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跳高超过50英寸有可能吗? – 译学馆
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跳高超过50英寸有可能吗?

Why It's Almost Impossible to Jump Higher Than 50 Inches | WIRED

Jumping high is an important skill for a lot of sports.
对很多运动来说 跳得高是一种重要的技能
And in certain circles of the internet,
并且在网络上的某些特定圈子里
it’s even become its own niche competition.
它甚至形成了自己的小众比赛
The standing vertical leap
站立式垂直跳跃
is one of the critical tests at the NFL Combine,
这是美国橄榄球联盟新秀训练营重要的一项测试
and has long been a gold standard for assessing human leaping ability.
它长期以来被认为是测试人类弹跳能力的黄金标准
So who jumps the highest?
那谁跳的最高呢?
You might think a dunk legend, like Michael Jordan,
你可能会以为像迈克尔·乔丹这种灌篮高手
would own the vertical leap record.
能够保持垂直跳跃的记录
But the highest jumpers actually aren’t basketball players.
然而跳得最高的实际上并不是篮球运动员
Football players actually have the highest vertical jump.
实际上 垂直弹跳最高的是橄榄球运动员
Even better than basketball players?
甚至比篮球运动员跳得更高?
Yeah. Most people would think, well, basketball guys jump more
是的 大部分人可能认为 篮球远动员经常跳跃
so they have the highest.
所以他们跳得最高
But you know, football players are used to starting from a static position,
但你知道 橄榄球运动员通常都是从一个固定位置起跳的
which is what a vertical jump is.
这正是垂直跳跃
The NFL Combine’s top leaper, Gerald Sensabaugh,
NFL联盟的佼佼者Gerald Sensabaugh
once hit 46 inches.
曾经跳到46英寸
And then there’s the extra inch higher
而南加大的橄榄球运动员Josh Imatorbhebhe曾经
that USC football player Josh Imatorbhebhe was once measured jumping.
被测得跳了47英寸高
So what’s the limit?
那么极限是多少呢?
Today, we’re gonna look at why jumping from a standstill
今天我们看一下为什么立定跳高
to higher than 50 inches is almost impossible.
几乎不可能超过50英寸?
The box jump
跳箱子这个项目
just been made populared in part of Cross fit worked out has gone viral on the Internet
某种程度上因为CrossFit健身的原因 在互联网上爆红
and it’s easy to see why
原因很好理解
Yeahhhhhhhh!
耶!!!
This is Evan Ungar, who set the Guinness World Record
这是Evan Ungar 他创造的
for a standing box jump at 63.5 inches.
立位跳箱的吉尼斯世界记录是63.5英寸
He set the record for single leg jump too.
他同时创造了单腿站立式跳跃的记录
To find out what it takes, I trained with Ungar,
我同Ungar一起训练 来了解怎样跳高
learned how to cheat the analogue vertical jump test.
学习如何在这种模拟垂直跳跃测试中作弊
Perfect, there’s another inch.
完美 还差一英寸
And talked with a scientist about why some people, like Evan Ungar,
之后同科学家讨论为什么一些人 比如Evan Ungar
can jump so much higher than the rest of us.
能够比其他人跳的高出那么多
His muscles are capable of doing bigger forces than yours.
他的肌肉比你更有力
We flew him out to San Francisco
我们带着他飞到洛杉矶
to show us how he jumps so high.
展示他是怎么跳这么高的
So this is ridiculous.
这很荒唐
This is up to almost my chin.
这几乎跟我的下巴一样高
I can rest my head on this pretty easily.
我的头可以很轻松地靠在上面
We’re at 60 inches, right?
我们测试的是60英寸 对吧?
– So this is 5 feet, 60 inches, yeah. – That’s insane.
-这是5英尺 60英寸 -这简直太疯狂了
And that’s 3.5 inches shy of the world record which you set.
这比你创造的世界记录只差了3.5英寸
– That’s correct. – Right, ok. Like so how…how?
-是这样的 -好吧 我该怎么…
I can’t even think about how to do this.
我甚至想不出该怎么完成这件事
What do you do mentally and physically to prepare for
你做了什么心理和生理上的准备
and then actually execute a jump like this?
并最终完成这样的跳高呢?
I will train jumps sporadically, but not very often,
我只是偶尔练习跳高 并不频繁
but a lot of weight training and usually just focus on the lower body.
