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为什么打89次水漂几乎是不可能的 – 译学馆
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为什么打89次水漂几乎是不可能的

Why It's Almost Impossible to Skip a Stone 89 Times | WIRED

There’s just something really satisfying
打水漂真的会有一种
about skipping a rock.
莫名的的满足感
You ever skipped five or six times you might
成功让石子连跳五六次后
find yourself taking a little more seriously.
便会不由自主认真起来
See if you can get seven, eight, nine consecutive skips.
想看看自己能否让石子连续跳跃7次 8次 9次
Turns out some people take stone skipping very seriously.
事实上 一些人对打水漂非常着迷
They actually compete to see who can skip the most
相互比赛 看谁的石子连跳次数最多
or who can skip the farthest.
或者谁的最远
The current world record for most consecutive skips,
目前打水漂连跳次数的世界纪录
is probably higher than you think.
可能让你大吃一惊
Try counting the skips in this footage of the world record.
数数这段世界纪录视频里石头跳跃了几次吧
Just don’t blink.
别眨眼
Do you catch it?
数清了么?
That was 88 skips.
一共88次
Here is a amazing thing.
神奇的是
Models actually project the limit
实际上理论预测水漂次数的极限
could be a lot higher than that.
可能远远高于这个数字
Today we’re gonna explore what that limit might be,
今天 我们要探索这个极限究竟是多少
and why approaching or even exceeding it could be almost impossible.
以及为什么几乎不可能接近 甚至超越这个记录
To find out what it takes I skip stones
为了找到原因
with the world record holder.
我与世界纪录保持者一起打水漂
What was that?
这是几次?
7? 8?
7次?8次?
You know, the thing is, I never count.
实际上我从来不数打了多少个水漂
Serious? You never count?
真的?你从来不数?
I don’t.
不数
Talk fluid dynamics with a physicist.
我与一位物理学家讨论过打水漂的力学原理
It hits the water,
石头接触到水面时
and this back end sort of creates a wave.
末端会激起波浪
And so that stone tends to rise up over that wave that it creates,
而石头就此会随着波浪向上抬起
and that’s what allows it to get a lift force that gets it back in the air again, before the next impact
形成的支撑力能让石头在下次落回水面时 再次回到空中
and over and over again.
如此反复多次
And brought both of them together.
将世界纪录保持者和物理学家聚到一起
Oh, gorgeous!
噢 棒极了
To see if we can figure out how a world-class stone skipper
以此探究世界级打水漂者
get so many touches on the water,
是如何让石子在水面上”漂”这么多次
and what the limit might actually be.
以及理论次数的上限是多少
So we’re here today with Kurt Steiner,
所以我们今天请来了Kurt Steiner
he’s the world record holder in stone skipping,
他就是打水漂世界纪录的保持者
specifically most consecutive skips on the water.
创造了石子在水面跳跃次数最多的记录
And how many skips was that?
记录是多少来着
It’s 88.
88次
That’s so remarkable, I can’t even…
这太了不起了 我可能甚至……
I… I’m not a really talented stone skipper,
我……我真的对打水漂没有天赋
but you know if I find myself at a lake with some stones,
但这样说吧 如果我在湖边 周围有一些石头
I will do some skipping,
我会去打水漂
I think the most I’ve ever done is like 13 or 14.
我打水漂 最好的一次也就是13或者14次
And like that makes me really really happy and proud,
就算那样 我都会特别开心和自豪
so 88 is like… how?
那88次的记录 你感觉如何?
It is what makes you happy that counts more.
像你说的 水漂次数越多会让人开心
But I think we can get that number up a bit.
但我觉得 可以在88次的基础上再提升一点点
We flew Steiner and a couple boxes of rocks to Utah,
我们带着Steiner和几箱石头飞到犹他州
where he gave me some lessons on extreme stone skip.
他在这里给我上了几堂极限打水漂课程
Steiner makes it look easy.
Steiner做起来得心应手
But a good skip is more than just how hard you throw a stone
但水漂打得好不仅仅取决于
or at which angle.
投掷石头的力量和角度
In fact, it all starts with the stone itself.
实际上 还要从石头本身说起
Okay that was closer like 15, 16.
刚才大概有15 16次了
I was gonna say 15.
应该是15次
All right, 15, all right.
好的 15次
So, the most I’ve ever skipped before this
我在此前最好的成绩
is around 14, 15.
也就14 15次
And here on my second throw,
这是我在这第二次打水漂
I hit around 14, 15,
就大概达到了大约14 15次
which tells me there’s a lot to do with the rock you’re using.
说明这与所选的石头有很大关系
Steiner’s stones made a huge difference.
Steiner的石头发挥了很大的作用
The worst rock in this box
这箱里最差劲的石头
is better than the nicest rock I’ve ever skipped.
