未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)

为什么在伦敦买房这么难

Why it's so hard to buy a home in London

For many years in Britain the story was
多年来 英国上演的故事都是
a young person left their parents’ home, married by 25,
年轻人从父母家里搬出去后 25岁结婚
bought a house and started a family.
买房然后组建家庭
But the story today is very different.
但今天的情况却截然不同
The number of young people living with their parents
本世纪以来
has been on the rise since the turn of the century.
与父母同住的年轻人数量一直在增加
In fact, the number of 20 to 34 year olds living at home
事实上 自2002年以来 20至34岁
has grown by nearly 50 percent since 2002.
与父母同住的人数增长了近50%
The housing system in London
伦敦的住房体系
really is a pretty disastrous system for most people
对大多数人来说的确是一个灾难性的体系
and certainly at least half the population,
可以确定的是 至少有一半人
they are paying through the nose.
他们在房子上花了太多钱
I don’t think that like we’re realistic to think about
我认为思考怎样存钱买房
how I can save to buy home
这件事本身就不现实
and I say change jobs and I can then climb the ladder
或许我换个工作 然后有可能买上房子
So why is it so hard
那么 为什么
to get on the London property ladder?
拥有伦敦的房产如此困难?
Home ownership hasn’t always been a national obsession.
拥有房产并非一直是英国人的执念
A century ago three quarters of the UK
一个世纪前 3/4的英国人
rented the place they lived.
租房居住
Now only about a third of the country’s households are renting.
现在全国只有大约1/3的家庭在租房
But those that are have a serious disadvantage
但是那些租房的人如果想拥有自己的房子
if they ever hope to own.
就会有很大的劣势
To understand how we got here,
要了解我们是如何走到这一步的
let’s rewind back to a pivotal part of the country’s history:
就需要回到英国历史上的一个关键时期:
the second world war.
第二次世界大战
The country which was heavily bombed during the conflict
这个在战争中遭到严重轰炸的国家
began a period of rebuilding and repairing
在1945年至1951年之间
between 1945 and 1951.
开始了一段重建和修复时期
The government launched an ambitious building program of homes
政府推出了一项雄心勃勃的住房建设项目
to rent at controlled prices.
以管制价格出租
Prime Minister Clement Attlee’s government
首相克莱门特·艾德礼政府
built more than one million houses during this period.
在此期间建造了100多万所住房
By the 1970s,
到20世纪70年代
one out of every four London households
每4个伦敦家庭中就有一个住在
was living in an affordable social rented accommodation,
负担得起的社会租房
also known as a council house.
也被称为公租房
But 1979 changed everything.
但1979年改变了一切
To all the British people, howsoever they voted,
对于所有英国人民 无论他们当初投票给谁
may I say this, now that the election is over,
我想说的是 既然选举已经结束
may we get together
希望我们团结起来
and strive to serve and strengthen the country of which we are so proud.
努力报效建设这个我们引以为傲的国家
Margaret Thatcher was elected prime minister,
玛格丽特·撒切尔当选首相
less than a year later she introduced an act
不到一年后 她提出了一项法案
allowing tenants in social housing
允许公租房租户
to buy their homes from the government,
从政府手中购买住房
moving these houses from the public to the private sector.
将这些住房从公共财产转移到私人财产
She also eliminated the rental cap,
她还取消了租金上限
which meant prices were vulnerable to the whims of the market
这意味着房价很容易受到市场波动的影响
Her policies initially increased home ownership among the working class in London.
她的政策最初增加了伦敦工人阶级的住房拥有率
But eventually lower and middle income workers began to see
但最终 中低收入工人开始意识到
the drawbacks of being thrust into the competitive private housing market.
被推入竞争激烈的私人住房市场的弊端
It became much worse for tenants
对租户来说 情况变得更糟
but much more attractive for landlords.
但对房东来说 更具吸引力了
And that sector began to grow
这一领域开始发展
and it grew from the mid-1980s right through till now.
从20世纪80年代中期一直增长到现在
Rents which take up 30% or 40% or 50% of their salary,
租金占他们工资的30% 40%或50%
so they’re not in a position to save the money you need,
所以他们无法存下所需要的钱
to break into the ownership system.
无法跨入房东行列
So we have if you like disgruntled people,
所以有些人不满
but particularly young adults
特别是年轻人
who are really not being served by this system at all.
他们实际上根本没有得到这个系统的帮助
This graph shows the relationship between private rentals
这张图显示了伦敦私人租房
and home ownership in London.
和住房拥有率之间的关系
