未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么微笑可以让你更快乐

Why Just Smiling Could Make You Feel Happier

不出所料
[INTRO ♪] Unsurprisingly,
你的表情对于在你与别人交流感受时起到了很大的作用
your face does a lot to communicate how you’re feeling.
不管你是看到了喜欢的人而感到高兴
Whether you’re happy about seeing your crush
还是对电视剧的剧情转折感到震惊
or shocked at the plot twist in a TV show,
都可能会表现出来
it probably shows.
除非你是一个明星扑克玩家
Unless you’re like a star poker player.
更令人惊讶地是 根据一些调查显示
What’s more surprising is that,according to some research.
你的面部表情也是个双向通道
Your facial expressions are also a two-way street
该说法被称为面部反馈假设理论
The idea is known as the facial feedback hypothesis,
该理论认为你的表情能改变你所处的情绪状态
and it says that your expressions can change the emotions you experience.
所以如果你这一天过得不开心
So if you’re having a crummy day,
据说把皱起的眉头舒展开会让你感觉更好一些
supposedly turning that frown upside-down will make you feel better.
这种说法听起来挺不错
It sounds great,
但是否正确仍有些争议
but whether or not it’s true is up for some debate.
多年来许多研究者都试图弄明白
Many researchers over the years have tried to find out,
而他们的工作过程在《科学在行动》中是一个的很伟大的故事
and the tale of their work is a great stroy of science in action
面部反馈假设理论
The idea behind the facial feedback hypothesis
建立在一种被称为本体感受的感知基础之上
is based on one of your senses, called proprioception.
它负责反馈与肌肉和关节的动作
It provides information on what your muscles and joints
以及它们彼此的相对位置有关的信息
are doing and their positions relative to each other,
所以你不需要特意去看就知道它们的位置
so you don’t need to look to know where,
比如 你的左脚
say, your left foot is.
根据面部反馈假设
According to the facial feedback hypothesis,
你的面部表情仅仅是本观感受的另一种延伸反应
your facial expressions are just another extension of this.
它们也是重要的信息
They’re also important information
可以增强或减弱你的情绪
and can make your emotions stronger or weaker,
甚至可能造成你的情绪变动
or maybe even cause them.
该研究真正开始于20世纪70年代
Research into this really started in the 1970s,
它发展得很曲折
and it has been a tricky road.
实验参与者通常被要求通过收缩某些肌肉
Experiment participants were typically asked to make different facial expressions,
做不同的面部表情
often by contracting certain muscles,
比如抬起他们的嘴角
like turning up the corners of their mouths.
然后研究者通过他们对电击之类的身体反应
Then researchers measured their emotions through their body’s reactions to things
—真的哦!
like electric shocks—really!
—或通过对他们情绪的评估来测量他们的情感
—or by rating their mood.
但有个很大的问题是
But the big problem is,
情感总是伴随微笑和皱眉出现 这是我们所知道的
we know what emotions go with smiling or frowning.
所以人们当他们在明显微笑的时候
So people might have just been saying they felt happy
他们可能会说自己很开心 因为
when they were obviously smiling because…
好吧~我们都认为这是合理的
well, that’s what you’re supposed to do.
或许比起实际感受 让他们露出微笑更为重要
Maybe asking people to smile is what mattered, not the actual expression.
1988年 《个性与社会心理学杂志》发表了一篇论文
Then, in 1988, a paper came out in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
解决了这个问题
that figured out this problem,
而且很多介绍心理学的教科书都将论文的结论收归在内
and its results have been included in many intro psych textbooks.
在一系列的两个对比实验中
In a series of two experiments,
研究者要求175个大学生用嘴咬着笔
researchers had 175 university students hold a pen in their mouth
让他们试着做一些简单的写和画的任务
while trying to do some simple writing and drawing tasks.
他们被告知科学家想了解
They were told scientists were interested in learning more
这些任务对身体有缺陷的人可能会是什么样的
about what these tasks might be like for people with physical impairments.
但实际上 研究者只是想了解参与者的情感波动
But the researchers actually wanted to study the participants’ emotions.
看 当他们用牙齿咬着笔
See,holding the pen between their teeth,
这种动作促使他们形成了一个微笑的嘴型
it made their mouth form a smile.
而用嘴唇含着笔时 就像是在噘嘴
And between their lips, a sort of pout.
而关键是 参与者并没有意识到
But the key was, participants didn’t realize
他们的脸部在做这些表情
their faces were making these expressions,
所以他们并不会影响到结果
so, they couldn’t bias any results.
之后 当他们被要求去评价一些漫画的时候
Later, when they were asked to rate some comics,
结果更多显示 当他们是笑着去欣赏的时候
subjects tended to report they were funnier
他们会觉得漫画更有趣
if they’d made the smiling face.
由于他们并没有意识到自己是笑着的
And since they didn’t know they’d been smiling,
这就好像是说 表情本身真的会影响情感
it seemed like expression itself really affected things.
当然啦 自那以后
Of course, in the years since,
很多科学家也在质疑这项研究的准确性
many scientists also questioned the accuracy of this study.
因为欢迎一起来研究~
Because welcome to research.
在2016的一篇论文中
In a 2016 paper,
来自世界各地的17个研究组聚在一起 试图重做这个实验
17 research groups from around the world came together to try to replicate it,
