算过大?
So when is loud too loud?
一个很好的信号是 你开始改变你的行为
A good sign of too loud is once you start changing your behavior.
比如你可能要更大声地说话以让别人理解
You may have to raise your voiceto be understood,
或者你开始增加电视音量
or you increase the volume of your TV.
你开始避开户外区域
You’re avoiding outside areas,or you’re closing your window.
关上窗户你把你的卧室移到地下室
You’re moving your bedroomto the basement of the house,
或者你甚至装上了隔音设备
or you even havesound insulation installed.
很多人会搬到更少噪音的地方去
Many people will move awayto less noisy areas,
但显然不是所有人都可以负担得起
but obviously not everybodycan afford that.
所以我们可以做些什么
So what can we do right
来改善声音环境呢
now to improve our sound environment
从而保护我们的健康呢?
and to better protect our health? Well,
第一 如果你感觉太吵 就要表达意见比如
first of all,if something’s too loud, speak up.
很多电影院的老板
For example, many owners of movie theaters
好像都以为只有听力
seem to think that only people hard
不好的人才去电影院
of hearing are still going to the movies.
如果你抱怨过它的噪音但没有效果
If you complain about the noiseand nothing happens,
你可以要求退款或者直接离开
demand a refund and leave.
电影院的经理肯定会明白你传达的信息的
That’s the language that managerstypically do understand. Also,
你还可以教导你的孩子们关于噪音对健康的影响
talk to your childrenabout the health effects of noise
他们现在大声地听音乐 以后他们将为此付出代价
and that listening to loud music today will have consequences when they’re older.
你也可以把你的卧室移到
You can also move your bedroom
房子比较安静的地方
to the quiet side of the house,
你的房子本身就可以为你阻挡一部分的交通噪音
where your own building shields youfrom road traffic noise.
如果你正在寻找新的房子
If you’re looking to rentor buy a new place,
把安静和噪音少作为首选条件
make low noise a priority.
在一天的不同时间参观房子
Visit the property duringdifferent times of the day
和邻居讨论一下噪音
and talk to the neighbors about noise.
在旅行的时候 你可以戴降噪耳机
You can wear noise-canceling headphoneswhen you’re traveling
如果你的办公室有强噪音环境
or if your office has highbackground noise levels.
也可以戴总的来说 寻找安静的地方
In general, seek out quiet spaces,
尤其是在周末或你正在休假的时候
especially on the weekendor when you’re on vacation.
让你的身体系统放松
Allow your system to wind down. I,
和这次演讲十分呼应的是四年前
very appropriately for this talk,
我在日本参加了一个有关噪音的会议
attended a noise conferencein Japan four years ago.
当我回到美国
When I returned to the United Statesand entered the airport,
进入机场时无数声音像墙一样向我袭来
a wall of sound hit me.
这告诉我们
This tells you thatwe don’t realize anymore
我们不再对噪音污染的暴露感到敏感
the constant degreeof noise pollution we’re exposed to
而且也不再意识到安静的环境可以给我们带来多大的好处
and how much we could profitfrom more quiet spaces.
我们还能做些什么?
What else can we do about noise? Well,
正如二氧化碳足迹一样
very much like a carbon footprint,
我们也有噪音足迹
we all have a noise footprint,
而这些是我们可以缩小噪音足迹的方式比如
and there are things we can do to make that noise footprint smaller.
不要在周六早上七点
For example, don’t start mowing your lawn at 7am on a Saturday morning.
就开始除草 你的邻居会感谢你的
Your neighbors will thank you.
或者你可以用耙子而不是吹叶机
Or use a rake instead of a leaf blower.
总的来说 从源头减少噪音是最合理的
In general, noise reduction at the sourcemakes the most sense,
所以当你在考虑买新车买空调
so whenever you’re lookingto buy a new car,
买搅拌机 或者其它什么的时候
air-conditioning unit,blender, you name it,
把低噪音作为一个首选条件
make low noise a priority.
很多制造商会把低噪音水平考虑到设备生产中
Many manufacturers will listthe noise levels their devices generate,
有些甚至会以此作为广告亮点
and some even advertise with them.
好好利用这样的信息
Use that information.
很多认为有力
Many people think
的噪音法规和执行是好的方法
that stronger noise regulation and enforcement are good ideas,
甚至可能觉得这才是最明显的解决方式
even obvious solutions, perhaps,
但这不像人们想象中简单
but it’s not as easy as you may think,
因为许多带来噪音的活动
because many of the activitiesthat generate noise
同样带来收入
also generate revenue.
想想机场带来的商业效应就知道了
Think about an airport and all the business that is associated with it.
我们的研究也告诉政治家们
Our research tells politiciansat what noise level
怎样的噪音水平会带来怎样的健康效应
they can expect a certain health effect,
这会帮助更有效的噪音政策出台
and that helps inform better noise policy.
细菌学家罗泊特·科赫曾说
Robert Koch supposedly once said,
“总有一天 人类和噪音的斗争会像
“ One day, mankind will fight noise as relentlessly
他们和霍乱、害虫的斗争一样残酷 ”
as cholera and the pest.”
我想这一天已经来到了
I think we’re there,
我希望我们可以赢得这场斗争
and I hope that we will win this fight,
而当这实现时 我们可以举行一次美好的、安静的庆祝活动
and when we do, we can all have a nice, quiet celebration.
(笑声)谢谢
(Laughter)
(掌声)
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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