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日本毛笔为何如此昂贵

Why Japanese Calligraphy Brushes Are So Expensive | So Expensive

Narrator: If a single hair is out of place
旁白:如果一支高档毛笔上
on a high-end calligraphy brush,
有一根笔毫的位置不合适
it must be removed.
就一定要去除
This intense attention to detail
对细节的高度关注
is part of why these brushes can cost over
是这些毛笔的价格能超过
$1,000.
1000美元的部分原因
You can find a beginner brush for less than $15,
你可以买到低于15美元的初学者毛笔
but for handmade brushes custom-designed for a master calligrapher,
但对于给书法大师定制的手工毛笔
artisans spend months turning raw hair
工匠们会花数月时间将未加工的
into a perfect brush tip.
笔毫制成完美的笔头
But what makes these brushes unique?
但是 是什么让这些毛笔变得独一无二?
And why are they so expensive?
它们又为何如此昂贵?
Calligraphy is a respected art form in Japan
书法在日本是一种受人尊敬的艺术形式
and has been practiced for centuries.
已有几个世纪的历史
But today, there aren’t many
但现今已没有多少
skilled brushmakers left.
经验丰富的制笔人了
Yoshiyuki Hata is a third-generation brushmaker
波田吉行是第三代制笔人
and has been making calligraphy brushes
他从青少年时期开始
since he was a teenager.
就已经开始制作毛笔了
I started when I was 50.
我五十岁时开始做这件事
Now I’m 70.
现在我七十岁了
Narrator: His family’s workshop in Kawajiri focuses on what they call
旁白:他们一家在位于卡瓦吉里的家族工坊
“no-compromise craftsmanship.”
专注于所谓的“不妥协工艺”
Each brush tip is handmade by a single artisan.
每个笔头都由一名工匠手工制作
But making these brushes isn’t easy.
但制作这些毛笔并不容易
A calligraphy master has a desired stroke to produce with a brush.
书法大师会选择运笔理想的毛笔
It’s about making a brush that suits each person.
这就是要制作适合每个人的毛笔
Narrator: For a master calligrapher, like Daizo Kaneko,
旁白:对于像金子太三这样的书法大师
small differences in a brush’s hardness or ink retention
毛笔硬度或蓄墨量的微小差异
can drastically affect the lines it can produce.
都会极大影响线条的书写
When I want to express something,
当我想写些东西的时候
the fine-tuning of a 5-millimeter difference,
五毫米差异的微调
a slight difference in hardness or softness,
硬度或软度的细微差别
and the spring of a brush are different for every brush.
及毛笔的弹性 造成了毛笔的迥然不同
Narrator: The dozens of steps involved in brushmaking
旁白:毛笔制作涉及许多步骤
start with selecting the hair.
选毫是第一步
Different types of hair have a big impact
不同类型的笔毫对毛笔的价格
on the price of a brush.
有很大影响
Yoshiyuki’s specialty is one of the priciest: goat hair.
吉行擅长处理的山羊毫是其中最贵的一种
This hair was collected 50 years ago
五十年前 这种毫取自
from the chest of Yangtze River Delta white goats.
长江三角洲白山羊的胸部
Hair from this specific breed of goat
根据其长短 光泽和弹性
is classified as Type III hair,
这种特定品种的山羊毛
based on its size, luster, and elasticity.
被归类为三型毛发
It’s a highly sought-after hair for brushmaking
它是一种非常受欢迎的制笔毫
because it’s soft, yet durable
因为它柔软又耐用
and retains ink well.
而且蓄墨性很好
New brush users and children
初学者和儿童可以用
use hard brushes-horse,raccoon.
马毛和浣熊毛制的硬毫笔
Your calligraphy level needs to be high to use a soft-haired brush.
待书法水平高一些 可以选择软毫笔
Narrator: But today, this type of hair
旁白:但如今很难找到
is hard to find in large quantities
大批量的这种笔毫
and can cost thousands of dollars per kilogram.
而且每公斤要花费数千美元
Selecting high-quality hair is done entirely by eye,
靠肉眼挑选高质量的笔毫
and it’s one of the hardest skills for a new brushmaker
