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为什么断舍离才是真正的财富?极简生活的极简哲学

Why Letting Go Is True Wealth | Minimalist Philosophy for Simple Living

One day, the legendary Chinese recluse
一天 传说中的中国隐士
Xu You watched a mole drinking water from a pond.
许由看到一只鼹鼠在池塘边喝水
He then realized that the mole, when thirsty, only drinks a bellyful:
他发现鼹鼠渴的时候只会喝满一肚子的水
no more, no less,
一滴不多一滴不少
but exactly the quantity it needs.
刚好是它需要的量
The mole doesn’t encumber itself with excesses,
鼹鼠不会让过多的水拖累到自己
because that would only impede its movement.
因为那样会妨碍它移动
Unlike humans, who often tend to consume much more than they need.
不像人类经常喜欢买东西 多到超出了需求
We may not drink water in excess,
我们虽然不会喝过多的水来增加自己的负担
but we often overburden ourselves
但我们却会经常买各种各样
with all kinds of material possessions,
远超我们生活发展需要的物资
buying much more than we need to stay alive and thriving.
从而使自己负担过重
Consumerism comes with a price as well,
然而消费主义也是有代价的
as it requires resources to keep up with the other consumers.
因为要赶上其他的消费者 就需要去获得物资
Therefore, many people are willing to work themselves into an early grave,
因此 很多人把他们自己早早地到送入了一个坟墓
and simply accumulate,
并且为了积累而积累
what we could call, ‘extensions of themselves’;
我们也可以称为“他们自我的扩张”
“extensions of their egos”.
或是“他们个性的扩张”
“I have more, so I am more,”
“拥有更多东西会让我拥有更多意义”
they tend to think,
他们喜欢这样想
so by increasing their possessions they increase their sense of self.
于是他们通过增加自己的财物来提升自我意识
But there’s a counter-movement to the consumerist
但我们这个消费主义盛行的社会中
society we’re living in,
兴起了一个截然相反的运动
known as minimalism.
这个运动被称为极简主义
Minimalists are people who turn their backs to overconsumption
极简主义者们与过度消费的理念背道而驰
and decide to live with no more than necessary.
他们不想带着超出需求的财物生活
Aside from it being a lifestyle trend today,
极简主义的生活方式不仅在当下越来越盛行
minimalism is a concept that people have been practicing for centuries.
它也是几百年来一直被人所践行的生活理念
There’s a sense of freedom in simplicity, and not owning much,
极简 即拥有的财物不多 会带来一种自由的感觉
which many sages and philosophers have experienced throughout the ages.
许多年来 很多的圣人和哲学家都有过这样的生活
They saw that possessions don’t define who we are,
在他们看来 财物的多少不能定义我们
and that the ongoing pursuit of external things
而一味地追求身外之物
prevents us from experiencing life to the fullest.
会使我们无法充分地体验人生
This video examines the philosophical side of minimalism
本视频将从哲学的角度来讲解极简主义
and explores why more is less and less is more,
并且探讨为什么我们说“多即是少 少即是多”
and why the ability to let go is wealth.
以及为什么断舍离的能力是一种财富
为什么断舍离才是真正的财富
Minimalism can be interpreted in different ways.
极简主义有多种诠释的方式
In essence, it points to living with the bare essentials,
本质上 它指的是在仅保障了基本条件的情况下生活
reducing the clutter in our lives,
减少我们生活中的杂物
and refraining from overextending ourselves.
克制对自我的过度扩张
In other words: to keep it simple.
换句话说 就是保持简单
But there are certain modes of minimalism that slightly miss the mark.
但极简主义中有一些形式稍微偏离了本质
First of all, there’s extreme asceticism,
第一种形式 是一种极端的禁欲主义
which is geared towards going below the minimum.
即对生活物资的需求比极简还要低
For example, when prince Siddharta Gautama lived as an ascetic
比如说 当佛陀做苦行僧的时候
he only ate one grain of rice a day,
他每天只吃一粒米
and hardly had any flesh left on his bones.
瘦成了皮包骨
In a way, consuming below one’s needs
某种程度上 当消耗低于了个人需求
is a very ‘minimalistic’ thing to do,
就是一件非常“极简”的事
as it hardly requires consumption.
