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虱子难灭究竟是为何?

Why Lice Are So Hard To Kill

你可能不知道
You might not have known this
古埃及是一个令人发痒的地方
but ancient Egypt was an itchy place to live.
那里的虱子很猖獗
Lice were rampant.
例如 埃及艳后死后都把金子做的虱梳作为陪葬
Cleopatra for example was buried with solid gold lice combs,
其他的古埃及人则会剃光全身毛发
while other Egyptians would shave their entire bodies
试图清除掉这些寄生虫
to try and get rid of the parasites.
这个问题已经存在了一段时间
It’s a problem we’ve had for a while,
我们可能也无法很快解决它
and we probably won’t be solving it anytime soon.
人类和虱子已经在一起生活了
Humans and lice have been living together
大约700万年
for about seven million years,
自从我们的祖先第一次从黑猩猩中分离出来
when our ancestors first split from chimps,
我们便一直想摆脱虱子
and we’ve been itching to get rid of them ever since.
世界上有532种虱子
There are 532 species of lice out there,
让我们来看看困扰人类的最常见的一种虱子
but let’s take a look at the most common type that plagues humans:
头虱
head lice.
最开始 它们有六只足
For starters, they have six legs,
每一只足的末端都有一个小的倒钩
and each one has a tiny hook at the end
这能帮助它们在人类脑袋之间转移
that helps them climb from one head to the other,
它会紧紧抓住你的头发
latch onto your hair,
然后很快地爬到你的头皮上
and quickly crawl down to your scalp
在你的头皮上一天吸几次血
where they’ll feast on your blood several times a day.
虱子一旦适应了环境
And once they’ve made themselves comfortable,
就很难被找到
lice are tricky to spot.
例如 成年虱子有芝麻那么大
Adult lice, for example, are about as large as a sesame seed.
而小虱子或幼虫更是小得多
While baby lice or nymphs are a fraction of that size.
虱子还伪装得很好
Lice are well camouflaged, too,
它们的颜色与周围头发的颜色相似
matching the color of the hair around them.
更不要说你的头皮是一个完美的繁殖地点
Not to mention your scalp is the perfect breeding ground.
一只雌性虱子一天能够产下八个虫卵
In one day, a female louse can lay up to eight eggs.
孵化这些虫卵仅需一周的时间
Those eggs only take about a week to hatch.
一旦它们长到十天大 它们自己就会开始产卵
Once they’re 10 days old, they’ll start laying eggs of their own.
然而在任何人的头上
While it’s rare to find more
都很难找到超过20个活着的虱子
than 20 live lice on any head,
你的头皮上可能残留着
there could be dozens or even hundreds of dead bodies
几十甚至数百具虱子的尸体
lingering on your scalp.
你现在觉得发痒吗?
Are you feeling itchy yet?
可能更糟糕的是 你很难去清除它们
Perhaps even worse is that they’re a pain to get rid of.
虱子能够屏住呼吸长达8个小时
Lice can hold their breath for eight hours.
所以你去洗澡或游泳
So they’ll be fine when you go take a shower
它们也不会有事
or go for a swim.
它们还因能对杀虫剂产生抗性而臭名昭著
They’re also notorious for developing resistance to insecticides.
在二战期间 数百万欧洲军人
During World War II for example, militaries dusted millions
用DDT来控制虱子传播的斑疹伤寒
of Europeans with DDT to control lice-borne typhus.
由于我们对DDT的过度使用
And thanks to our overuse of it,
虱子对毒药产生了抗性
lice grew resistance to the poison.
即使在今天 我们依然能够看到它的负面影响
Even today, we’re still seeingthe repercussions from it.
许多非处方洗发水和洗涤剂在杀死虱子的机制上
Many over-the-counter shampoos and lotions use similar
和DDT相似
killing mechanisms to DDT,
这导致在一些地方
which in some places has made it easier for lice
虱子更容易对这些药物形成抗性
to grow resistant to these treatments as well.
但是 科学家们正在反击
But scientists are striking back.
最近的十年里 专家们已研发出了新的治疗方法
In the last decade, experts have developed new weapons of attack
以防最初的非处方治疗 如伊佛霉素洗液 不起作用
for when initial over-the-counter treatments don’t work–like ivermectin lotion,
新药通过扰乱虱子的神经系统 使它们麻痹
which paralyzes lice by disrupting their nervous systems.
当然 像古埃及人那样剃光头
And of course, shaving your head like the Egyptians
是一种便宜并且肯定成功的方式
is a cheap and surefire bet.
但是 让我们面对现实吧 我们中的大多数人不会这样做
But let’s face it, most of us probably can’t pull off that look.

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视频概述

主要介绍了人类和虱子斗志斗勇的历史

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

阿丁

审核员

审核员_MC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lKVh7CuPUQk

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