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为什么博物馆正在回归文化宝藏

Why museums are returning cultural treasures | Chip Colwell

我要忏悔:我既是考古学家又是博物馆馆长
A confession: I am an archaeologistand a museum curator,
但是是很矛盾的那种
but a paradoxical one.
我会在为我的博物馆收藏东西的同时
For my museum, I collect things,
我也会把东西物归原主
but I also return thingsback to where they came from.
我热爱博物馆 因为它们具有社会意义和教育意义
I love museums becausethey’re social and educational,
但最吸引我的
but I’m most drawn to them
是藏品本身的魔力:
because of the magic of objects:
一百万年历史的手持式斧头
a one-million-year-old hand axe,
图腾柱 印象派画作
a totem pole, an impressionist painting
这些能把我们带到我们想象之外的地方
all take us beyond our own imaginations.
在博物馆 我们会停下来沉思
In museums, we pause to muse,
凝视着这些代表人类帝国的物品
to gaze upon our human empire of things
一边冥想 一边感到惊奇
in meditation and wonder.
我能理解为什么光是美国的博物馆
I understand why US museums alone
每年就能有八亿五千万人次参观量
host more than 850 millionvisits each year. Yet,
但近年来 博物馆已经变成了战场
in recent years, museumshave become a battleground.
世界各地的群体都不想看到他们的文化
Communities around the worlddon’t want to see their culture
落入一些遥远的机构手中 而他们无法对其进行掌控
in distant institutionswhich they have no control over.
他们希望能看到自己的文化宝藏
They want to see their cultural treasures repatriated,
能被送返回国 物归原主
returnedto their places of origin.
希腊希望大英博物馆能够将额尔金大理石雕塑
Greece seeks the returnof the Parthenon Marbles,
这一系列的经典雕塑如数归还
a collection of classical sculpturesheld by the British Museum.
埃及要求德国归还它们的古董文物
Egypt demands antiquities from Germany.
新西兰的毛利人希望各地的博物馆
New Zealand’s Maori want to see returned
能归还祖先的头颅:刺有花纹的人头
ancestral tattooed headsfrom museums everywhere.
然而 与美国原住民的要求比起来 这些要求显得微不足道
Yet these claims pale in comparison to those made by Native Americans. Already,
美国博物馆已经归还了超过一百万件手工艺品
US museums have returnedmore than one million artifacts
以及五万组原住民骸骨
and 50,000 setsof Native American skeletons.
若要说明到底是什么如此重要 咱们先从战神开始
To illustrate what’s at stake,let’s start with the War Gods.
这是一个由新墨西哥
This is a wood carving made by members
祖尼部落的成员雕刻而成木雕
of the Zuni tribe in New Mexico.
在十九世纪八十年代 人类学家开始收集这些木雕
In the 1880s, anthropologistsbegan to collect them
以此作为美国印第安宗教存在的证据
as evidence of American Indian religion.
大众也渐渐认可了这些木雕的美丽之处
They came to be seen as beautiful,
将它们视为毕加索和保罗克利雕塑的先驱
the precursor to the stark sculpturesof Picasso and Paul Klee,
有助于引领现代艺术运动
helping to usher inthe modern art movement.
从某种观点来看 对于战神
From one viewpoint, the museumdid exactly as it’s supposed to
博物馆尽到了它的本分
with the War God.
那就是将这些鲜为人知的艺术形式
It helped introducea little-known art form
介绍给全世界欣赏
for the world to appreciate.
但从另一种观点来看
But from another point of view,
博物馆犯下了可怕的罪行:文化暴力
the museum had committed a terrible crime of cultural violence.
对祖尼人来说 战神并不是一件艺术品
For Zunis, the War Godis not a piece of art,
它甚至不是一件物品
it is not even a thing.
它是一种生命的存在
It is a being.
对祖尼人来说 每年
For Zunis, every year,
牧师们会根据仪式雕刻新的战神
priests ritually carve new War Gods,
Ahayu:da
the Ahayu: da,
在漫长的仪式中 赋予了它们生命
breathing life into themin a long ceremony.
它们被供奉在
They are placed
神圣的神坛上 就在那儿守护祖尼人
on sacred shrines where they live to protect the Zuni people
维持宇宙的平衡
and keep the universe in balance.
没有人能够拥有或售卖战神
No one can own or sell a War God.
它们只属于地球
They belong only to the earth.
所以 祖尼人希望博物馆能够将它们归还
And so Zunis want them back from museums
这样它们才能回到它们的家:神坛
so they can go to their shrine homes
履行它们的神圣使命
to fulfill their spiritual purpose.
