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为什么专注那么难

Why it's so Hard to Focus

This video was made possible by Brilliant:
本视频由Brilliant出品
a math and problem-solving website
Brilliant是一个数学和解决问题的网站
that can help you achieve better grades
可以帮你取得更好的成绩
If you’ve ever watched a great play,
如果你看过一部好看的剧
you know the feeling of being totally immersed in an experience.
你就知道那种完全沉浸其中的感觉
The lights, costumes, music, and set
灯光 戏服 音乐和布景
are all designed to capture and hold your attention.
这些设计都是为了吸引你的注意力
Every actor knows their role inside-out
每个演员都对自己的角色了如指掌
and is appropriately familiar with the roles of everyone else in the cast.
并且熟悉剧组中其他人的角色
A cast is a collection of individual actors
一个剧组是个体演员的集合
and the stage is the physical medium that unites them.
舞台是将他们聚集在一起的物理媒介
This makes a show the emergent result of combining actors with a stage.
一部戏就是演员和舞台结合的自然产物
In a well-executed play,
一部制作优良的戏剧
there is a beautiful harmony within the actors,
在演员中
between the actors,
演员间
and between the actors and the stage.
及演员和舞台之间有一种美好和谐
This harmonious set of interactions is what captures our attention.
正是这一系列和谐互动吸引我们的注意力
William Shakespeare wrote these famous words
威廉·莎士比亚在他的戏剧
in his play “As You Like It”,
《皆大欢喜》中写过这句名言
“All the world’s a stage,
“全世界是一个舞台
And all the men and women merely players;
所有的男男女女不过是一些演员
They have their exits and their entrances;
他们有下场的时候 也有上场的时候
And one man in his time plays many parts.”
一个人在一生中扮演着好几个角色”
I hope to show that this metaphor is not only powerful
我希望通过使用这个比喻作为框架
but, perhaps, even true
来了解我们的专注能力
— by using it as a framework
从而证明这个比喻不仅强有力
to understand our capacity to focus.
甚至可能是准确的
You are an actor, the world is a stage,
你是个演员 世界就是个舞台
and a perfect show is the result of highly focused attention.
一场完美的演出是高度集中注意力的产物
Therefore, we should not strive to be attentive but,
因此 我们不应该光力图做到专注
rather, we should strive to put on a perfect show.
而是应该努力演一场完美的戏
It is paramount, then, that we know our roles,
了解我们的角色 找到合适的戏
seek the right show, and set the stage appropriately.
及设置恰当的舞台 都至关重要
An actor without a role will not star in a show
一个没有角色的演员无法在戏中大放异彩
an actor who doesn’t know their role well is doomed to put on a terrible show.
一个不清楚自己角色的演员注定把戏演砸
Therefore, it’s important that actors know their roles.
因此 演员了解自己的角色很重要
Before an actor can find the right show to be a part of,
在演员找到适合参演的戏之前
they need to understand themselves.
他们需要先了解自己
Everyone is born with a set of intrinsic desires
每个人生来都有一系列与众不同的
and talents which are unique to them.
内在欲望和天赋
When they act on these desires,
当他们遵从这些欲望时
they build up a fountain of knowledge
他们建立了知识的源泉
which helps them obtain what’s pleasurable
来帮他们获得快乐
and avoid what causes suffering.
并避免遭受痛苦
As a result, everything in the world becomes imbued with meaning.
因此 世间一切都蕴含了意义
This meaning need not have a cosmic significance.
这个意义不必具有重要性
When you look at a cup,
当你看见一个杯子时
you don’t see it in terms of its material structure.
你不是去看它的物质结构
In other words,
换句话说
you don’t say that it’s a cylindrical glass object.
你不会说它是个圆柱体玻璃制品
Rather, you see it in terms of its function:
相反 你看到的是它的功能:
a carrier of liquid pleasure.