也是对制笔新手而言
to learn.
最难的技能之一
Raw hair is selected based on color,shine,and durability.
根据颜色 光泽和耐久性来挑选未加工笔毫
When you see any hair
当你看到任何使用寿命
that might not last
少于十到二十年的笔毫时
for 10 to 20 years,you take it out one by one.
你就把它们一根根地拿出来
Narrator: But this long process is just beginning.
旁白:但这个漫长的过程仅仅是开始
Once the hairs are chosen,
一旦笔毫被选好
they’re boiled and combed to remove any fluff.
就要煮沸 梳理去除所有绒毛
This process separates straight, long hairs,
这一过程会分离出又直又长的笔毫
which are ideal for brushmaking.
它们是制作毛笔的理想选择
One of the most time-consuming steps
最耗时的步骤之一是
is aligning all of these hairs.
对齐这些毛发
This delicate work is key to making a uniform brush,
这种精细的工作是制作统一化毛笔的关键
but it’s largely based on experience and instinct.
但这主要基于经验和天赋
You just have to use your eyes and feel it
你只需用眼睛观察 用手去感受它
with your hands to know it’s aligned
就能知道它已经对齐了
Narrator: Throughout the process, brushmakers patiently remove
旁白:整个过程中 制笔人耐心地
any imperfect or damaged hairs.
去除所有不完美或受损的毫
People tell me that
人们告诉我
if I remove this much unnecessary hair,
如果我去掉这么多不必要的笔毫
there won’t be any hair left.
可用笔毫就所剩无几了
I estimate how much hair I would be removing when I design it.
我设计它时会估量好要去除多少笔毫
That’s why I can take out that much.
这是我能去除这么多笔毫的原因
Unless you remove that hair,
除非你去除那根笔毫
when you try to write with the brush,the stroke will break up.
否则当你用毛笔写字时 就会出现断笔
You won’t be able to draw a good line.
你将无法很好的运笔
I started brushmaking when I was little
我小的时候就开始制作毛笔了
because the workshop was my playground.
因为工作坊就是我的游乐场
I have about 200 brushmaking designs in my head.
我脑海中大约有200个制笔设计
It’s all about your eyes,hands,and instinct.
这一切都取决于你的眼睛 手和天赋
Narrator: At this stage, Yoshiyuki’s vision
旁白:在这个阶段
for a brush starts to take shape.
吉行对毛笔的设想开始成形
After trimming, he wets the hair
修剪笔毫后 将其打湿
and combines different bundles to create a brush
并将不同的毛束整合起来
that is dense and durable.
制作出紧实又耐用的毛笔
Then he dips the hair in funori,
然后他把笔毫浸泡在海萝胶中
an adhesive liquid made from seaweed,
这是一种海藻制成的粘合剂
to hold the hairs together.
可以将笔毫固定在一起
The brush is made for calligraphy masters,
这支毛笔是为书法大师们制作的
who specify the size down to 0.1 millimeter.
他们订制的毛笔尺寸小至0.1毫米
A brush would be no good if you got lazy
如果你在任何过程中偷懒
with any of the processes.
就会影响毛笔的质量
because then the soul would be lost.
因为那样笔的灵魂就会丢失
Narrator: The finished brush tip is almost unrecognizable
旁白:制成的笔头几乎
from the raw hair.
与未加工笔毫相差无几
But the precise work isn’t over yet.
但精细的步骤还没完成
Once the hair dries, Yoshiyuki ties up the ends
笔毫干后 吉行把根部绑起来
and burns each one with a hot iron,
用热熨斗烫每根笔毫
binding the hairs together.
把笔毫系在一起
Any mistake here could ruin a month of work.
这里的任何错误都可能毁掉一个月的工作
Finally, it’s time to assemble the brush.
最后 进行毛笔组装
Like the brush tip, each handle is custom-made.
与头笔一样 每根笔杆都是订制的
There are craftsmen specialized in making the brush shaft.
有专门制作笔杆的工匠
I work with a parent and a son,
我与一对夫妇和我的儿子一起工作
just like us,based in Nara.
他们和我们一样住在奈良
Everything is based on the calligrapher’s order.
一切都以书法家的订单为依据
The thickness of the shaft depends on the
笔杆的粗细取决于书法家的