策展人要做什么?
What is a curator to do?
我相信 战神应该被归还
I believe that the War Godsshould be returned.
这可能是个很惊人的答案
This might be a startling answer.
毕竟 我的结论和世界上最著名的
After all, my conclusioncontradicts the refrain
考古学家的名言相悖:
of the world’s most famous archaeologist:
“那是属于博物馆的”
“That belongs in a museum!”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
印第安纳·琼斯说的话 并不只是为了电影情节发展
is what Indiana Jones said,not just to drive movie plots,
也是明确了对于社会 博物馆有着毋庸置疑的美善
but to drive home the unquestionable goodof museums for society.
我的观点来之不易
I did not come to my view easily.
我在亚利桑那州的土桑市长大
I grew up in Tucson, Arizona,
并爱上了索诺拉沙漠的过去
and fell in lovewith the Sonoran Desert’s past.
让我很赞叹的是在该城市中整排枯燥乏味的商店底下
I was amazed that beneaththe city’s bland strip malls
有一万两千年历史等待着被探索
was 12,000 years of historyjust waiting to be discovered.
当我16岁时 我开始修考古学的课
When I was 16 years old,I started taking archaeology classes
到外面去挖掘
and going out on digs.
我的一位高中老师
A high school teacher
甚至帮我建立了自己的实验室
of mine even helped me set up my own laboratory
来研究动物骨头
to study animal bones.
但在大学
But in college,
我渐渐发现 我的未来职业 有着很黑暗的历史
I came to learn that my future career had a dark history.
从十九世纪六十年代开始
Starting in the 1860s,
美国原住民骸骨就变成了科学工具
Native American skeletonsbecame a tool for science,
数千骸骨被收集起来去证明社会和种族阶层的新理论
collected in the thousands to prove new theories of social and racial hierarchies.
从美国原住民坟墓中偷取人类遗骨
Native American human remainswere plundered from graves,
甚至连战场上的新鲜尸体都被带走
even taken fresh from battlefields.
当考古学家不小心发现白人的坟墓时
When archaeologistscame across white graves,
通常会很快重新埋葬骸骨
the skeleton was often quickly reburied,
而原住民的骨头却被存起来当做博物馆架上的样本
while Native bones were depositedas specimens on museum shelves.
在经历了战争 掠取土地 寄宿学校
In the wake of war, stolen land,boarding schools,
法律禁止宗教之后 人类学家开始收集圣物
laws banning religion, anthropologists collected sacred objects
因为他们相信原住民 在要绝种的关口上
in the belief that Native peoples were on the cusp of extinction.
你可以称之为种族主义或殖民主义
You can call it racism or colonialism,
但这些标签并不重要
but the labels don’t matter
重要的是 在过去一个世纪
as much as the factthat over the last century,
美国原住民的权利与文化被剥夺了
Native American rights and culturewere taken from them.
1990年 在原住民抗议数年后
In 1990, after years of Native protests,
美国政府经美国国会
the US government,through the US Congress,
终于通过了允许美国原住民
finally passed a law that allowedNative Americans to reclaim
向博物馆索回文物 圣物以及人类遗骨的法律
cultural items, sacred objectsand human remains from museums.
许多考古学家十分恐慌
Many archaeologists were panicked.
对科学家来说
For scientists,
很难完全了解一块木头
it can be hard to fully grasp how a piece
怎么可能是永生之神
of wood can be a living god
或者 神灵怎么可能会围绕在骨头周围
or how spirits surround bones.
他们知道现代科学 特别是DNA相关的科学
And they knew that modern science,especially with DNA,
能够带来对过去既清楚又深刻的了解
can provide luminous insightsinto the past.
如同人类学家法兰克·诺威克所声称的
As the anthropologistFrank Norwick declared,
“我们在做的是重要的工作能让全人类受惠
“We are doing important workthat benefits all of mankind.
我们不会把任何东西归还给任何人”
We are not returning anything to anyone.”
身为大学生 这一切都难以理解
As a college student,all of this was an enigma
这很难解释
that was hard to decipher.
为什么美国原住民会想要把他们的文物
Why did Native Americanswant their heritage back
从保存的地方拿回去?
from the very places preserving it?
科学家又怎么能够花上一生的时间
And how could scientistsspend their entire lives
来研究死去的印第安人 却似乎对活着的印第安人漠不关心呢?
studying dead Indians but seem to care so little about living ones?