承载着液态愉悦的载体
But, if you’re enjoying a cocktail in a bar
但是 若你在酒吧享受鸡尾酒时
and someone threatens to fight you,
有人威胁要和你打架
your role changes from that of a customer to that of a fighter.
你的角色就从顾客转变为一个打架的人
As your role changes,
随着角色的转变
the meaning you assign to the world changes,
你赋予世界的意义也随之改变
and the glass goes from a carrier of liquid pleasure
而杯子就从承载液态愉悦的载体
to a weapon to avoid suffering.
变为了抵御的武器
In a very real sense,
真正意义上
the roles we select structure how we perceive the world.
我们选择的角色构造了我们对世界的感知
Imagine that I put a box of pencil crayons in front of you
想象一下 我把一盒彩色铅笔放在你面前
and told you to find the one that is red.
并让你找到红色的彩色铅笔
If you choose to accept this task,
如果你选择接受这个任务
the way you perceive your environment literally changes.
那么你感知世界的方式就完全改变了
You start to ignore most sensory data
你开始忽略大多感官信息
and selectively discard information that does not align with your goal:
并选择性地丢弃与你的目标不一致的信息
finding the red pencil crayon.
即 找到那支红色的彩色铅笔
I asked you to take part in the show of finding the color red,
我让你参与寻找红色彩色铅笔的演出
and for you to play the protagonist who takes on this action.
并由你来扮演主角
This newfound role imbued your world with instantaneous meaning
这个新角色给你的世界赋予了即时意义
which helped you mentally structure your environment,
这帮你在心理上构建周围环境
so you knew what could be ignored and what could not.
因此你清楚什么可以忽视 什么不能
Having a purpose, or knowing your role as an actor,
拥有一个目标 或者了解自己扮演的角色
helps you mentally structure your environment.
帮你在心理上构建周围环境
This purpose-driven focus is referred to as a top-down function.
这种目标导向焦点被称为自上而下功能
Top-down attention is knowledge-driven.
自上而下注意力是由知识驱动的
When you use your mind to find something in the environment,
当你动脑筋在环境中找一些东西时
you’re using top-down attention.
就是在使用自上而下注意力
This self-constructed role I am telling you about
我所说的这个自我构建角色
is an existentialist idea.
正是存在主义思想
The Existentialists believed in the idea
存在主义者相信
that our existence preceded our essence.
我们的存在先于我们的本质
In other words, we aren’t born with any meaning
换句话说 我们生下来时本无意义
but, we construct it.
但我们构建了意义
Your purpose is constructed based on the relationship
你的人生意义是以本能欲望
between your natural desires and the environment around you.
和周围环境之间的关系为基础构建而来的
But, if you don’t want to create your own role as an actor,
但作为一个演员 若你不想创建自己的角色
the world is happy to assign you one.
那么世界很乐意分配给你一个
We live in a world that is
我们生活在一个
constantly asking you to take part in their own shows
不断要求你参加他们的表演
and setting the stage for you.
并给你搭建舞台的世界
While driving, you’ll notice billboards lined along the road.
在你开车时 你会注意到路边的广告牌
Every business owner wants you to take on the role of their customer.
每个老板都希望你的角色是他们的顾客
When you go to YouTube,
当你看YouTube视频时
every YouTube channel wants you to take on the role of their viewer.
每个博主都希望你的角色是他们的观众
The billboard owner sets the stage by making the billboard
广告牌主人通过让广告牌尽可能地吸引人
as attractive as possible
来设置舞台
— just as the YouTuber does for the thumbnail.
就像YouTube博主设置视频封面那样
Everyone is giving you a possible meaning to try out
每个人都在给你一个可能的意义去尝试
and it’s up to you to decide if it’s correct.
而由你来决定它是否正确
Facebook and Instagram scream that meaning
Facebook和Instagram的意义
is found in the pleasure you get from interacting with others.
在于你能从和他人的互动中获得快乐
YouTube screams that meaning is found in education, inspiration, or entertainment.