不过我做了大量负重训练 通常集中训练下肢
So I’ll be squatting three times a week,
我一周做三次深蹲
and as I get closer, the squats change in variation, in reps and sets,
有所进步后 我会改变深蹲的频率 次数和姿势
they get heavier and less reps,
深蹲的次数变少但强度变大
and like, making you a lot stronger for a one time explosive movement, right?
也就是 让你变得更加强壮以完成一次暴发性运动
Mentally, I think the mental game is just as hard as the physical game.
心理上 我认为心理挑战和生理挑战一样艰难
But the problem is, like mentally you can’t really prepare to too much for it.
但是问题是 在心理方面 你很难真的做多少准备
But I find when I’m coming up to the box,
不过靠近箱子时
I try not to think of anything.
我会尽量什么都不想
Ungar trained for a year before he set his record.
Ungar在创造记录之前训练了一年
I didn’t have that kind of time,
我并没有那么多时间
but with his coaching, I got 34 inches.
但是经过他的指导 我跳到了34英寸
– Yeah! – Easy.
-好! -简单吧
And then 38 inches.
然后就是38英寸
– Nice! – That’s a mic.
-做的好! -那是我的麦克风
And then 42 inches.
接下里是42英寸
Alright, this is 30-inch box, three 4-inch plates.
好的 这是个30英寸高的箱子以及三块4英寸的板子
We’re at 42 inches high.
我们现在的高度是42英寸
Before I began to really worry about cracking a shin,
在我开始担心磕到胫骨前
Ungar had me jumping to 46 inches.
Ungar已经让我跳到46英寸了
– Yeah, come on.
好 来吧
Almost.
差一点
– You had the full hang time on that one. – Aha…
-你在那块上的滞空时间达标了 -啊哈
The thing is I’m not technically jumping that high.
然而严格地说我并没有跳那么高
Because remember, the NFL Combine record is also 46 inches,
因为请记住 新秀训练营的记录也是46英寸
and I’m nowhere near as athletic as a pro football player.
我的运动能力根本比不上一个专业橄榄球运动员
Now there are lots of different kinds of jumps.
现在跳跃运动有很多种类
There’s running jumps,
有助跑跳
high jumps,
跳高
triple jumps.
三级跳远
But the standing vertical jump
但是站立垂直跳跃
is used in the NFL Combine and by sports scientists,
被新秀训练营和运动科学家采用
because it’s a good measure of explosive power.
因为它能很好地测试爆发力
The box jump looks amazing,
跳箱看起来很神奇
but it’s not just pure vertical jumping.
但它并不是纯粹的垂直弹跳
It’s actually a complex move
它实际上是一项复杂的运动
that builds on top of a vertical jump
以垂直弹跳为基础
by pulling your feet up towards your hips.
把脚往上跳接近你的臀部
Interestingly, about a century ago,
有趣的是 大约一个世纪前
there was an Olympic event called “the Standing High Jump”,
奥运会有一项比赛 “立定跳高”
and it was pretty similar to box jumping.
跟箱子跳很类似
This guy, American Ray Ewry, was the reigning champion.
这个美国人Ray Ewry是卫冕冠军
He once cleared a bar at 65 inches.
他曾经跨越一条65英寸高的横杆
If he were alive today,
如果他活到现在
he’d probably give Ungar a run for the box jump title.
在跳箱这一比赛上或许可以跟Ungar一较高低
But we wanted to know how Unger might stack up today’s NFL Combine jumpers.
但是我们更想知道 Ungar是怎么可能超过新秀训练营的跳高者的
So he and I both jumped in front of a measuring tape.
于是我们在一条尺子前一起跳
– I came really close to hitting you there. – That was ridiculous.
-我差点踢到你了 -这真是太可笑了
I just like, watched him rise past me.
我好像看着他越过我的头
As you can see, he out-jumped me
大家可以看到 他比我跳得高
by A lot.
高得多
It was hardly scientific,
这不太科学
but it looks like he’s cruising to nearly 3 feet.
可是看起来他却很轻松就跳到3英尺高
That’s almost 90 centimeters.
将近90厘米
Here’s the thing, exactly how high he jumped
重要的是 他到底跳了多高
depends on how you measure it.
取决于你如何测量
You start from a standstill with his feet flat on the ground
是从他静止平站在地面开始
Or the moment before takeoff when he’s on his tiptoes?
还是从他踮着脚起跳时开始?