我毕业了 但不太确定接下来要做什么
I graduated but wasn’t surewhat to do next,
所以我去旅行
so I traveled.
有一天 在南非
One day, in South Africa,
我造访了位于罗本岛上 曼德拉曾住过的牢房
I visited Nelson Mandela’s former prison cell on Robben Island.
我顿悟了
I had an epiphany.
这里曾经有个人帮助一个国家缩小了巨大的鸿沟
Here was a man who helpeda country bridge vast divides
以寻求和解 不论多么不完美
to seek, however imperfectly,reconciliation.
我不是曼德拉 但我问我自己:
I’m no Mandela, but I ask myself:
我能否也像他那样
Could I, too,
在残垣断壁中种下希望的种子?
plant seeds of hope in the ruins of the past?
2007年 我被丹佛
In 2007, I was hired as a curator
自然科学博物馆雇佣 担任馆长
at the Denver Museumof Nature and Science.
我们的团队认为我们要和许多其他机构不一样
Our team agreed that unlikemany other institutions,
我们要积极地面对博物馆收藏文物的问题
we needed to proactively confrontthe legacy of museum collecting.
我们先从我们橱中的骸骨开始
We started withthe skeletons in our closet,
共有一百具
100 of them.
数月后 又过了几年 我们会见了数十个部落
After months and then years,we met with dozens of tribes
想办法要把这些遗骨物归原主
to figure out how to getthese remains home.
这工作很困难
And this is hard work.
它涉及到要去协商由谁来接受遗骨
It involves negotiatingwho will receive the remains,
如何用不失敬的方式来运送它们以及要把它们送去哪里
how to respectfully transfer them, where will they go.
美国原住民领导人成了殡仪业者
Native American leadersbecome undertakers,
为了那些他们从来就不想挖掘出来的已故亲戚策划葬礼
planning funerals for dead relativesthey had never wanted unearthed.
十年后 丹佛博物馆和我们的原住民伙伴
A decade later, the Denver Museumand our Native partners
把博物馆收藏的几乎所有人类遗骨都重新埋葬了
have reburied nearly allof the human remains in the collection.
我们归还了数百件圣物
We have returnedhundreds of sacred objects.
但我渐渐了解到 这些战争是无休止的
But I’ve come to seethat these battles are endless.
物归原主现在已经是博物馆世界的不变特性了
Repatriation is now a permanent featureof the museum world.
数百个部落都在等着轮到它们
Hundreds of tribes are waiting their turn.
永远都会有更多的东西在更多的博物馆中
There are alwaysmore museums with more stuff.
美国公立博物馆中所有被编入目录中的战神
Every catalogued War Godin an American public museum
现在都已被归还——目前有106个——
has now been returned — 106, so far —
但还有更多是美国法律无法管控的
but there are morebeyond the reach of US law,
私人收藏 以及在国外的藏品
in private collectionsand outside our borders.
2014年 我有
In 2014, I had the
机会和一位很受敬重的宗教领袖同行
chance to travel with a respected religious leader
他来自祖尼部落名叫奥塔维斯·西欧特瓦
from the Zuni tribenamed Octavius Seowtewa
我们造访了欧洲五个有战神的博物馆
to visit five museumsin Europe with War Gods.
在柏林民族学博物馆
At the Ethnological Museum of Berlin,
我们看到了一个战神 它过去受到的看护备受质疑
we saw a War Godwith a history of dubious care.
一位过度热心的策展人在它上面加上了鸡毛
An overly enthusiastic curatorhad added chicken feathers to it.
它的项链曾经被偷走
Its necklace had once been stolen.
在巴黎的布朗利河岸博物馆
At the Musée du quai Branly in Paris,
一位官员告诉我们
an official told us
战神现在是国有财产
that the War God there is now state property
所以他们无法将其物归原主
with no provisions for repatriation.
他坚称战神的服务对象已经不再是祖尼人
He insisted that the War Godno longer served Zunis
而是博物馆的访客
but museum visitors.
他说“我们把所有的东西给了世界”
He said,”We give allof the objects to the world.”
在大英博物馆
At the British Museum,
我们被警告
we were warned
祖尼一案可能会开创一个危险的先例
that the Zuni case would establish a dangerous precedent
引起更大的争端 比如希腊索求额尔金大理石雕塑
for bigger disputes, such as the Parthenon Marbles,claimed by Greece.
在造访了五间博物馆之后
After visiting the five museums,
奥塔维斯空手返回家乡见他的族人
Octavius returned hometo his people empty-handed.
