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为什么很难打击走私野生动物的犯罪

Why It’s So Hard to Fight Wildlife Crime | Nat Geo Live

人们正在选择特制的枪支
People are selecting specific fire arms,
特制的弹药进入森林
specific ammunition, going out into the forest
我们只能眼睁睁的看着这些珍稀动物被屠杀
looking just to kill this gorgeous animal.
这不仅仅像警察抓强盗那般简单
It’s not just a simple cops and robbers model.
比你印象中的好人坏人的区分要复杂
It’s not as easy as you know, good guys, bad guys.
我们需要用法律法规去力挽狂澜
We need to be able to put law and order into the equation.
我从孔夸提-杜里这个地方开始说起
This is where I started in Conkouati-Douli
这是一个位于刚果共和国南部的公园
in a park in Southern Republic of Congo.
这是我们能见到的其中一只大象
This elephant is one guy that we would see
如你常见到的
relatively frequently and as you can see
它有很大的长牙
he’s got enormous tusks.
然而在三年多时间里,没有人曾见过这种大象
In over three years nobody has seen this elephant.
这是一个国家公园
It’s a national park.
有它的边界线
It’s got boundaries.
但是罪犯并不在乎
But criminals don’t care at all
对你在地图上画了什么线视而不见
about where you drew those lines on a map.
罪犯拥有相当多的繁复网络
Criminals have much more complex networks
他们的运输线能到达他们需要的地方
and their logistics go as far as they need to.
我们将讨论到的并不是迫于养家糊口
We’re not talking about a guy hunting
而偷猎的人
to feed his family.
野生动物走私目的并不属于狩猎生存
Wildlife trafficking is not subsistence hunting.
我们正在谈论的是我们着力
We’re talking about addressing the industrial scale
要解决的偷猎商业化问题
problem that we’re dealing with.
猎豹的皮是很坚韧
Leopard skin’s a very tough one,
因为我们试图抓住盗猎者
because we’re trying to catch the traffickers
与此同时 我们知道森林深处
but at the same time, we know that the hunting
投机取巧的偷猎者也正在猎杀生灵
in the forest is often opportunistic,
所以打击犯罪分子
so hitting the traffickers and getting
并获取偷猎者背后的线索
that message back to the poachers
就能从一开始就阻止偷猎枪弹被打响
so that the trigger isn’t pulled in the first place
或者从一开始就能阻止偷猎陷阱的布置
or the snare isn’t laid in the first place is very hard.
当然并非如此 当他们为象牙而来
That is not the case of course, when it comes to ivory
人们选择特制的武器
where people are selecting specific firearms,
特制的弹药进入森林
specific ammunition, going out into the forest
我们只能眼睁睁看着这些珍奇猛兽被杀害
looking just to kill this gorgeous animal.
这类大型动物的捕杀行径遍及亚洲
We’re seeing some giant seizures over in Asia.
非洲中部的刚果 加蓬
From central Africa it’s coming from Congo, Gabon,
这些地方恰恰是位于最多
right smack in the middle where we have
象群的中心地带
the best elephant populations.
你弄到上千公斤的象牙
You get hundreds of kilos of ivory
总是把他们运出去
going out all the time, accumulating into
在如洛美,多哥一样城市大港口上千公斤上千公斤的
thousands of kilos inside of big port cities
堆积起来
like in Lome in Togo.
请注意偷猎者用的是AK47弹夹
Please notice that the ammunition was an AK47 clip.
我不知道你是否想说
I don’t know if you want to call
那是由纷争留下的遗留物
that a leftover from conflict
还是对这一个大问题上的搪塞之辞
or just an excuse for a big problem
这一大问题就是我们要讨论的腐败
that we need to talk about which is corruption.
你在军队和警察中有靠山
You have people in militaries or police forces
凭借他们的权利,像有了一层保护罩一样
providing ammunition to poachers using their authority
偷猎者有了枪支弹药,所以他们敢这样去做
as a cover so that they can go
并从中牟取暴利
and make a lot of money off this stuff.
所以靠山都是谁呢?
So who are these guys?
相信每个人都有个对偷猎流程的基本认知
Everybody has this basic notion,
我们有偷猎者,他们把动物制品卖给商贩
we have the poachers, they give it to a trafficker,
商贩卖给中间人
the trafficker gives it to a middle man,
中间人转售给更大的商贩
he goes to bigger traffickers,
最终到达重要人物手里
down the line to your kingpin.
这是一份法律执行透析图
And so from a law enforcement perspective,
你认为它很简单 我们想执行与偷猎者
you’d think alright it’s easy, we’re gonna intercept
进行反偷猎斗争
these guys with anti-poaching on the poachers,
只要一些警力顺藤摸瓜粉碎犯罪链就行
some police forces along the way,
一切就迎刃而解了
and we’ll work it out.
但事实比这更复杂了
Gets a little bit more complicated
某人可能混迹于警察队伍中
when maybe someone in your police force
是偷猎者团伙网络中的一份子
is part of your network.
我也能补充许多其他的备选框
And I could add a lot of other bubbles
把这个透视图弄得更复杂
and make this far more complicated
你就能看见提供军火的人
when you look at who’s providing the ammunition,
把他们从监狱中释放出来的人
who’s getting them out of jail,