Depending on your form and how big your feet are,
根据你的体格和脚的尺寸的不同
the difference could be 10 or more inches.
测量结果可能相差10英寸甚至更多
Either way, it’s a very impressive jump.
不管怎样 这也是一次惊人的跳跃
Like I look at this guy doing this standing vertical jump,
就像我看着这个家伙立定垂直跳跃
and I go, “my god, what a monster”, right?
我会说 “天啊 真是个怪物” 是吧?
That’s Biomechanist, Jesus Depena.
这是生物力学家 Jesus Depena
And my specialty is trying to understand the mechanics
我的专业是尝试去理解
of how athletes jump.
运动员跳跃的机制
Those mechanics are actually pretty intuitive.
这些机制实际上非常直观
The way to get the biggest possible height
要想跳得尽可能的高
is to have a big vertical velocity at the end of the takeoff.
就要在即将起跳时获得一个快的垂直速度
So how do you do that?
所以 要怎么做到这一点呢?
Depena says it’s all about moving up as powerfully as you can
Depena认为要诀是在离地前
for as long as you can before leaving the ground.
你要用最长的时间最大的力量来向上跳跃
Ok, so you would think that you would go and you would crouch yourself,
好 所以你可能想你先准备 蹲伏下来
bend your legs a fair amount and be down there,
两腿稍微弯曲 身体下蹲
and then wait and say, ok, Let’s go.
酝酿之后准备跳
And then you use your muscles to extend your legs
使用尽可能大的力量来扩展你的双腿
as powerfully as you can to get out from the ground.
从地面跳起
The problem with that,
问题是
is that when you’re down there waiting to start your jump,
当你身体下蹲 准备起跳时
you’re making a force that is submaximal.
你所使用是的不是你的最大力量
You’re just needing to make the force that you need
你只需要使用保持住
to hold that downward position.
下蹲的姿势所需要的力量即可
But to be able to go upward,
但是要想向上
you need to make a force that is bigger than that.
你需要更大的力量
He says there’s an even better way.
他说还有一种更好的方法
So what you do is, instead of starting at the bottom,
你要做的不是在最低处开始
you start standing up.
而是在站立的时候就开始了
So you’re standing up, and then you relax your muscles completely.
你站立的时候 完全放松你的肌肉
So you your legs turn basically into wet noodles, right?
你的腿基本上就像是湿面条 是吧
And your gravity is pulling downwards, so you go down.
你的重心下移 然后你就会向下运动
As you’re using your muscles to slow down this downward motion,
当你用肌肉减缓这种下行运动时
you’re activating your muscles,
你正在激活你的肌肉
you’re pre-tensing the muscles.
你让你的肌肉处于即将紧绷的状态
So at the very bottom point,
所以当身体处于最低处时
you have all of your vertical range of motion
你就已经准备好了垂直运动所需要的力量
for the upward motion available to you still,
使得你可以向上运动
and your muscles are already pre-tensed.
此时你的肌肉已经准备好收缩了
It’s called the counter-movement jump.
这种方法被称为反动作跳跃
Ungar and I both tried it.
Ungar和我都试了这种方法
And not surprisingly, he jumped way higher than me.
毫无意外 他比我跳得高得多
I asked Dr. Dapena why.
我问Dapena博士这是为什么
”He has better muscles.
他的肌肉更强壮
His muscles are capable of doing bigger forces than yours.
他的肌肉能够释放比你更大的力量
Basically this means that
基本上这意味着
he has a bigger cross-sectional area of muscle in the main movers.
在主要的运动组织中他的肌肉横断面积更大
Really, we’re talking quads and gluts.
我们实际上讲的是股四头肌和臀大肌
If anyone knows how lucrative a solid jump is,
如果说有人最了解垂直跳跃是多么有利可图的话
it’s Joel Smith.
那便是Joel Smith了
He’s a coach who runs an online jumping academy
他是个教练 开办了一个在线跳高学院
for athletes who want to improve their leaping abilities.
针对的是那些想要提高弹跳能力的运动员
He watched me jump,
他看着我弹跳
and offered some suggestions for how to improve.
并给了我一些改进提高的建议
We all know, squats, deadlifts, front squat,
我们都知道 深蹲 硬拉 前蹲举
we think strong legs.
会让我们的大腿变强壮
It’ll help.
它确实有作用
I view it as a way to create tension.
