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为什么和尚是这个发型? – 译学馆
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为什么和尚是这个发型?

Why monks had that haircut

看这幅画
Look at this painting.
画面里是圣佛朗西斯和教皇霍诺里厄斯三世
It’s Saint Francis and Pope Honorius III.
你或许能认出哪些是僧侣
You can probably find the monks.
因为发型
It’s the hair.
这不仅仅是一种发型
This is not just a haircut.
仔细观察
The more you look,
你就会发现 发型背后深刻的宗教分歧
the more this haircut shows deep religious divides.
有种发型甚至在被罗马天主教会禁止后
One style was even lost to time,
就消失在了时间的长河里
after being banned by the Roman Catholic Church.
暴露出来的头皮不仅是信仰的宣言 也是战场
The scalp is a statement of faith, but it’s also a battleground.
剃度这种宗教仪式不仅基督教有
Hair’s religious rite extends far beyondChristianity.
一些佛教的僧侣也会剃光头
Some Buddhist monks shave their heads
而某些正统犹太教徒则保留鬓角
and some Orthodox Jews don’t shave the corners of their heads
几个世纪以来 天主教修道士以他们独特的发型而闻名
The Catholic monks were known for centuries for their particularly distinctive hairstyle.
这种剃掉中间部分头发的做法叫做削发礼仪
This haircut, with the center shave, is called a tonsure.
始于4或者5世纪
It started in the 4th or 5th century.
而最容易辨认的是冠状发式
And the most recognizable is the Coronal tonsure,
这种发型可能是模仿
possibly modeled on
耶稣被钉在十字架上时戴的荆棘冠
Jesus’ crown of thorns on the cross.
它其实是三种发型之一
It’s actually one of three types.
冠状发式是罗马式或者以圣彼得为名的
The Coronal is the Romal, or Petrime tonsure,
圣彼得发式
after Saint Peter.
还有以圣保罗的名字命名的圣保罗发式
There’s also the Pauline tonsure, named after Saint Paul,
这种发式在东正教中更为常见
and used more commonly in Eastern Orthodoxy.
这是一种光头型发式
It is a fully shaved head.
但是在黑暗时代 还有第三种剃发
But in the Dark Ages, there was a third tonsure too.
不过这种发型很大程度上已经从教会里消失了
And that’s the shape that largely disappearedfrom the Church.
那种发型明显象征着不同的信仰
That hairstyle was a visible symbol of diverging faiths
也正因此 它后来被禁止了
and that’s the reason that it was banned.
6世纪晚期 教皇格里高利
When Pope Gregory sent missionaries from Rome
从罗马派遣传教士到不列颠岛时
to the British Isles in the late 6th century.
他发现了罗马天主教和凯尔特天主教之间的差异
he found differences between the Roman CatholicChurch and Celtic Church.
这些差异揭露了关于宗教惯例的严重分歧
Ones that revealed serious disagreements about religious practice.
生活在大西洋对岸的你们可能不知道
You live on the other side of the Atlantic,
但7世纪这些岛上曾经发生过普遍的论战
but in these islands, the controversies that developed in the seventh century, they were very widespread.
整个大不列颠和爱尔兰从南到北全部加入了论战
They covered both the south and the north of Britain and all of Ireland.
由此挑起了罗马教会和不列颠爱尔兰教会
That brought the customs of the Roman Church up against the customs
关于哪方更为正统的冲突
of the churches in Britain and in Ireland.
凯尔特天主教和罗马天主教堂是不一样的
Celtic Catholicism was out of sync with the Roman Catholic Church.
后来罗马天主教徒就因他们之间的差异
Roman Catholics would later use the differences between them
把凯尔特天主教徒说成是异教徒
to portray Celtic Catholicism as Pagan
甚至称他们是崇拜权欲的巫师杜西满的邪教分支
or even as an offshoot celebrating the power-hungry magician, Simon Magus.
这方面还出现了一些具体的争议
There were concrete disputes.
其中最重要的争议
Most importantly, they disagreed on
是他们庆祝复活节的时间和发式区别
when to celebrate Easter and another significant disagreement was the shape of the tonsure.
罗马天主教会沿用的是“圆形”的冠状发式
The Roman church used a coronal or a ” circular” tonsure.
而大不列颠群岛的教会采用的则是另一种形状的发式
Churches in the British Isles used a different-shaped tonsure.
麦卡锡研究员想了解这个发式的形状
McCarthy wanted to learn the shape of this tonsure