因为它几乎不会产生物资损耗
Also, such a way of life goes together with the renunciation of possessions,
同时 这种生活方式本身也与财物脱离了关系
which leads to a simple life.
简单的生活便由此而来
But in the case of the extreme ascetic,
但在这种极端的禁欲主义案例中
less isn’t more, but truly less,
少不代表着多 而是真的少
as it’s a road to self-destruction.
因为它其实是一条通往自我毁灭的道路
Siddharta Gautama concluded that
佛陀后来认为
the punishment of the body won’t lead to enlightenment.
肉体的惩戒并不能让灵魂得到升华
So he quit the ascetic lifestyle
于是他在成为佛祖之前
before he became the Buddha.
放弃了禁欲主义的生活方式
Second of all, there’s a fashionable,
第二种形式时下比较流行
wealthy form of minimalism,
是一种炫富形式的“极简主义”
which focuses more on getting rid of unnecessary,
这种形式更多地强调去扔掉不必要
and often, ‘cheap’ objects,
往往也不值钱的东西
while maintaining a selection of very expensive things.
但要留下那些特别贵重的物品
For example, a minimalistic living room in a two-million-dollar apartment.
比如 在两百万美元的公寓里弄一个极简的客厅
In this case, minimalism is still used as a means to display wealth,
在这种形式下 “极简主义”沦为了炫富的幌子
as the absence of cheap, obsolete objects
因为扔掉不值钱的 过时的东西
accentuates the expensive things we do have.
其真实目的只是为了凸显贵重的财物
Thus, we can see this as a sophisticated form of consumerism,
如此 我们可以把该形式看成一种狡猾的消费主义
as it still revolves around status and possessions,
因为它依然围绕着财富和地位这两个核心
and thus, one still needs a lot of money
而且为了拥有这样的生活方式
to obtain and sustain this lifestyle.
人们仍需花费大量的金钱
Such a stance goes at the expense
这种形式的“极简主义” 是以
of the true power behind minimalist living,
失去其背后真正的力量为代价
which is that our baseline happiness (or contentment)
而这个力量能让我们以少量的资源
is achieved with a minimal amount of resources,
来获得生命本质的幸福感或者满足感
and is detached from the burden of status and extreme wealth.
也能帮我们脱离名誉和过多财物的束缚
But this idea is difficult to accept
但现在我们活在消费主义的文化里
when the basic ideology of the consumerist culture
基本理念是“少就是少 多就是多”
we live in is that less is less, and more is more.
真正的极简主义在这种环境下难以被接受
This has everything to do with how we collectively value social status.
这与我们关于社会地位的普遍价值观息息相关
And that social status isn’t measured by one’s virtue or spirituality,
现在社会地位并不由一个人的美德决定
but by the car one drives, the house one lives in,
而是通过我们开的车 我们住的房子
the furniture one possesses, and the clothes one wears.
我们拥有的家具 我们穿的衣服来决定
What we have seems to determine
我们所拥有的财物似乎才能决定
our place in the dominance hierarchy.
我们在主流社会中的等级地位
So, in a society in which holiness is wealth,
于是 在这个把财富视为神的社会里
the church is the shopping mall, and prayer is consumption,
购物商场就是“教堂” 消费就是“朝拜”
those who dare to reject these ‘sacred elements’
那些胆敢拒绝这些“神圣元素”的人
will be regarded as blasphemers.
就会被当作亵渎者
Nevertheless, the joy of simple living can far outweigh the negatives.
然而 简单生活所带来的快乐远大于反其道而行之
The joys of not having
一无所有的快乐
Emperor Yao regarded the recluse Xu You with the utmost respect;
尧帝对圣人许由抱有极高的崇敬
so much that he was willing to give up his throne to him.
以至于想让位于他
However, Xu You who lived
但许由拒绝了
a solitary and quiet life by the riverside refused,
他在河边过着与世隔绝又安宁的生活
telling the emperor that he did not need “all under heaven”, and said to him:
他告诉尧帝 他不想要“天下” 他说
“When the tailorbird builds her nest in the deep wood,
“鹪鹩巢于深林
she uses no more than one branch.”
不过一枝”
The story about Xu You can be found in an ancient Chinese text
许由的故事可以在记录道家鼻祖庄子的
attributed to the Taoist philosopher Zhuangzi.