也比我打水漂用过最好的石头要好
Steiner like a lot of top skippers
Steiner与许多顶尖打水漂者一样
is very particular about his stones.
对石头极其讲究
He collects his from Lake Erie,
这些石头是他从家乡宾夕法尼亚州
a few hours from his home in Pennsylvania.
几小时车程之外的伊利湖收集到的
A lot of questions as to what kind of rock is best right,
很多人会问 什么样的石头是最好的
the general category I use is just how many size is it.
我通常只看石头的尺寸
Steiner isn’t just an expert stone skipper.
Steiner不仅是一个打水漂专家
He’s an expert stone picker, too.
也是挑选石头的专家
This one is pretty similar to the one I would have set the record with.
这块石头就跟我创造记录的那块很相似
He uses different shapes for different skips and different conditions.
他根据不同的环境条件与跳跃次数 选用不同的形状
People like triangles.
人们喜欢三角形的石头
I used to like triangles, but…
我过去也喜欢 但是……
they just chew up the water too much.
吃水太深了
You’re always kind of weighing
永远要考虑
how much irregularity is in my rock
手中石头不规则的程度
against how hard am I throwing it
投掷力量的大小
against what water am I throwing it on to.
以及水面的情况
Steiner also showed me how to hold the stone for maximum skipping.
Steiner也向我展示了怎样握石头才能打出最多的水漂次数
The first thing you ever want to do is determining which side is going to be down.
首先要决定哪一面向下
Right?
这样对了吗?
And you generally want to go with the flatter or slightly rounded.
通常选择看起来更平整或稍圆滑的一面向下
If it’s cupped or jagged, put that up.
如果有凹陷或锯齿 那一面要朝上
Especially you want to look at the outer edge
注意要观察石头的外边缘
because the stone almost never touches except around,
因为除了石头边缘半英寸处
a half inch around the edge.
其他地方几乎接触不到水面
But as I soon found out
但是不久我发现
there’s a lot more to skipping than just picking a good stone.
除了挑选石头外 还有很多投掷技巧需要学习
Steiner uses a variety of grips and stances
Steiner使用各种各样的抓握方式和站姿
for things like distance, power and number of skips.
以追求距离 力量及弹跳数
That’s a high spin throw,
刚才是高抛投掷法
and then there’s one here we’re a little closer to the water,
这次让我们离水面稍微近点
that’s a good way to get a lot of power in real close.
这么近的距离内 石头入水的力量更大
He’s got a classic low skimming toss and an unusual overhand swing.
他采用了经典的低侧拉手以及少见的高位过肩投掷法
But basically you’re just kind of try to swat the water
但实际上你只是尽所能
as hard as you can with the rock as flat as possible.
用相对扁平的石头重重拍击水面
He showed me how to get a little more whip on my skip.
他教我怎样让石头跳跃次数更多
Lesson number one,
经验一
throw hard.
用大力扔
You’ve got a lot more strength than you’re using.
(像我这样)你的出手力量会更大
He suggested trailing my hand.
他建议我把手向后伸展
Yeah and don’t start pivoting your waist around and your shoulder around
直到左腿在体前找到合适位置
until that left leg is a good foot out in front of you.
但腰与肩膀不要转
If you drag your arm.
如果你拽着你的胳膊
Right, you see what I mean.
你懂我的意思吧
You’re almost opening up and did the throw.
扔石头的时候身体是完全打开
It’ll pinch up across here
这一部分都能用上力
and then essentially your hand is catching back up to the rest of your body
你的手会被整个身体“拉”过来
and will snap out better.
这样出手就会更快
All right, let’s give that a shot.
好 让我们试一次
Ok!
非常好
It… That actually looked a little better to me.
这……其实我做的好些了
So now the third part is where it comes together here.
所以现在第三步就是击打点选择哪里
That’s where you’re gonna hit your target.
那里 就是你石子入水的位置
Next, Kurt had me aim for a first touch closer to the shore line.
接下来 Kurt让我扔石子第一次入水的位置要离近岸边
Did you notice how when you threw rock ,
不知道你注意到没 投掷石子时
the longer stays in the air, the more it will roll over on its side.
它在空中停留时间越久 向一侧翻的越厉害
That is always happening,
那样的情况经常发生
you can minimize that obviously
但你要减少这种情况
by lessening the time in the air,
就得缩短它在空中停留的时间
which is one reason you want to hit close.
让入水点能够接近你想要的落点
So we’re gonna be focusing on three things on this throw
所以根据Kurt的意见
based on Kurt’s feedback.
我们这一投要注意三点
One, I’m gonna be delaying the start of my throw,
一是延迟出手时间
so I can utilize more of my bio-mechanics.
充分利用身体机能