YouTube的意义在于提供教育 灵感 或娱乐
The car dealership screams that meaning
汽车经销商的意义在于
is found in status or material goods.
给予你地位或物质商品
Whether it’s video games, social media,
不管是电子游戏 社交媒体
or an interesting conversation,
还是有趣的谈话
good distractions create structure.
好的娱乐方式创建了体系
They easily offer you a role that
他们轻松地赋予你一个角色
imbues your world with meaning
使你的世界富有意义
and lets you feel a sense of accomplishment within that role.
并让你在那个角色中获得一种成就感
An actor who knows their role
一个了解自己角色的演员
may see these activities as simple distractions.
可能会将这些活动视为简单的令人分心的事
They’ll discard pieces of information
如果这与他们期望演的戏不匹配
if it doesn’t align with the show they are looking to be a part of.
他们会丢弃这部分信息
An actor who does not know their role,
一个不了解自己角色
and play it well,
演技不错的演员
will always be stuck playing the roles that others assign to them.
总是扮演别人分配给他的角色
Facebook is designed to be distracting and it is,
Facebook的设计确实就是为了分散注意力
but only in so far as you lack a greater purpose for avoiding it.
但你只是缺乏一个更大的目标来避免它
Once you know your role as an actor,
一旦你清楚了自己的角色
it’s easier to choose which shows you want to play a role in.
那么选择你想演的戏就更加容易了
If it’s a one-man show,
若是一场独角戏
such as studying by yourself for a test,
比如为了考试自主学习
things are really easy:
那就很容易了:
just set the stage and get going.
设置舞台并投入角色就好了
But if the show requires multiple people,
但如果是需要很多人的戏
it’s important to choose a cast that you harmonize well with.
那么选一个能和谐相处的剧组就很重要了
For example, if you’re an engineer who wants to positively impact the world,
例如 你是个想积极影响世界的工程师
you may join a start-up of other engineers
你可能加入一个新成立的公司
who are all working together to build environmentally-friendly cars.
这个新公司的工程师一起工作制造环保型汽车
Each individual engineer may have joined the company for slightly different reasons,
每个工程师加入公司的原因可能略有不同
but their reasons harmonize well with each other
但他们个人原因能彼此很好地协调
and with the grand reason of producing environmentally-friendly cars.
并与制造环保汽车的宏大目标协调一致
Once you know your role
一旦你了解自己的角色
and choose a show,
并选择了一部戏
it’s time to set the stage.
就该设置舞台了
When a stage is being designed,
当设计舞台时
every detail must be thought of and revised
需要考虑和修订每个细节
to ensure that it captures the attention of all audience members.
从而保证舞台能吸引所有观众的注意力
When actors are performing live,
当演员在现场表演时
they want to make sure that the entire audience
他们要确保所有观众
forgets about whatever is going on in their lives
忘掉自己生活中发生的事
and just enjoying the moment.
享受此刻就好
They want to make it hard for you to think about anything other than the show.
他们想让你沉浸在戏中 忘掉戏外的一切
The lights, the music, the choreography, and the outfits
灯光 音乐 编舞 和服装
are all designed in support of this goal.
这些都是为了达成这一目标而设计的
In other words,
换句话说
the actors want to drive attention from the bottom-up.
演员们想要自下而上地驱动注意力
Bottom-up attention is stimulus-driven.
自下而上注意力是由刺激驱动的
Imagine an ambulance speeding past you
想象一辆鸣着警笛的救护车
with its sirens blaring:
从你身边疾驰而过
the loud noise and the bright lights would immediately catch your attention.
巨大的噪音和强光会立即吸引你的注意力
Bottom-up systems are largely unconscious, involuntary,
自下而上系统多半是无意识的 非自愿的
and more powerful than top-down systems.
而且比自上而下系统更强大
All performances try to capture attention from the bottom-up,
所有的表演都设法自下而上地吸引注意力
even lecture halls.