calligrapher’s writing pressure and hand size.
书写力度和手的大小
Narrator: This time-consuming process,
旁白:这种耗时的工艺
along with the materials used,
加上所使用的材料
means these brushes can cost 100 times more
意味着这些毛笔的价格可能比
than a mass-produced brush.
大量生产的毛笔高出一百倍
The price varies based on the size and type of brush.
毛笔的价格根据尺寸和类型有所不同
A larger brush requires more hair,
大一些的毛笔需要更多笔毫
which naturally increases the price.
价格自然就高了
Hata Bunshindou brushes often cost around
波田邦信社毛笔的价格
$1,300,
通常在1300美元左右
but some brushes can cost a lot more.
但有些毛笔的价格要高得多
The highest-end brush I have made was around 2 million yen.
我做过最高端的毛笔约值二百万日元
The highest-end brush my father made was around 3 million yen.
我父亲做过最高端的毛笔约值三百万日元
Narrator: Despite the high price,
旁白:尽管价格高
these brushes are essential tools
这些毛笔是对太三
for calligraphers like Daizo.
这样的书法家不可或缺的工具
He followed in the footsteps of his father and grandfather
他追随父亲和祖父的脚步
and has been practicing calligraphy for 20 years.
已经练习了二十年的书法
There are times when I choose a brush to fit my image,
有时我会选择符合我的形象的毛笔
and other times when the image expands because of a brush.
有时形象会随毛笔的变化而变化
I choose a soft brush for softer expressions.
我会选择软笔毫来表达柔软笔画
When I want to express rigidly,
当我想表现刚健笔法时
I choose a shorter and harder brush.
我会选择一个更短更硬的毛笔
It’s fun to seek a brush that fits me.
寻求适合自己的毛笔是很有趣的
Narrator: Some brushmakers mix
旁白:一些制笔人
natural and synthetic hair
将天然和合成笔毫混合
to make brushes more affordable.
这使得毛笔的价格更低廉
But Yoshiyuki remains committed
但吉行仍然致力于
to using only the highest-quality materials.
只用最优质的材料
Koso, Yoshiyuki’s son, will be the workshop’s
吉行的儿子Koso将会是工作坊
fourth-generation brushmaker.
第四代的毛笔制作者
My father is a craftsman by nature,
我父亲天生就是个工匠
so he’s not someone who teaches
所以他不是一个会教书的人
or can teach by speaking.
也不是一个能通过说话来教书的人
I learned by looking.
我通过观察来学习
If the product I made is good,
如果我做的产品是好的
he would groan”yes.”
他就会咕哝道 “可以”
Otherwise,he only says”no.”
否则 他只会说“不行”
Narrator: But like many traditional crafts,
旁白:但如同许多传统手艺
the future of brushmaking is unclear.
毛笔制作的未来尚不清楚
Demand for handmade brushes is in decline.
手工毛笔的需求量正在减少
Some brushmakers have started selling makeup brushes
一些制笔人已经开始卖化妆刷
to bring in new customers.
来引入新客户
But the main concern for Yoshiyuki and his family
但吉行和他家人的主要担忧
is the lack of raw materials.
是原材料的短缺
I worry the most about whether a fifth generation will come and
我最担心的是会不会有第五代传人的出现
whether quality raw materials will be available then.
以及届时是否会有高质量的原材料
Brushmakers and the population of the calligraphy industry are decreasing.
制笔人和书法行业的人口在减少
It’s inevitable that the industry will decline.
这个行业的衰退无可避免
That’ll be a challenge
作为一名手工艺人
throughout my lifetime as a craftsmaker.
这将是我一生中的一个挑战

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译制信息
视频概述

日本的一些手工毛笔非常昂贵,因为它们是给书法大师们使用的专业毛笔,但相比之下,初学者使用的毛笔非常便宜。那么,是什么使得专业毛笔如此昂贵呢?制笔人又在为这个行业的前途担忧些什么呢?让我们一起来了解一下吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

成奚

审核员

审核员SLS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEMi3s2IDS8

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