对罪犯网开一面的人
who is making it so that even if they
而罪犯犯下滔天大罪
get that strong prison sentence,
他们仍可以逃之夭夭
that they can still slip away
或者做医学假证之类
or get a fake medical slip or something.
我们已经见识过每一种腐败形式
We have seen every permutation of corruption
你可以想象得到
that you can imagine.
这是一次暗箱操作
This is an operation which we did
那时我们和国际刑事警察组织局
with the National Central Bureau of Interpol
在科拉克里搜出超过$30,000
in Conakry where over $30,000 was seized
超过800件象牙
and over 800 pieces of ivory.
这个家伙是[消音]我真的
This fellow is an [bleep] that I really
想把他们送进监狱
want to put in jail.
我已经把他送进监狱两次了
I have put him in jail a couple of times
他仍然既如以往那样做
and he’s still doing that.
他在干这类勾当时微笑,在这里他笑出来
He’s smiling there but he’s not smiling here
当我们尝试逮捕他
when we’re trying to arrest him.
我们却失败了
This is a failure of ours.
我们没有抓到他
We failed with this guy.
他太有权利了
He is too powerful.
我们已经尝试了所有能逮捕他的方法
We have been trying everything to get him arrested.
他的名字叫爱卡马
His name is Ikama.
我们的狗群已经过来 搜索过这个地方
Our dogs have come in and scanned the place,
发现成千上万的象牙
found hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of pieces of ivory.
但是这个家伙从监狱里出来了因为他的儿子
But this fellow got out of jail because his son
是一名前暴乱领袖 一名前国会成员
is an ex-rebel leader, an ex-member of parliament
他使用他的政治权利
and he’s using every bit of political
当掂量从事偷猎勾当背后的影响后
weight that he can get to traffic his influence
经过刚果保释他的父亲
across the Congo to make sure that his father
没被送进监狱
doesn’t go to jail, even though is father
尽管他的父亲是刚果地区最大的象牙贩卖团伙中的一员
is one of the biggest ivory dealers in Congo.
同时他厚颜无耻
At the same time he has the audacity
去警察局呆了几星期之后
to go to the police station a few weeks later
还在计划如何将象牙拿回
and figure out how to get his ivory back.
所以这就是腐败问题的情况
So these are the types of problems
我们不得不思考
that we have to figure out, is babysit
这个案例每个单独的步骤
these cases every single step of the way
确保他不能拿回象牙
to make sure that he doesn’t get his ivory back.
我们还是笑到了最后
Here’s a success.
我们在布拉柴维尔查获126公斤象牙
126 kilos of ivory seized in Brazzaville.
他与喀麦隆一个大的商贩
A big trafficker, he’s got a connection
取得联系并到达尼日利亚
to Cameroon and into Nigeria,
他可能盘算继续前往多哥
he was probably going to go on to go to Togo
带上所有的象牙
and all of that stuff.
我们让狗群进去搜查了这个地方
We get the dogs in, they search the place,
这家伙蹲了两年牢
the guy gets two years in jail.
狗狗做的很好
The dogs do lovely stuff on their own.
我们带它们进入森林里的租赁地
We took them into forestry concessions,
没有什么能逃过这些狗的搜查
you can’t hide anything from these dogs.
是我们能证明那些帐篷营地
And that enables us to prove that these camps
实际上并不是属于伐木的租赁地
were not actually working for logging concessions
或做他们的窝点,我们对帐篷进行焚毁
or just doing their job, and lit them on fire.
我喜欢和狗玩耍
Obviously I like playing with the dogs.
在工作中有活的动物在我们身旁,这都是件令人惊讶的事
It’s amazing to have live animals around in our work.
美国外交大使也从和肖恩握过手
That’s the US ambassador as well who’s shaking hands
这对于我们真的很重要
with Shon, and that’s really important for us.
因为我们需要政治手段 我们需要
We need political leverage, we need that kind
这样的政治权势,这就是我从这里带回来的
of political weight, and that’s kind of the take home
信息,即由于现实中复杂的
message here is that with all of this complicated
非法野生动物制品走私体系的运作
reality of how illegal wildlife trafficking networks
我们必须接受,我们也不得不承认
function, we have to accept that it’s not just
这不是件如警察抓强盗这么简单的事
this simple, cops and robbers model.
这比我们印象中好家伙和坏家伙区分要难得多
It’s not as easy as you know, good guys, bad guys.
它真的很复杂 我们需要许多政治压力
It’s really complex, we need a lot of political pressure
确保我们确实能够
to make sure that we’re actually able
让这群家伙绳之以法
to put these guys behind bars
尽可能长的压制住他们
and neutralize them for as long as possible.
我们需要统一地诉诸于法律法规的可能性
We need to be able to put law and order into the equation.
所以请将信息也传播下去
So spread the word about that please
不要把它当作一件简单的事
and let’s not make it a simple thing.
从现实方面重视这个问题
Let’s address this problem with the reality that it is.
非常谢谢
Thank you very much.

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