甚至是演讲厅
Lecture halls are set up with all the seats facing one direction
演讲厅的所有座位都面向一个方向
— towards the professor.
面向教授
The professor often has visuals that he wants to show you,
教授通常要给学生展示课件
so a giant screen is placed behind him on the wall.
所以他身后的墙上会放一个大屏幕
The screen is behind him so that everyone can see it,
屏幕在教授身后 以便每个人都能看得到
but also because he is the intermediary between you and that knowledge.
这也是因为教授是学生和知识之间的媒介
The lecture hall is a stage
演讲厅就是一个舞台
and it’s set up in such a way so that
这样的设置是为了
every actor can easily and correctly assume their role.
每个演员都能轻松准确地进入他们的角色
You probably have a room in your house with a TV in it
你家里应该会有一间带电视的房间
and all of the couches pointed towards it.
所有的沙发都会对着电视机
The room is a stage
这个房间就是一个舞台
that screams its purpose: I exist to comfort and entertain.
这样摆设的目的是:放松和娱乐
YouTubers also try to drive bottom-up attention.
YouTube博主同样设法驱动自下而上注意力
We design our thumbnails and titles
博主设计视频封面和标题
to capture your attention unexpectedly and get you to click.
在无意间吸引你的注意力并让你点开它
Without the proper stage, it’s hard to capture focus.
没有一个合适的舞台 就很难获得关注
Imagine going to a concert
想象你去听一场音乐会
where all the seats were facing each other and not the stage,
所有的座椅都冲着观众 而不是舞台
the music was too quiet,
音乐声太小了
and all the lights were on:
而且灯全亮着
it would be a difficult show to enjoy.
这让观众很难做到欣赏这场音乐会
Setting the stage means that
布置舞台意味着
everything in the environment contributes to the show’s purpose.
舞台上的一切都有助于这场演出的目标
For example, you can set up a computer desk in your room
例如 你可以在家里摆一张电脑桌
or a small office in your home.
或布置一个小型办公室
You can limit the apps on that computer,
你可以限制使用电脑上的软件
and the room may only have the necessities you require for working.
并且房间里只放你工作所需的必需品
You want to remove as many bottom-up distractions as possible.
你想尽可能多地排除自下而上的干扰
The best way to do this is by
最好的办法就是
removing as many external cues and triggers as you can.
尽可能多地排除外部暗示及外部的诱因
Triggers may include your cell phone,
外部的诱因可能包括你的手机
the internet, an app, or even people.
网络 应用程序 甚至人
Your role might be that of a good student or an accountant.
你的角色可能是一个好学生 或一个会计
The show is that of studying for a test or completing a client’s taxes.
而戏就是为了考试学习 或完成客户报税
As a result, the stage has been properly designed
因此 舞台要设计得很好
to facilitate the best possible performance by the actor.
以便演员展示出最好的表演水平
The best performance requires intense focus or being in a state of flow.
最好的表演需要极度的专注或进入一种心流状态
Flow occurs when an individual is playing the right role,
当一个人在演一个合适的角色 合适的戏
in the right show, and on the right stage.
及合适的舞台时 他就进入了心流状态
Their actions are aligned with their beliefs
在一个支持他们的环境中
in an environment that supports them.
他们的行动和想法是一致的
Being in a state of flow is often described as “being in the zone”,
进入心流状态通常被描述为“进入状态”
and it’s a very pleasurable state for most people to be in.
这是一个对大多数人来说都非常愉悦的状态
Sadly, most people rarely have long stretches of flow in their lives
不幸的是 大多数人在生活中都不能长时间进入状态
because life is complex.
因为生活是复杂的
To keep this essay simple and digestible,
为了保持内容简洁易懂
I talked about everything in singular and sequential terms.
我讲的任何内容都使用了单一连续的术语
In real life, you don’t transition from an actor
在现实生活中 你不会从一个演员
to selecting a show to setting the stage.