中国古代文学中找到
The recluse who lives in poverty
这个生活清贫的圣人
gets handed something that many people can only dream of,
本可以获得很多人梦寐以求的东西
which is a whole empire under his command.
即让一整个国家都任由他指挥
But the story tells us that he chose to live as a hermit
但故事中 他还是选择去做一个隐士
in a solitary place.
过与世隔绝的生活
Xu You probably realized
许由这么做的原因可能是
that power comes with great responsibility
他觉得权力越大 责任越大
and that ruling an empire will not allow him
如果要统治一个国家 他就无法
to live a simple, quiet life.
过简单而安静的生活
The less you own, the less you can lose
你拥有的越少 你能失去的也越少
, and the less you have to worry about.
你操心的也会越少
Lao Tzu wrote the following passage in the Tao Te Ching, and I quote:
我在这里引用一句《道德经》中老子的话
If you overvalue possessions, people will begin to steal.
“不贵难得之货 使民不为盗”
Do not display your treasures or people will become envious.
“不见可欲 使心不乱”
End quote.
引用结束
Having a lot of possessions requires adequate protection.
拥有很多财物就需要有充足的保护措施
That’s why we see that outwardly rich people often live in fear,
所以我们经常看到有钱人活得胆战心惊的
hidden behind walls in gated communities.
他们躲进了被高墙团团围住的社区里
By not owning much, on the other hand,
而换个角度看 如果没有拥有那么多财物
we save a lot of time and energy.
我们就省下了很多时间和精力
We don’t have to look after our expensive things
我们不必去照看贵重物品
and they don’t distract us either.
它们也不会使我们分心
And we’re still able to find joy in the world,
不把喜欢的东西占为己有
as we don’t have to own what we enjoy.
我们依然能在这个世上获得快乐
Why do we need a 1000 square feet garden,
为什么我们需要一个一千平米的花园呢?
if we can go for a walk in the woods?
我们可以去森林里散步
Why do we need a 6-bedroom mansion
为什么我们需要一栋有六个卧室的豪宅呢?
if we can live in a small cheap house,
我们只需要一间寒舍
and enjoy the world outside for free?
就能免费地体验大千世界
This is what American transcendentalist philosopher Henry David Thoreau
美国先验主义者 哲学家亨利·戴维·梭罗
must have thought as well
当初也一定是这么想的
when he decided to live in a cabin in the woods near the Walden pond.
于是他决定生活在瓦尔登湖旁边的小木屋里
Thoreau deliberately chose a simple life
梭罗有意选择了这种简单的生活
because he believed that this could lead to spiritual growth.
因为他相信这样能让他的精神获得提升
In essence, a minimalist life facilitates equanimity.
从本质上来说 极简生活会促使内心获得安宁
When the living expenses are low,
当生活花销很低的时候
we don’t have to work like dogs
我们就不用像狗一样地拼命工作
and can spend more time enjoying the world around us,
我们就能花更多的时间
with a sense of contentment.
知足常乐地去欣赏周遭的世界
Isn’t that what freedom is all about?
而这不就是自由真正的意义所在吗?
明确我们的需求
So, what do we truly need?
所以 我们真正需要的到底是什么?
Where lies the golden middle path
在禁欲主义和消费主义之间
between asceticism and consumerism
极简主义一直在探寻的
that a minimalist is looking for?
黄金分割线在哪里呢?
In the course of history, there have been several philosophers
历史的长河里 有很多哲学家
who shaped their minimalist lifestyle in their unique ways.
都以自己独特的方式过着极简生活
Take, for example, Diogenes the Cynic
举个例子 “愤世嫉俗的戴奥真尼斯”
who lived in a barrel without possessions.
没有任何财物 他生活在木桶里
The story goes that for a while he owned a drinking cup,
故事里说 他以前有一只水杯
which he threw away when he saw a child
但当他看到一个孩子用手捧着水喝
drinking from his hands, and remarked:
他就扔掉了这个杯子 说道
“A child has beaten me in plainness of living.”
“一个孩子都比我更会返璞归真地生活”
Aside from that, Diogenes didn’t have shame,
并且 戴奥真尼斯并不感到丢人
and couldn’t care what people thought about him.