他们每个组都精确的按照原实验进行
each running the study almost exactly
跟原实验一样测试了近1900个参与者
like the original and testing close to 1900 participants. Except,
然而 他们并没得出结果
they couldn’t find the effect.
但这不一定就意味着这个经典实验是错的
But that didn’t necessarily mean the classic study was wrong.
正如它所证明的 原研究和重复性实验可能都是对的
As it turns out, the study and the replication might both be correct. See,
看 科学在很大程度上就是
a big part of science is
一项研究性学习很少能去证明或者反驳一件事情
that one research study seldom proves or disproves anything.
它们只是提供了我们去评估和评论一件事的证据
Each just offers evidence that needs to beevaluated and critiqued.
科学的本质在于用新方式反复验证事物
The heart of science is to test things over and over in new ways,
随着我们深入的学习不断去矫正我们的观点
revising our ideas as we learn more.
重复实验的目的在于弄明白
The goal of the replication study was to figure out whether
人们用嘴含着笔和看漫画是否是
having people hold pens in their mouths and rate comics was
一个测试面部反馈假设的好方法
a good way to test the facial feedback hypothesis.
因为他们未得到相同的实验结果
Because they failed to find the same results, it
那原先的研究结果可能是偶然发生
seemed the original study’s results might have happened
或者有其他因素的作用
just by chance or some other factor. Except,
除此之外 他们还漏掉了一个相当重要的细节
they missed a pretty big detail,
是最初的研究者之一和其他学者后来指出的
which one of the original researchers and others pointed out later.
在20世纪80年代的原实验中
In the original 1980s experiment,
实验对象在参与实验时未被观察
people weren’t watched while they did the tasks.
但在重复性实验中 他们的行为被一台录像机记录下来了
But in the replication, they were recorded by a video camera
所以研究者可以检查他们是否有正确地咬笔
so researchers could check if they held the pens correctly.
想要检查的念头是合理的
It makes sense to want to check that, but psychology
但心理学研究同样发现 当被观察时我们会有不同的反应
research has also shown that we tend to react differently when
包括我们对自己内心真实想法
we’re watched, including in how much we pay
的在意程度
attention to what’s going on inside our minds.
而那似乎都会干扰效果
And that likely interrupted the effect.
在2018年 其他学者特意对此测试
Other researchers specifically tested this in 2018 and found that,
他们发现 在接近200个实验对象里
with their nearly 200-person sample, this
这个简单的差异会造成很大的影响
simple difference made a big impact.
当有一台相机跟踪记录参与者的时候
When participants had a camera recording them,
面部反馈反应并未出现
the facial feedback effect didn’t happen.
但是当没有相机的时候 面部反馈反应出现了
But when there was no camera, it did.
这表明 原来的研究和重复的实验可能都是对的
This means the original and the replication might both be right.
它也告诉我们
And it goes to show
当一个新的研究开始出现的时候 我们不应该总是急于做出判断
that we shouldn’t always be quick to judge when a new study comes out.
而这对你来说有什么实际的意义呢
But what does this mean for you?
你的面部表情真的起到什么作用了吗?
Do your facial expressions actually do anything? Well,
好吧 或许吧
probably. Today,
如今 很多的学者掌握着
lots of research has been done
各种各样的技术
using various techniques, and a lot of
而其中有很多确实可以支持面部反馈理论
it does support the facial feedback hypothesis.
这个想法甚至被用来创造很多新的实验
This idea is even being used to create somenew treatments. Like,
例如 2017年的一项研究表明
one 2017 study found that unknowingly smiling
不知不觉的微笑似乎能让61个年轻女人停止对食物的渴望
seemed to stop food cravings in 61 young women,
特别是倾向于情绪化进食的人
especially those prone to emotional eating.
近十年的一些研究也发现
And a few studies over the last decade have found
在眉线处注射肉毒杆菌毒素或许真的能缓解抑郁的症状
that injecting botox into frown lines might actually decrease depression symptoms.
但在你去找你的医生之前 同样的 它还需要更多的研究
But before you call your doctor, as always, more research is needed.
现在 我们只能说
For now, the most we can say is
事实是有希望的 当然
that the evidence is promising—and that’s okay.
心理学本身就是充满了无解的问题
Psychology is inherently full of unanswered questions,
而有时候
and sometimes the answers aren’t as
答案并不像你想象的那么直截了当
straightforward as you want them to be.
当然 人类本身也是复杂的生物
But hey, people are pretty complex, too.
感谢您观看心理科学秀视频
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
我们喜欢探索大脑运转的原理
We love exploring what makes our minds work and how
及其塑造我们本身和行为的方式
all those things shape who we are and what we do.
如果你也喜欢 请跟我们一起学习
If you’d like to keep learning with us,
你可以看我们另外的视频
you can watch another one of our
或者去youtube.com/scishowpsych订阅
episodes or go to youtube.com/scishowpsych and subscribe.
[音乐]
[OUTRO ♪]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍了面部反馈假设理论的证明过程和发展,告诉我们为什微笑可以让我们变得更快乐

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

cqq

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SO0oBpl8G_Y

相关推荐