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为什么日本的吉萨金字塔直到2110年才能建成

Why Japan's Great Pyramid of Giza Can't be Built Until 2110

这里是《肯托亚洲》频道
(I’m Kento Bento)
本节目由SkillShare赞助
This video is made possible by Skillshare.
这里有超过2万3千门课程
Home to over 23,000 classes
教你学习新的生活技能
to teach you a new life skill.
1992年10月的时候在伦敦
London, october, 1992.
一个日本人走进了大法官巷附近的行政大楼
A Japanese man entered a government building near Chancery Lane,
然后走向一楼的办公室
and made his way up to an office on the first floor.
这里是英国专利局的伦敦分局
This was the London branch of the UK’s Patent Office.
这个人代表日本
You see, this man was there on behalf of
著名的清水公司到这儿来
Japan’s renowned Shimizu Corporation,
该公司在世界建筑和工程上处于领先地位
a leading architectural and engineering firm
并且从始至终一直在世界上名列前茅
that was and is among the top in the world
他来这里是要申请一项专利
and he was there to apply for a patent.
以便在全球范围内保护他们的创意
Note, to secure their ideas globally.
仅在日本范围内保护是不够的
It was necessary to apply not just in Japan.
这项特别的专利 其用途绝不普通
Now this particular patent, was for no ordinary idea.
它是针对某些宏伟壮观的东西
It was for something grand, something spectacular.
这个创意是要
The idea was to build giant pyramids in the middle
在全球一些最为庞大 最为忙碌的城市中心建造大金字塔
of some of the largest and busiest urban centers in the world,
首先从东京开始
starting with Tokyo.
这些金字塔规模很大 可以容纳整座城市
These infrastructures would be so large, they could house entire cities.
为什么要这样做呢?它们又有何作用?
But why? What was this for?
清水公司到底是何方神圣?
And who exactly is the Shimizu Corporation?
要了解这些 我们就得回溯过往
To understand this, we need to go back in time,
回到200多年前公司创立之初
back over 200 years ago to the company’s inception.
1804年 在江户
Edo, 1804.
即当时的日本首都 木匠清水正介创建了一家公司
A carpenter, Kisuke Shimizu, founded a company in the nation’s capital.
当然 现如今的首都是东京
Of course, today the capital’s Tokyo,
而那时却是江户
but back then it was Edo.
当时 这家小公司将会继续修建
Now this small company would go on to
著名的江户城堡西区
build the western section of the famed Edo Castle,
还有一部分的皇城
part of the Imperial Palace,
以及日本首家西式旅馆
Japan’s first Western-style hotel,
日本首家银行以及之后的日本首个核反应堆
Japan’s first bank, and later on, Japan’s first nuclear reactor.
这家公司见证了日本历史上许多重要时刻
The company lived through many important moments in Japan’s history,
包括迫使日本打开边境的
including the arrival of US Commodore Matthew C. Perry,
美国海军准将马修·卡尔布雷斯·佩里登陆
who forced Japan to open up its borders,
德川幕府的衰落
the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate,
西式化 地震 战争 炸弹
the rise of Westernisation, the earthquakes, wars, bombings,
经济的迅速发展 人口的持续下降
the rapid economic development, the still-ongoing population decline,
清水公司见证了所有那些历史性的时刻
the Shimizu Corporation saw all that in their time.
然而 十分有趣的是最后一点
Now that last point however, is of particular interest,
日本的人口从2010年开始持续下降
because Japan’s population has been declining since 2010,
并且预计在未来的一百年内还会下降三分之二
and is expected to drop by two thirds within the next hundred years.
这给国家带来了各种各样的问题
And this has been causing all sorts of problems for the country,
几乎日本所有的城市都受到了困扰
problems that have been shared by almost all Japanese cities.
但有一座城市除外
Except for one.
那就是东京
Tokyo.
事实上 这座目前世界上最大的城市 东京
In fact, Tokyo,now the wotld’s largest city,
却面临着相反的问题 这一点十分具有讽刺意味
ironically has the opposite problem.