Two, I’m gonna try to throw it hard.
二是用最大的力量投掷
And three, I’m gonna try to make contact with the water really close to myself.
三是与水面的接触点要离自己足够近
There it is.
就像这样
So that looked like high-teens to me.
这状态看起来像年轻时的我
Immedia… immediate improvement.
能力瞬间就提升了
And that was your first try.
这才是你第一次尝试
Yes!
是的
Yeah yeah yeah!
是的是的
That’s so cool!
太酷了
Every throw is a complete new puzzle.
每一次投掷都是全新的挑战
So how is it that someone like Steiner can skip stones so many times?
所以为什么Steiner可以让石头连续跳跃那么多次?
To find out, we asked Tadd Truscott,
为了找到原因 我们拜访了Tadd Truscott
who runs the Splash Lab at Utah State University in Logan.
他在洛根的犹他州大学拥有一个名叫Splash的实验室
Yeah, the Splash Lab, welcome.
欢迎来到Splash实验室
Thanks.
谢谢
You got a lot of really cool stuff in here .
这里有很多特酷的东西
Yeah it looks like junk but we’re using all of it.
是的 虽然看起来像垃圾却很有用
Yes, it’s a real lab,
是的 这真的是个实验室
and the work they do there is amazing.
他们的工作也很神奇
And then this tank here where I shot bullets into it
这是我博士论文的实验
for my thesis, my PhD thesis.
把子弹射入这个容器
You shot bullets into this.
向这个凹槽射击
Yeah, yeah, absolutely.
当然是的
They were modified 22 bullets.
它们是经过改良的点22口径的子弹
-Is that what that hole is? -Yeah, yeah.
-就是那个洞吗 -对 没错
It’s where we missed, that that’s a misfire but yeah!
那次失误了 射偏了但是没事!
To study stone, skipping Truscott and his team recorded
为了研究打水漂 Truscott和他的团队记录了
Steiner hurling stones into a tank at thousands of frames per second.
Steiner以数千帧每秒的速度往水槽投掷石头
To figure out how many skips are possible,
为了弄清楚最多可能跳跃多少次
you have to first understand just how a skip works.
首先必须弄明白石子跳跃一次的原理
Here’s what happens.
我们听一下整个过程
So you have a stone it’s in your hand,
你的手里拿着一个石头
and you throw it,
把它扔出去
and as you do that, you release it off your fingers,
在你扔的时候它从你指间滑出去
and that causes it to have some spin.
让石子能够快速旋转
So this spin is really important
这个旋转很重要
we call it gyroscopic stabilization.
我们称之为陀螺稳定
It essentially holds the attack angle of the… of the rock
本质上就是在相对水平面上
with respect to say the surface of the water.
掌握石子与水面接触的相对角度
So then when you hit the water it deforms the water,
因此当石子击打水面时 会改变水面的形状
and pushes a wave out in front of it.
在石子前激起水浪
But the velocity of the stone is much faster than the wave that it creates,
但石头的速度要远快于它击起的水浪
and so it ends up rising up on that wave that it created,
所以石头站在它激起的浪花上
and this causes a little lift force,
产生一个升力
the rock is able to go back into the air,
让石子能够再次回到空中
and then back down.
继而又落回水面
As this happens over and over and over again
这个过程会反复重复多次
and for a good rock skip right.
便完成了一次完美的石子跳跃
And that gyroscopic stabilization is what keeps that attack angle correct.
而陀螺稳定性恰好保证了石子入水的相对角度
And friction is really the only other thing that’s like reducing your ability to keep going.
而石子运动过程中唯一的阻碍就是摩擦力
The Splash Lab isn’t the only one studying in stone skipping.
并不是只有Splash实验室在研究打水漂
A group of French scientists first figured out a model of ideal skipping in 2004.
首个打水漂理想模型是2004年由法国科学家团队创立
These researchers in France found out
这些法国的调查人员发现
that the optimal angle for a disk to skip on the water’s surface
一个圆盘状物在水面跳跃最佳倾角
is about 20 degrees for both the attack angle and also that velocity vector.
无论是击打角度还是速度保证 都大约在20度
That coupled with…
再加上…
you know how fast it is thrown
你知道它抛出的速度
as well as how much gyroscopic stabilization it has
以及陀螺稳定性程度
sort of set up the problem to find out
引发了一个思考
what the maximum number of skips you can get
即找出力所能及范围内石子连跳的最多次数
or the number of skips you can get based on what that spin rate is
或者基于石子的转速
and what that velocity is and that impact angle.
飞跃的速度及撞击角度 石子能实现的跳跃数
Now, you might think that studying stone skipping is a bit frivolous,
现在 你可能觉得研究水漂好无聊
but Truscott says there are practical applications.
但Truscott说这有实际应用