他也不在乎别人对他的看法
His state of detachment from worldly goods as well as other people’s opinions
他的境界超脱了世间的物质与他人的看法
made him invincible; no one could hurt him.
使他无法被动摇 也没人能够伤害到他
But, for those who don’t fancy living in a barrel on the streets,
然而 对那些不喜欢生活在街边的木桶里
and rather live a more integrated life that doesn’t make you into an outcast,
想要更融入尘世的生活 不愿被当成异类的人来说
there’s a more practical recipe for minimalist living,
极简主义也提供一种更切合他们实际的生活方式
which was invented by a philosopher named Epicurus.
这个方式是希腊哲学家伊壁鸠鲁发明的
Epicurus created a hierarchy of needs,
伊壁鸠鲁发明了有关需求的等级分类
that shows us which desires we should pursue
意在告诉我们什么样的需求值得我们去追寻
and which we shouldn’t.
什么样的则不必
Natural and necessary desires like food, shelter, and human connection,
自然和必要的需求比如食物 住所 和人际关系
are the ones we should focus on.
是我们应该重点关注的
Moreover, these natural desires are generally easy to obtain
并且 与身俱来的需求大体都容易达成
and also have natural limits,
也受到生理的限制
which means that they’re satiable.
也就是说这些需求是能得到满足的
The desires that we should avoid,
而那些我们不应该追求的需求
he called ‘vain and empty’ desires,
他称之为“徒劳又虚空”的欲望
which include power, wealth, and fame.
其中包括权力 财富和名誉
These desires he considered unnecessary, unnatural,
他认为这些欲望没什么必要 违背自然
and impossible to satisfy as they don’t have a natural limit.
因为它们没有自然限制 所以几乎不可能获得满足
Now, Epicurus also urges us to cherish what we do have
并且 伊壁鸠鲁也告诫我们要珍惜所拥有的一切
and stop focusing on what we lack.
而不是一味地关注我们没有的东西
Or as he stated: “do not spoil what you have
也正如他所说 “别借由渴望你没有的
by desiring what you have not;
来糟蹋你所拥有的“
remember that what you now have was once among the things you only hoped for.”
”要记住你现在拥有的 也曾只是你希望得到的“
断舍离是真正的财富
There’s great joy in having little.
拥有得很少会带来很大的快乐
As opposed to the lives of those
与之相对的是那些不加节制
seeking to consume to infinity,
只想任意挥霍的人的生活
painfully exchanging their very lives
他们辛辛苦苦地消耗掉自己的生命
for boosting their self-esteem,
以换来更多的自尊
so they feel accepted in a world where the amount of stuff we have
这样他们才感到自己被这个以财富
is how we define how worthy we are.
来定义自我价值的世界所接纳
For a minimalist, this is the very definition of a miserable life.
对极简主义的人来说 这种生活是非常可悲的
In minimalism, one lets go of the conventional ideas
在极简主义看来 摒弃了对金钱和地位的
of wealth and status,
传统执念的人
knowing that true wealth lies within
才能明白精神内里才是真正的财富
and social status is not only an unnecessary luxury;
社会地位不仅是一种不必要的奢侈品
it’s also difficult to obtain, easy to lose,
它还难以获得 容易失去
and, for a great part, out of our control.
更重要的是 它不受我们控制
Instead, minimalists choose to live simply,
相反 极简主义者们选择去简单的生活
as they know
因为他们知道
that the ability to let go of all these worldly goods
对世间的物质做出断舍离的能力
is where the true wealth lies;
才是真正的财富所在
the joy of a simple, easy life.
才能获得快乐而轻松的人生
For them, simplicity is the ultimate form of sophistication.
对他们而言 简单才是精致最终的归宿
As Thoreau stated:
正如梭罗所说
“I am convinced, both by faith and experience, that to maintain one’s self on this earth
“我确信 当一个人带着信仰和经验在世间谋生”
is not a hardship but a pastime
“如果能单纯又睿智地活着
if we live simply and wisely.”
那就不是苦事 而是一种享受“
Thank you for watching.
感谢观看

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视频概述

你听说过极简生活吗?你了解什么是极简生活吗?本视频从哲学的角度深度为你剖析为什么我们需要极简生活

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHcGmiZqKXo

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