它面临着人口过多与过度拥挤两大问题
It suffers from over-extreme crowding and over-population.
3700万居民生活于此
At 37 million residents, the Greater Tokyo Area is virtually the only place
事实上 大东京区几乎是日本唯一一个人口持续增长的地区
in Japan to see sustained population growth.
这主要是由于日本其他地区的人员迁入造成的
This is mainly due to internal migration from other parts of the country.
自江户时期以来 清水公司一直将总部设在东京
The Shimizu Corporation, having been headquartered in Tokyo since the Edo period,
因而 该公司直接见证了东京人口的增长
had witnessed this growth first hand,
而人口过多则带来了一些愈加引人担忧的问题
and overpopulation had resulted in some increasingly worrying issues
如 产能过剩 物价过高 普遍拥挤
like overcapacity, overpricing, and just a general lack of space.
多年来 人们提出很多解决办法
Various solutions had been proposed over the years
如让老人迁出东京 或在东京以外的地方创造就业岗位
like moving the elderly, or creating jobs outside of Tokyo,
但清水公司另有他法
but The Shimizu Corporation had something else in mind.
至此 他们已把自己的公司打造成了世界上
By this point, they had built up their company to be one of the
顶尖的建筑 工程 和总承包公司之一
elite architectural,engineering and general contracting firms in the world,
并成功获得大规模的建设项目
with successful, large-scale construction projects under their belt.
目前 他们以超前的特大项目提案闻名
Note,recently, they’ve been known for their futuristic megaproject proposals
如漂浮城市 水下城市 沙漠运河和太空酒店
like floating cities, underwater cities, desert canals and space hotels.
因此 考虑到如此的雄心壮志和创新精神
So, with this level of ambition and innovation in mind,
那么听到1982年的某个晚上发生的事
it wasn’t surprising to
就不足为奇了
hear what happened one evening in 1982.
辛苦工作了一天后
After a hard day’s work,
清水公司的一个工程师决定出去看部电影
a Shimizu engineer decided to head out to watch a movie.
该电影是由哈里森·福特主演的《银翼杀手》
This movie was Blade Runner, starring Harrison Ford,
故事发生在一个反乌托邦式的未来世界 在那里 合成的人类是
set in a dystopian future where synthetic humans are bio-engineered
由强大的泰瑞尔公司 通过生物改造而成
by the powerful Tyrell Corporation,
这是一部经典的cult电影
this, a cult classic.
电影开场 展示了两个巨型的未来主义金字塔建筑
Now during the opening scene, two huge futuristic pyramidal megastructures were shown
它们代表着泰瑞尔公司总部
representing the headquarters of the Tyrell Corporation.
这个清水公司的工程师完全被此奇迹般的建筑震撼了
The Shimizu engineer was completely transfixed by this architectural marvel,
它们在他脑海中挥之不去
and he was unable to get it out of his mind.
次日 他在清水公司
The next day he shared this
和其他工程师同事分享了这件事
with his engineering colleagues at the Shimizu Corporation,
这也成为他们解决东京
and it thus became one of the main inspirations
人口过剩问题的主要灵感之一
for their solution to Tokyo’s overpopulation problem,
一个大金字塔能容纳整个城市的人口
a giant pyramid that could hold an entire
使其生活在一个自给自足的建筑中
city’s population in one self-sufficient building.
十年后 他们在全球范围内为此创意申请专利
Ten years later, they found themselves patenting this idea globally.
当然 这个创意十分疯狂
Of course, this was a crazy idea,
但是类似的创意
but it wasn’t the first time
并非第一次被实现
something like this had been done.
在埃及
Egypt.
大约公元前2500年
Around 2500 BC.
胡夫法老统治时期
A huge pyramid was constructed on the edge
人们在撒哈啦沙漠边缘建造了一个巨大的金字塔
of the Sahara desert, during the reign of Pharaoh Khufu.