Yeah, definitely. So a spacecraft it was proposed that would bounce off the atmosphere
当然了 像宇宙飞船就是借此弹出大气层
as it kind of came back towards Earth,
然后回到地球
and use that to keep itself out.
并借此保护自己
You know, if you want to land on say the moon of Titan, you may want to…
你知道 如果你想降落在泰坦星上
you may want to come in for a soft landing,
你可能想实现软着陆
knowing how skipping works might be a great way to do that.
知道打水漂的技巧 可能很大程度上帮你完成这件事
To figure out how Steiner skips so many times,
为搞清Steiner如何打那么多次水漂
Truscott his lab also went into the field
Truscott带着实验器材来到场地
to gather data on his arm speed
收集他的臂速
and the rotation of the stones.
石头转数的数据
All right.
好的
That was it, dude?
就像那样 兄弟
Steiner’s maximum speed is around 50 miles an hour.
Steiner的最大速度大约是每小时50英里
His world-record skip was calculated at 43 miles per hour,
创造世界纪录的水漂次数据测算达到了每小时43英里
but he also has years of experience,
但他经验丰富
even his dud throws put my best efforts to shame.
他的最差成绩甩我最好成绩九条街
But could someone best his record.
那有人能超过他的纪录吗?
I’ve seen one or two people who have a technique that could maybe beat that.
我见过一两个在技巧上可能比我强的人
But it’s almost impossible.
但那几乎不可能
Now you might remember from our previous episode on the fastball
还记得我们之前关于棒球的节目里
that pitchers are about maxed out on speed at just over 100 miles per hour.
投手们的最大速度达到了每小时100英里
Truscott applied that metric to stone skipping,
Truscott将那套标准用到打水漂中
and came up with some amazing calculations.
结果发现了一些不可思议的计算结果
A really safe place on our chart puts you around 93 mile an hour throw,
所列表格中靠谱的测算结果是人能投到93英里/小时
because these are a little heavier than a, than a baseball.
因为石头比棒球重一些
And they’re a little… they have a bigger radius which makes their moment of inertia larger,
而且它的半径更大 导致转动时的惯性更大
so you need a little more energy in that side of it.
则需要在旋转上消耗更大的能量
So 93 miles an hour is about where you’re topping out.
而时速93英里差不多就是最高水平了
You’re gonna have about 2,800 to 3,000 revolutions per minute.
也就是你可以让转速达到2800~3000转/分钟
And if you can get there that’s of close to 164 joules.
如果能做到 这大约需要164焦耳的能量
You were gonna probably get close to 300, 350 skips.
结果就是可能会打出300或350次水漂
350 skips.
350次?
Yeah, under the current idea, yeah.
是的 用这些条件推算出是这样的
Is that even possible? Under it already just seems ridiculous! Right?
这真的可能吗?听起来很不靠谱!对吧?
I don’t even know who could count that like I couldn’t count 10 today.
我今天连十次都没数清 不知道谁会数得清
Steiner thinks the limit is probably closer to 200.
Steiner认为水漂上限是200次
That’s what the number says I’d like to go test it.
我要亲自去试一试这个数字
Truscott and other scientists have modeled their projections using a perfectly round disc.
Truscott和其他科学家用一块完美的圆盘形石子来为预测建模
But as Steiner showed me, there are no uniform stones.
但Steiner告诉我 不存在完全一样的石头
Because mother nature never sees fit to make two of the same thing.
因为大自然不会造两个一模一样的东西
I have to get on about that.
我得同意这点
So skipping a stone might seem like a simple thing.
所以打水漂看似简单
But it’s actually this beautifully complex mix of skill, athleticism and fascinating physics.
但其实完美结合了技巧 运动天赋和物理学
It’s such a miracle to me what’s going on you know it’s this…
发生了什么对我来说也是个奇迹 你知道这是
weird dance of water and stone in there.
水和石头的奇怪舞蹈
So will we ever see 300 consecutive skips or 350?
所以我们能见到300或350次的水漂吗
That’s a good question.
这是个好问题
It’ll probably take someone with a major-league caliber arm
这可能就需要一个有主力队员水准的臂力
and Kurt Steiner’s devotion.
以及像Steiner一样的专注度
But what we’re seeing these days from the world’s top skippers
但从这几天与世界顶级打水漂者交流来看
is already almost impossible.
这几乎是不可能实现的

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视频概述

为什么打89次水漂几乎是不可能的?教你如何打水漂打得更远更多

听录译者

安末

翻译译者

喋喋

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6GWL8Gt-BsQ

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