When Thatcher took office, private rentals were declining steadily
撒切尔夫人上任时 私人租房在稳步下降
while home ownership with a mortgage was on the rise.
而抵押贷款的住房拥有率却在上升
By the end of her time in 1990,
到1990年她任期结束时
this changed dramatically.
这种情况发生了显著变化
Private rentals rose
私人租房增多
while those owning homes with a mortgage dwindled.
而拥有抵押贷款的房屋的人却在减少
More than 30 years later for the first time in decades,
30多年后 伦敦私人租房家庭的数量
there were more London households privately renting
几十年来首次超过了
than owning a home with a mortgage.
拥有抵押贷款住房的家庭数量
Thatcher also weakened trade unions,
撒切尔夫人还削弱了工会
a platform workers used to demand better work conditions and pay.
它曾是工人们要求改善工作条件和薪资的平台
All she is on about are these high tech…
她一直在说这些高科技……
you know going to college and all this
你知道的 上大学之类的
I’m thick, I’m not a college man.
我很笨 我不是大学毕业生
I’m a labourer and all I want is a labourer’s job.
我是工人 我要的只是一份工人的工作
She took them all away!
她把这一切都夺走了!
She felt these unions were too powerful
她觉得这些工会势力太大
and made British companies less competitive on the global stage.
降低了英国企业的全球竞争力
Her plan worked. Well, somewhat.
她的计划奏效了 嗯 有点吧
British firms did become more competitive
英国的公司确实变得更具竞争力
but salary growth across the country declined
但是全国的工资增长率
from about 17% in 1979 to just over 10% in 1990
从1979年的17%下降到1990年的10%多一点
and it has continued to decline today.
今天 这一数字仍在继续下降
In London, the average house price in the 1980s
伦敦20世纪80年代的平均房价
was something like 3 or 4 times the average salary
大约是平均工资的3到4倍
but now in London, it’s something like 13 times the average salary.
但现在 房价大约是平均工资的13倍
Jonathan Oomen is a 30-year-old Londoner
Jonathan Oomen是一名30岁的伦敦人
who has felt the sting of high rents and low salaries.
他已经感受到了高房租低工资的痛苦
Buying a home seems very far out of his reach.
买房子对他似乎是遥不可及的事
If I’m attempting to save,
如果我试图存钱
it’s like straight away as soon as the paycheck comes in
好像薪水一到
it’s going into savings.
马上就会存起来
By the end of the month you’re thinking right okay
到了月底你就会想 好吧
and I’ve gotta need to like take another 50 quid back out or another 100 quid out
我得再拿50英镑或者100英镑出来
just to get through
才能度过难关
so it’s kind of demoralizing I suppose,
这么做的话还挺让人泄气的
but if I wasn’t to leave London
但如果我不离开伦敦
I don’t imagine that I would even consider the idea of
我想我甚至不会考虑
at this stage of my life of like thinking to like save for that.
在我人生的这个阶段为房子存钱的想法
The financial crisis in 2007 and the bursting of the US bubble
2007年的金融危机和美国泡沫的破裂
marked another turning point in London’s property market.
标志着伦敦房地产市场的又一个转折点
the housing borrowing in London system collapse
伦敦的住房借贷系统崩溃
because low quality debts had been bundled and sold as securities
因为低质量的债务被银行打包成证券
on the global markets by banks
在全球市场上出售
as though it was reliable
好像它是可靠的
but it wasn’t.
但事实并非如此
The crisis triggered in North America was so bad in the UK,
北美引发的危机在英国如此严重
that the country’s finance minister at the time said
以至于当时的财政部长表示
there was a danger of a breakdown in law and order,
法律和秩序存在崩溃的危险
hours after the government bailed out one of its troubled banks.
发言几小时前政府救助了一家陷入困境的银行
The British government devised a rescue plan
英国政府制定了一项救援计划
that involved buying some of this bad debt
其中包括购买部分坏账
in exchange for stakes in these banks.
以换取这些银行的股份
By 2011, London had bounced back faster
到2011年 伦敦经济的复苏速度
than many other cities in the country and around the world.
超过了英国及世界上的许多城市
Many of us in London had expected at the time of the financial crisis
伦敦的许多人在金融危机发生时曾预计
that the economy of London would really suffer
伦敦的经济真的会受挫
because it was so dependent on this financial sector
因为它是如此依赖金融领域
and the financial sector had really behaved so badly
而金融领域的表现如此糟糕
we thought a lot of it will shrink here
我们本以为伦敦经济会大幅萎缩
but because of the generosity and scale of this government rescue of the banking system
但是由于政府对银行系统的慷慨大规模援助
actually London did very well.
伦敦实际上表现得很好
The rebound cemented the capital as a stable market for investments