这就是吉萨大金字塔 建筑界的杰作
This was the Great Pyramid of Giza, and it was an architectural masterpiece.
它可能是胡夫的陵墓
Having likely served as a burial chamber for Khufu,
这座金字塔经受住了时间的考验
it has withstood the test of time,
成为世界七大奇迹中
being the only one of the Seven Wonders
唯一保存至今的一个
of the World that has remained intact to this very day.
当然 历史上也建造了其他金字塔
Sure, other pyramids had been built throughout history,
但吉萨金字塔确实最高的一个
but the one at Giza is the tallest of them all,
甚至是3800年来
and was even the tallest of all man-made structures in the world
世界上人造建筑中最高的
for over 3800 years.
当然 吉萨大金字塔在与许多当代
Of course, The Great Pyramid of Giza is dwarfed
大都市的摩天大楼相比时会显得相形见绌
by many of the current metropolitan high-rises,
但是 如果清水公司能够成功
but, if the Shimizu Corporation is able to get its way,
金字塔可能会再次拔地而起
the Pyramids may rise again.
为应对东京过度拥挤和人口过剩而设计的
The Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid, designed to combatTokyo’s overcrowding and overpopulation,
清水巨型城市金字塔
would be so large it’d be
其高度将超过吉萨金字塔的14倍
over 14 times the height of Giza,
是哈利法塔的2.5倍
and 2.5 times that of the Burj Khalifa,
目前它是这个世界上最高的建筑
currently the world’s tallest building
不过不久将被吉达塔取代
though soon to be overtaken by the Jeddah Tower.
这个两公里高的建筑将由8层组成
This two kilometer-high structure would consist
每层有250米高
of eight levels, each 250 meters high,
能够容纳一百万人口
and would house one million people. Wait,
但是如此大的建筑应该建在东京哪里呢
but where exactly in Tokyo would you place this monstrosity?
东京已经人满为患 不像是还能挤出空间
Tokyo’s already overcrowded so it’s not like there’s room,
金字塔覆盖面积相当于18个梵蒂岗的城市面积
the area covered would be the equivalent of 18 Vatican Cities.
幸运的是 清水公司设计的金字塔
Fortunately, Shimizu had designed the pyramid
将建在不同寻常的地形上
to be built over suspect terrain
如公园 森林 河流 甚至是大片的水域
like parkland, forests, rivers, and even large bodies of water,
这使得它非常适合东京湾
making it perfect for Tokyo Bay,
该地区是东京唯一真正空置的地方
really the only vacant real estate in the area.
金字塔的地基将由36个特殊混凝土制成的桥墩构成
36 piers made of special concrete would form the pyramid’s foundations,
这将使它成为有史以来
which would make this
建造的第一个海上城市
the first offshore city ever built.
如果放大来看
Now if you zoom up,
你可以看到 这个结构实际上并不仅仅是一个密集的混凝土块
you can see the structure isn’t actually just one dense block of concrete,
而是一个由悬空的摩天大楼
but rather an exposed network of megatrusses,
加速人行道 倾斜电梯和通过空心支架的快速交通系统
suspended skyscrapers, accelerated walkways, inclined elevators, and rapid transit systems
组成的裸露网状物
moving through hollow supports.
最下面的四层为商业和居住空间
The bottom four levels would house commercial and residential spaces,
而最上面四层将配备研究和休闲设施
while the top four would have facilities for research and leisure,
这意味着你可以在同一栋建筑中
which means you can pack your stuff,
收拾好行李 出门远行
leave your home, travel afar,
然后拎包入住到
then check into your hotel at your holiday destination.
度假目的地的酒店
All within the same building.
好吧 也许这听起来很棒
Ok, maybe this sounds awesome,
但金字塔对环境的影响呢?
but what about the pyramid’s effect on the environment?