转换到选择一部戏 再转换到布置舞台
In fact, you do all three simultaneously and iteratively.
事实上 你是同时并反复地在做这三件事
Your identity as an actor affects the show you pick,
你作为一个演员的身份影响着你选的戏
but the show you pick also affects your identity as an actor.
同时你选的戏也影响着你作为演员的身份
You’re evolving,
你在逐渐成长
and as you evolve
在你成长的同时
so should the show and the stage.
戏剧和舞台也应该在成长
Furthermore, you don’t play just one role in life
而且 你一生不会只扮演一个角色
but multiple roles, in multiple shows,
你会在不同的舞台 各种戏里
and on multiple stages.
扮演多种角色
It’s okay to not be focused.
集中不了注意力没有关系
Focusing is hard
集中注意力很难
because it requires a delicate and beautiful harmony
因为它需要在这三者之间
between all of these parts.
建立一种微妙美丽的和谐
A lack of focus may be a sign that you haven’t found the right role,
缺乏专注力可能是你没有找到合适的角色
the right cast, the right stage,
合适的剧组 合适的舞台
or the right show.
或合适的的戏的一个迹象
It may be time for a change in your life in one of these areas.
也许是时候在这些方面做出生命中的改变了
Perhaps, it’s an opportunity to boldly engage with the world,
或许 这是一个勇敢接触世界的机会
and discover yourself through interacting with it.
并通过与世界的交互发现自己
Focus is an invitation from the world
专注是来自世界的一个邀请
to stay put for a while and perform;
让你待在原地表演一会儿
a lack of focus is an invitation
缺乏专注力则是寻找一场新戏
to seek a new show, a new stage, or a new role.
一个新舞台 或一个新角色的邀请
Focusing in school can be very hard,
在学校做到专注很困难
because the stage is set poorly.
因为舞台布置的很差
and it doesn’t do a great job at giving students a role that they enjoy.
并且学校没有给学生一个他们喜欢的角色
This is unfortunate,
这是不幸的
because it makes learning a chore when it doesn’t have to be.
因为它使学习成为了一件苦差事 可是这并没有必要
Thanks to the internet,
感谢网络
students don’t have to be limited by the classroom.
学生不必受到教室的限制
It can find websites online
网上可以找到很多网站
that do a better job of giving them a role in setting the stage.
这个网站能更好地让学生搭建舞台
And if you are a student that wants to achieve excellence,
如果你是一个想要追求卓越的学生
I highly recommend visiting Brilliant.org.
我强烈推荐Brilliant.org网站
Brilliant.org is a math and science problem-solving website
Brilliant.org是一个解决数学和科学问题的网站
with a well structured environment that encourages focused learning.
网站有鼓励专心学习的结构化环境
The cover a wide array of topics, such as mathematics,
网站涵盖了广泛的主题 比如数学
physics, astronomy, and even computer science
物理 天文 甚至计算机科学
Brilliant keeps you engaged
Brilliant通过从基础开始
by starting with the fundamentals
并通过增加问题的难度
and progressively adding layers to your understanding
逐渐加深理解
by increasing the difficulty of problems.
来使学生持续投入
Just go to www.brilliant.org/freedomonthought
输入网址www.brilliant.org/freedomonthought
or click the link in the description below
或点击下方评论区的链接
and you can sign up for free.
你就可以免费注册
As a bonus for those who are ready to push themselves further,
作为给准备开通会员的人的奖励
the first 200 people will be hooked up with 20% off annual subscription.
订购年费的前200人将获得8折优惠
As always, thanks for watching, and I’ll see you next time.
如往常一样 谢谢观看 我们下次再见

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视频概述

本视频把人比做演员,把要专注做的事比作一场戏,把做事的环境比作舞台。用比喻当做框架阐述了这三者之间的关系,从而解释了很难做到专注的原因。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Raina

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XT46R7Ii4zY

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