经济复苏巩固了伦敦作为稳定的投资市场的地位
and attracted several real estate buyers.
并吸引了一些房地产投资者
These investors bought up several homes in the city
他们在伦敦购买了一些房子
either for rental income or for its resale value as house prices appreciated.
或为了租金收入 或为房价上涨时的转售价值
Another thing attracting investors?
吸引投资者的另一件事是
Paying less on property taxes.
缴纳更少的财产税
In New York for example,
以纽约为例
if you own an luxurious apartment in expensive district in Manhattan
如果你在曼哈顿的高档区拥有一套豪华公寓
you can be paying thousands and thousands of dollars a year in property tax
你可能每年要支付成千上万美元的房产税
quite a significant percentage of its value
占房产价值的很大一部分
which is not the case here.
在伦敦并非如此
The most you can have to pay in London in annual property tax
你每年最多需要缴纳
is in the range of two or three thousand pounds a year.
两至三千英镑的房产税
Some of the most attractive areas to these investors
对这些投资者来说 最具吸引力的地区
are the boroughs of Westminster,
是威斯敏斯特自治市
and Kensington and Chelsea in West London,
以及西伦敦的肯辛顿和切尔西
where rows of investment houses lie vacant.
那些地方空置着一排排的投资房屋
It’s not very transparent
这不是很透明
but it’s pretty clear that investing in London housing
但很明显 投资伦敦房地产
has been very attractive to investors.
对投资者来说非常有吸引力
The government has tried to make housing more accessible
政府曾试图让中低收入者
to lower and middle-income earners.
更容易获得住房
In 2016 for example,
例如 2016年
the government rolled out an additional three percent tax
政府对拥有一处以上房产的房主
for home owners with more than one property.
额外征收3%的税
this wasn’t top of existing stamp duty land tax.
这并没有超过现有的土地印花税
The idea here was to make the property market more accessible
想法是让个人和家庭而不是投资者
for individuals and families rather than investors.
更容易进入房地产市场
Perhaps the government’s most successful policy
或许政府最成功的政策
has been the Help to Buy Scheme set up in 2013.
是2013年设立的购房帮扶计划
This scheme allows first-time buyers of newly built homes in London
该计划允许伦敦新建房屋的首次购房者
to borrow up to 40% of the purchase price
以净值贷款的形式
in the form of an equity loan,
借到购买价格40%的款
if they can pay a 5% deposit.
前提是他们可以支付5%的定金
Traditional mortgages usually require at least 10%.
传统的抵押贷款通常要求至少10%
So for example,
例如
if a buyer wanted a flat in London that cost £500,000,
如果一位买家想在伦敦买一间价值50万英磅的公寓
she would have to pay a £25,000 deposit.
她须支付2.5万英镑的押金
Under the scheme, the government could loan this buyer
根据该计划 政府可以向这位买家
up to £200,000, interest free for five years.
提供高达20万英镑的五年期无息贷款
The rest £275,000
其余的27.5万英镑
would have to be borrowed from elsewhere like a bank.
不得不从银行等其他地方借入
The scheme has been popular.
该计划很受欢迎
About 330,000 households
自2013年以来 约有33万个家庭
have bought homes through the scheme since 2013.
通过该计划购买了住房
But some experts including Professor Edwards
但包括爱德华兹教授在内的一些专家
have observed drawbacks to the scheme as well.
也注意到了该计划的缺陷
There were some pluses for the people it was aimed at
它对目标人群有一些好处
but because it was operating across the country and across the markets
但由于该计划是在全国和整个市场运作
it also seems to have pushed prices up
它似乎也推高了房产价格
For young people like Jonathan,
对于像Jonathan这样的年轻人来说
the hardest part of buying a home is saving the initial deposit,
买房最难的部分是存下首付
a problem the Help to Buy scheme doesn’t completely solve.
购房帮扶计划并没有完全解决这个问题
His solution to becoming financially secure?
他的财务安全的解决方案是什么?
Leave London.
是离开伦敦
I’d consider leaving London and moving to another city,
我会考虑离开伦敦 搬到另一个城市
where I could earn a bit more money
在那里我可以赚更多的钱
where things are still cheaper so rent could be cheaper
那里的东西更便宜 所以租金可能会更便宜
or I have friends there that I can stay with
或者我在那里有朋友
perhaps for a short amount of time
我可以和他们住一小段时间
just to get me back on my feet.
让我走出经济困境

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

越来越多的伦敦年轻人选择和父母住在一起,英国的房地产近百年来都经历了什么?本视频介绍了伦敦住房形式的演变过程及许多中低收入家庭买不起房子的原因。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Winnie

审核员

审核员CICL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mai7N8wkrZE

相关推荐