这座巨型城市将由可再生能源提供动力 如太阳能 风能和藻类
Well, the Mega-City will be powered by renewable energy: solar, wind, and algae,
没错 藻类
yes algae, otherwise known as pond scum,
也就是利用周围水域的绿藻
making use of the surrounding waters.
由于藻类能够将水分解成氢气
Since algae is able to break up water into hydrogen,
在阳光的作用下
with the help of sunlight,
可使用氢燃料电池将化学能
hydrogen fuel cells can be used
转化为电能
to convert the chemical energy
这意味着这座人类历史上 技术最先进的城市
into electricity, which means the most technologically advanced city in humanity’s history
将有一部分由绿藻提供动力
will in part, be powered by pond scum.
但是波浪呢?
But what about waves?
由大风产生的海浪
Ocean swells generated by high winds also
也含有巨大的能量 这些能量也许
contain an enormous amount of energy,
可以通过使用专门设计的发电机来控制
which could perhaps be reigned in using specially-designed power generators,
但在这种情况下 可靠性是一个问题
but for this reliability is an issue,
因为海浪很大 非常大 尤其是在日本
because waves get big, really big, especially in Japan.
发电机可能会被摧毁 但更令人担忧的是
Generators can get wiped out, but even more concerning
当一座巨大的金字塔挡住海啸的去路时
is what happens when a giant pyramid decides to get
会发生什么
in the way of a giant tsunami.
地震呢?
And what about earthquakes?
日本位于环太平洋的火山地震带上
Japan sits on top of the seismically-active Pacific Ring of Fire,
这意味着东京并不是一个可以建造
which means Tokyo isn’t exactly the best
容纳100万居民生活的实验性的
place to set up an experimental architectural megaproject housing
大型建筑项目的最佳地点
the lives of one million inhabitants.
但另一方面
But on the other hand
如果有个地方知道如何使建筑抗震和防海啸
if there’s one place that knows how to make buildings
那么是日本无疑了
earthquake- and tsunami-proof, it’s Japan,
清水公司确实深知建筑结构的危险性
and the Shimizu Corporation is indeed well aware of the structural dangers,
事实上 这就是为何清水巨型城市金字塔为金字塔形状
in fact, that’s why the Shimizu Mega-City Pyramid is a pyramid.
金字塔形状是建筑工程设计中最稳定的形状
The pyramid shape is the most stable design in structural engineering,
这使它十分适合像东京这样的城市
which makes it particularly suitable for cities like Tokyo.
由于建筑不是封闭的
And with the building not being enclosed,
它完全向外界开放
fully open to the elements,
极大减少了来自风和水的影响
any impact from wind or water would be dramatically reduced.
尤其是台风
For typhoons in particular,
让它直接吹过会更安全
it would be safer to just let the winds blow right through.
尽管如此
Now despite all that,
对金字塔而言 最大的危险实际上是它本身
the greatest danger to the pyramid is actually the pyramid itself,
更确切地说是它自身的重量
more specifically its own weight.
若一个桁架坏了
If one truss fails,
可能会有100万人因此葬送生命
well, there goes potentially the lives of one million people just like that.
事实上 这座建筑是如此巨大 如此沉重
In fact, the structure is so massive, so heavy,
清水公司试图建造它
that it wouldn’t even be wise for Shimizu
甚至是不明智的
to attempt its construction.
没错 这个设计从一开始就有缺陷
Yes, the design had been flawed from the start,
因为为了使金字塔能够自我支撑
because in order for the pyramid to even hold itself up,
需要一种特殊的材料
a special material was required,
一种比钢轻得多 强度是钢一千倍的材料
one vastly lighter, and a thousand times stronger than steel.
而目前还达不到那样的技术
And currently, that technology isn’t available.
但这种构想将来会实现
But it will be available in the future,
因为该领域已经取得了进展 实现这一构想
because advancements are already being made in the field,
只是时间问题罢了
and it’s just a matter of time.