他后来告诉我
He later told me,
“我的心很痛 因为看见战神在那么远的地方
“It hurts my heart to seethe Ahayu: da so far away.
它们应该要在一起的
They all belong together.
就像是缺席了家庭晚餐聚会的家人一样
It’s like a family memberthat’s missing from a family dinner.
只要有一个失败了 它们的力量就会被破坏了”
When one is gone,their strength is broken.”
我希望我在欧洲及其他地方的同事们
I wish that my colleaguesin Europe and beyond
能够明白战神
could see that the War Gods
并不代表博物馆的末日
do not represent the end of museums
而是一个重新开始的机会
but the chance for a new beginning.
当各位逛博物馆的展厅时
When you walk the halls of a museum,
大家很可能只看到
you’re likely just seeingabout one percent
全部馆藏的百分之一
of the total collections.
余下的都在储藏仓库
The rest is in storage.
即使是在归还了五百件文化藏品和骸骨之后
Even after returning500 cultural items and skeletons,
我的博物馆仍然保有其中馆藏的99.999%
my museum still retains 99.999 percentof its total collections.
虽然我们不再拥有战神了
Though we no longer have War Gods,
但是我们还有祖尼传统的陶器 珠宝
we have Zuni traditional pottery, jewelry,
工具 服饰和艺术品
tools, clothing and arts.
还有比这些物品更珍贵的
And even more precious than these objects
就是我们透过将物品物归原主过程
are the relationships that we formedwith Native Americans
和美国原住民所建立的关系 现在
through the process of repatriation. Now,
我们可以请祖尼人与我们分享他们的文化
we can ask Zunisto share their culture with us.
不久前 我有机会去参观了已归还的战神
Not long ago, I had the chance to visit the returned War Gods.
神坛位于高耸的台地上 俯瞰美丽的祖尼家园
A shrine sits up high atop a mesa overlooking beautiful Zuni homeland.
神坛被露天的石头建筑所包围
The shrine is enclosedby a roofless stone building
露天的部分设置了带刺的铁丝网
threaded at the top with barbed wire
以确保战神不会再次被偷写
to ensure that they’re not stolen again.
它们就在那儿 在里面
And there they are, inside,
战神
the Ahayu: da,
106个战神 包围在祭品中 绿松石 玉米粉 贝壳
106 War Gods amid offeringsof turquoise, cornmeal, shell,
甚至还有T恤……
even T-shirts…
给予古老生命存在的现代礼物
a modern gift to ancient beings.
站在那里
And standing there,
我得以瞥见战神在这个世界上存在的真正目的
I got a glimpse at the War Gods’ true purpose in the world.
接着 我想到
And it occurred to me then
我们无法选择我们继承的历史
that we do not get to choose the histories that we inherit.
现今的博物馆馆长们 并没有去掠夺古墓
Museum curators todaydid not pillage ancient graves
或是偷神圣物 但我们可以承担起修正过去错误的责任
or steal spiritual objects, but we can accept responsibility for correcting past mistakes.
我们能够帮助恢复美国原住民的尊严
We can help restore dignity,
希望和人道
hope and humanity to Native Americans,
在过去 在我们的好奇心之下 它们只是无法发声的物品
the very people who were once the voiceless objects of our curiosity.
我们甚至不需要 完全了解他人的信仰
And this doesn’t even require usto fully understand others’ beliefs,
我们只要尊重他们的信仰即可
only that we respect them.
博物馆是存放历史文物的神殿
Museums are temples to things past.
现在 它们也必须要变成长存的文化之地
Now they must also becomeplaces for living cultures.
当我转身 走离神坛时
As I turned to walk away from the shrine,
我陶醉在温暖夏日的气氛中
I drank in the warm summer air,
看着高空一只老鹰 懒洋洋的盘旋
and I watched an eagleturn lazy circles high above.
我想起祖尼人
I thought of the Zunis,
他们对战神的供奉确保了他们的文化不会消亡
whose offerings ensure that their culture is not dead and gone
会燃起新生且被好好保存
but alive and well,
对战神来说 还有什么地方比那儿更好呢
and I could think of no better place for the War Gods to be.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

考古学家、博物馆馆长奇普·科威尔为其博物馆收藏文物,也将文物物归原主。奇普的演讲发人深省,他谈到了博物馆如何处理窃得的精神文物和从前人坟墓里挖掘出来的文物,以及如何消除与要求归还文物的部落之间的分歧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Cigarette

审核员

审核员@XG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUUP2MMz7PU

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