因为它代表了罗马天主教会和凯尔特天主教会的分裂
because it represented the split in the Roman Celtic Churches.
他认为 以前人们对这种发式形状的猜测是错的
He thought the old guesses about its designwere wrong.
你不能只翻翻7世纪僧侣发式的照片就下结论
You can’t just scroll through photos of 7thcentury monk haircuts.
因为弄清楚这些僧侣发式形状的过程
Figuring out the shape of the tonsure these monks use,
不亚于一场侦探之旅
is a detective story.
为此 麦卡锡仔细分析了
It required McCarthy to parse texts
《凯尔斯书》等文本和旧信件的相关记录
like the Book of kells and records of old letter.
通过这些资料 他就能推断出这种发式的形状
From that, he could figure outthe shape.
从前面看 这种发式和罗马式是一样的形状
When it was viewed from the front, it superficially resembled the Roman tonsure.
但从后面看 又是两个耳朵之间直接横着剪过去的形状
When it was viewed from the rear,it was cut straight between the two ears.
这些旧的文本和插图只能让麦卡锡了解
These old texts and illustrations only gave McCarthy a view of the front
从前面和后面看到的发型
and back of the head.
但要描绘从上往下看的形状 他还得自己推断
To picture an aerial view, he had to build one.
它必须方便人们在头上修剪
It has to be a simple shape in order to be practically imposed on the human head.
所以必须是个简单的形状
It has to be fairy simple.
所以我的结论是 可能是个三角形
I concluded that a triangle would be a possible solution.
幸运的是 我有几个从事计算机绘图工作的同事
I had the good fortune that I had colleagues working in computer graphics.
不过那已经是差不多18年前的事情
–that was almost 18 years ago now that this was talking place.
那个时候技术还没有现在那么先进
Things weren’t quite as advanced as they are now.
但是他们还是帮我绘制了模型
(But)They undertook to model these suggestions for me.
帮我弄出了从上往下看头顶时看到的形状
And they produced images from above looking down on the top of the head.
从后面看到的形状
And from behind.
以及沿着水平方面从前面看到的形状
And then looking from the front at eye level.
发式上的分歧是教会内部分裂的表现
These differences over tonsure were outward signs of a split in the Church.
当罗马天主教堂接管爱尔兰时
When the Roman Catholic Church took Ireland,
他们慢慢地改变了教徒的发式
they slowly changed its tonsure too.
诺森比亚国王在644年
In 664, the king of Northumbria
批准使用罗马天主教的复活节日期
agreed on the Roman Catholic date for Easter
和罗马天主教的发式
and the Roman Catholic tonsure.
这种变化不是立刻发生的
The change wasn’t instant,
但随着时间推移 三角形的发式消失了
but over time the triangular tonsure disappeared.
今天部分修道士还留着传统发式
Today some monks practice tonsure while others don’t.
发式的形状也因宗教和修道院而异
It varies across religion and monastery.
罗马天主教会的牧师
In the Roman Catholic Church,
1972年后就不再留传统发式了
clerical tonsure ended in 1972.
这种不寻常的发型在当时很常见
When it was common, this unusual haircut was a powerful symbol of
它是修道院与教会分离的有力象征
monastic separation and the Church’s power.
但在现代 发式也有象征意义
But it’s actuallynot so strange.
我们这边的年轻人流行
There’s a fashion around here for young men to
将两边剃很干净 只留头顶一撮头发
completely shave the sides of their head and just leaving a patch on top.
虽然我并不觉得他们留这种发型是出于宗教的缘故
Now, I don’t believe there’s any religious significance of this.
但可以看出 发型依然承载着相当重要的意义
but you can see that there’s a sort of a cult significance to them.
发型依然是我们用来表达群体属性的方式
They’re still ways in which we use to identify our membership of communities.
我认为以头发做标志是有原因的
Now, I think the hair is particularly potent
因为发型就在头上
because it’s visible all the time
它一直都能被看见
and it’s located right beside our control center.
再没有比这个位置更合适的了
So it couldn’t be in a hardly in a more significant location.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A505-D4IA_0

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