当然还有些其他的问题需要面对
Of course there are also other issues to contend with
如 该项提案的费用
such as the proposed price tag,
以及东京的过度拥挤
and whether the easing of Tokyo’s overcrowding
是否能够得到有效缓解
would even be significant enough,
但是清水公司已经明确表示
but the Shimizu Corporation has made clear
考虑到所有这些潜在的问题
that in considering all these potential issues,
他们提出该项目的拟议完成日期将在2110年左右
the proposed completion date of the project would be around the year 2110.
这是一座未来城
A city for the future.
的确 这还需要很长一段时间
Indeed quite a while away, yet
但与东京另一个大型项目
unlike, say, the X-Seed 4000,
竞争对手大成建设株式会社的X-Seed 4000不同的是
another Tokyo megaproject by the rivaling Taisei Corporation,
这似乎不仅仅是一个吸引主流关注的策略
it appears to not just be a ploy to gain mainstream attention.
现在 无论是什么原因
Now if for whatever reason the
造成金字塔在东京未能成为现实
pyramid fails to become a reality in Tokyo,
世界上其他面临过度拥挤的城市
there are still other cities in the world
都将从这一概念中受益
with massive overcrowding problems that would benefit from this concept.
毕竟 清水公司
The Shimizu Corporation, after all,
一直希望能出口这项技术
had always intended for this technology to be exported.
想象一下一座巨型金字塔
Imagine a Mega-City Pyramid in Singapore,
出现在新加坡 香港 孟买或达卡
Hong Kong, Mumbai or Dhaka.
生活在历史上最大的人造建筑里
Life in the largest man-made structure in history would be
将会像世界中的一个世界
like a world within a world,
一种浓缩的 刺激的 更加复杂的真实世界
a condensed, exciting, more sophisticated version of the real world.
这个界限在一定程度上
This confinement would, to an extent,
将不可避免地导致内部拥有某种程度的自治权
lead inevitably to a certain level of autonomy within.
然而 与另一个人口高度密集的地区
Yet, unlike Hong Kong’s notoriously depraved
也就是香港臭名昭著的堕落九龙城
Kowloon Walled City, another example of an extremely
所不同的是
high-density enclave of a wider population,
它会从一开始
it would, from the start,
就是一个管理良好 处于领先地位的地方
be a place that’s well-governed and ahead of its time,
因为这里充满了具有前瞻思维的人 他们有着不同的背景和不同的技能
filled with forward-thinking people from different backgrounds with different skills,
通过技术和社区意识联合在一起
joined together by technology and a sense of community.
这些不仅仅适用于金字塔
And it’s not just the pyramid that this applies to,
还有Skillshare
but Skillshare.
因为在Skillshare上你能学到你想学的
Because Skillshare is the best place to learn whatever you want to learn.
上面有两万三千门课程涵盖了各个领域
They have over 23,000 classes on just about anything,
从如何绘制建筑图纸
from how to do freehand architectural drawings,
到如何在YouTube上成功创建你自己的教育频道
to how to create your own successful educational channel on YouTube.
我之前提过这个 但是
I’ve mentioned this before, but
作为一个内容制造者 我发现
as a content creator here I personally found
这节由西蒙·斯涅克制作的课程非常有用
this class by Simon Sinek incredibly useful,
它讲述了如何进行有效的演示
on how to deliver an effective presentation,
以及在讲故事的时候 是的 在讲故事的时候 如何构思最佳叙事手法
and how to craft the best narrative for storytelling, yes storytelling,
虽然这些视频第一眼看上去可能太专业或太“科学”
even for videos that at first glance may seem too technical or ‘ sciency ’.
Skillshare上的一个高级会员
Ok, a premium membership to
一个月只需不到10美元
Skillshare is less than $ 10 a month,
如果你是前500名通过下面链接注册的人
But if you’re one of the first 500 people to sign up with the link below,
你将获得两个月的免费试用
you will get the first 2 months for free.

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视频概述

为什么日本的吉萨金字塔直到2110年才能建成

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Cathy

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审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w7E6rdmilyE

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