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新品种苹果的艰辛培育之路

Why It’s HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market

Hi, this is Alex,
嗨 我是AIex
and this is my favorite apple – the McIntosh.
这是我最爱的苹果 麦金托什苹果
I think it has a remarkable flavor,
我觉得它的味道棒极了
but what’s even more remarkable is that
但更令人称奇的是
it grew on a tree that’s over two hundred years old.
它来自于一棵已经两百多岁的苹果树
I mean, the original McIntosh tree got burnt and then died in 1910,
没错 起初那棵麦金托什树在1910年被烧毁
but before it died,
但在它濒死之际
its branches were cut and fused onto the roots from other apple trees,
人们将它的枝干嫁接到其他苹果树的根上
in a process called grafting that was repeated time and time again
经过不断的嫁接
to generate lots of clones.
培育出许多克隆苹果树
one of which produced my apple.
我的苹果就来自其中一棵
These clones which all together we call the McIntosh variety
所有这些克隆苹果树称为麦金托什品种
are essentially the same tree sliced into pieces and re-grown elsewhere.
其实就是是同一棵树的分枝在其他地方重新生长
so they all have the same genesand and characteristics,
因此它们具有相同的基因与特征
meaning they’re all equally delicious.
这意味着它们也同样美味
But they’re also all equally susceptible to the same diseases and pests,
但它们也易受相同病虫害的侵袭
and to changing climatic conditions and consumer preferences.
同受气候条件改变以及消费者偏好的影响
So, I suppose it would be good to have new varieties of apples to choose from,
因此 我想最好有新品种的苹果可供选择
even if they’re not as amazing as the McIntosh,
即使没麦金托什苹果可口
but it turns out that’s way harder than it sounds.
但事实证明 说起来容易做起来难
With other plants, like grains,
对于其他植物 比如谷物
we can create new varieties really quickly,
我们能迅速产出新品种
because they produce seeds within a single year
因为它们一年内就能产出种子
that grow into offspring with predictable characteristics.
这些种子长成具有可预测特征的后代
So we can quickly breed thousands of combinations of parents,
这使我们可以迅速培育成千的亲本组合
pick the best offspring, and repeat.
挑选最优后代不断重复
successfully breeding new varieties in as little as three years
最快三年就能成功培育出新品种
and bringing them to market just as fast.
并迅速推向市场
But fruit trees are unpredictable,
但果树的生长状况难以预测
Because of their complicated genetics.
由于它们复杂的基因
even if we crossbreed parents that have good characteristics,
即使我们杂交的亲本是优质的
nearly all of their offspring will grow poorly or have mediocre fruit.
几乎所有的后代都会长势不佳或果实普通
That’s why back in the early 1800s,
这就是为什么在19世纪初
the McIntosh family had to cut branches off of their original
麦金托什家族不得不剪掉最初那棵果树的枝干
and (amazing), tree to graft onto the roots from other trees.
然后将其嫁接到其他树的根上
And fruit trees are also slow,
果树的生长也缓慢
Growing them from seeds takes decades,
用种子培育需要几十年
And if you manage to grow one with promising characteristics,
如果你想培育出一颗优质的果树
you still need to graft it onto lots of different roots in different places
你还需要把它嫁接到很多长在不同地方的果树根上
to test whether its clones grow well in different conditions,
为测试它的克隆是否能在不同条件下生长良好
which takes another decade.
这需再花费十年
Then, if the clones have grown well,
如果克隆长得不错
meaning the variety is good.
说明品种良好
farmers might be convinced to graft branches to roots in their own orchards,
农民可能会被说服将树枝嫁接到自己果园里
and wait another decade for the branches to grow into trees and produce apples.
再等十年 树枝长成树 结出苹果
Finally, after decades of development,
终于 数十年的培育后
the variety is ready for stores!
这种果实终于能卖了
But… because consumers are fickle,
然而 消费者心思太难猜
there’s no guarantee that they’ll even like it.
他们喜不喜欢还得另当别论
Ahhh people.
啊 真难伺候
And that is why successful apple varieties don’t come around very often,
这就是为什么好苹果品种不常有
the most popular ones are on average 120 years old.
最受欢迎的苹果品种 平均有120年的栽培历史
This is actually the same across all fruit trees.
这是所有果树培育都会遇到的问题
The Navel orange, for example, is 200 years old,
比如脐橙 有200年历史
and you might have eaten the same variety of pear as Abraham Lincoln,
说不定你还与亚伯拉罕•林肯吃过同一品种的梨
or snacked on the same kind of fig as Cleopatra.
或与埃及艳后吃过同一种无花果
But despite the long odds,
尽管希望渺茫
every few decades tree breeders strike gold.
每隔几十年 还是有果树培育者能掘到金
The Honeycrisp apple, for example,
例如蜜脆苹果
debuted in 1991 after decades of breeding, growing,and testing.
数十年培育生长试验后 在1991年崭露头角
and thanks to its, well,
多亏了它有
honey-like flavor and crisp texture, as well as its long shelf-life,
蜂蜜般的味道和酥脆的质地 且保质期长
it has been a best-seller ever since.
它是迄今为止卖得最好的苹果
And who knows what other new varieties are coming along
但说不定又会有新品种出现
that might also upset the apple cart.
从而颠覆苹果市场呢
Mmh! This video was brought to you by the creators of the Honeycrisp variety:
好吃!这段视频来自蜜脆苹果品牌创始者
the University of Minnesota
明尼苏达大学
where Senior Research Fellow David Bedford and Professor Jim Luby
学校高级研究员David Bedford和教授Jim Luby
in the Department of Horticultural Science have been breeding apples for decades.
已经在园艺学系培育苹果数十年
In that same department, Professor Emily Hoover
同在一个系的Emily Hoover教授
is working to improve the root stocks used to grow apples commercially.
则致力于改善常被用来种植商用苹果的果树根系
And in the Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics
在农艺学系和植物遗传学系的
Professors James Anderson and Don Wyse
James Anderson教授和Don Wyse教授
breed corn and annual and perennial wheat.
致力于培育玉米 一年生与多年生小麦
These researchers, along with students, faculty and staff across all fields of study
这些研究者 学生 教师及各领域的专家
are working to solve the Grand Challenges facing society,
正致力于应对面向社会的重大挑战
including feeding the world sustainably.
包括如何可持续地向世界提供食物
Thanks, University of Minnesota!
感谢 明尼苏达大学

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视频概述

尝一尝你手中的苹果, 它们色彩鲜艳,香甜可口。但新品种苹果的培育却并非轻松简单,点进这支视频,一起来了解一下苹果的培育之路吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

three.

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GIajCqcvTg8

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