我将它视为一种增强腿部肌肉张力的方式
So right now, if we can create more tension in your legs by getting stronger,
所以现在 如果通过增加更多的腿部肌肉张力来让大腿变得更强壮
you will have the capability to jump higher.
你就能跳得更高
So it is possible that I could get better at jumping,
所以我有可能跳得更高
but I’ll probably never get to Ungar’s level.
但是可能永远也达不到 Uagar的水平
That doesn’t mean I couldn’t have a higher vertical jump,
这并不意味着我无法拥有更高的垂直弹跳成绩
I went to Sparta Science to talk with founder Phil Wagner.
我去了Sparta Science 同其创始人Phil Wagner进行了交流
From a research standpoint,
从研究的角度来说
vertical jump has been associated with performance in a variety of sports.
垂直弹跳与很多种运动表现都有关联
He works with pro-athletes, including NFL hopefuls,
他同很多专业运动员一起合作 包括新秀训练营中的那些种子选手
to post their best vertical leap
使用一种叫做 Vertec的模拟测量器
on an analog measuring device, called a Vertec.
来记录他们最佳垂直弹跳数据
Using it is simple.
使用方法很简单
Just subtract the highest you can reach while standing
用你跳高时达到的最大高度
from the highest you can reach while jumping.
减去你站立时的最大高度
The difference is the height of your jump.
差值就是你弹跳的高度
Kind of.
基本上是这样
Because for as easy as the Vertec is to use,
因为 Vertec 使用方法简单
it’s also really easy to cheat.
所以这也很容易作弊
Just make your standing reach as low as possible.
你只要站立时胳膊抬得尽可能低就可以了
You can’t bend your arm that much because you’ve had a lot of elbow damage, right?
你不能那样伸直胳膊 因为你的肘部受过很多伤 是吧?
– I can’t do it. – Right.
我做不了那样的动作 好吧
Wagner showed me how I could add a few inches with a fake injury.
Wagner向我展示了如何利用假装受伤来增加数据
Wow, you can’t even get close.
喔 你都没有办法接近
Let me walk through this thing,
现在我再走一次
actually with my shoulders, my shoulder tipped up.
这次就真正地肩膀挺直
My fingers extended, my arm all the way straight.
手指展开 胳膊伸直
Then I walked through again,
然后我又测了一遍
no fake injury, fully stretched out.
没有假装受伤 完全挺直
Look at the difference.
区别真的很大
– That 45 seems a lot closer. – Yeah, it’s a lot closer now.
-离45近了很多 -是的现在近了不少
Then I jumped.
之后我开始跳跃
Great!
真棒
And jumped again.
再次起跳
This time, using another trick, some toe bounce,
这次用另一种花招 脚趾反弹
which amplifies the counter-movements lifts.
会强化弹跳力
Here it is, yeah.
就是这样 做得好
Okay, so how did I do?
好的 那么我刚才的成绩如何?
So what’s considered probably average,
这个成绩一般认为是平均水平
“average”, for an NFL vert would be in the mid-30s, about 35.
对于新秀训练营学员来说“平均水平”是35左右
So you did about a 33-inch vert just there.
你刚刚的 Vertec 成绩是33英寸
– Look at that. – No warm-up.
-看下那个成绩 -没有热身
A little cheating, no warm-up, just casual.
做个小弊 没有热身 只是随意一跳
Here’s the other thing,
不过要记住
scientists can’t even agree on the best way to measure vertical jumps.
甚至连科学家们也没办法回答什么是测量垂直跳高的最好方法
There’s the analogue Vertec.
有模拟式的Vertec
There’s video analysis.
有视频分析法
And then there’s force plates,
还有测力板
which measure an athlete’s force on the ground
它可以通过测量运动员蹬地面的力量
to calculate the height of their jump.
来预测其弹跳高度
They’re harder to cheat.
这些方法更加难以作弊
They’re also what Wagner’s company uses.
这也是Wagner的公司使用的测试方式
And thanks to their proprietary equipment,
多亏他们的专利设备
he says they’re also far more accurate at measuring a vertical leap.
使他们能更精确地测量垂直弹跳
– So 14.1 inches was your first jump. – That’s half. That’s half.
-所以你的首跳是14.1 英寸 -只有之前数据的一半 只有一半
Yeah.
是的
After three average jumps,
三次弹跳之后
the force plate brought me back down to earth
我停在了测力板上
and more than halved my vertical leap to,
我一大半的垂直弹跳数据是
wait for it.
稍等一下
15 inches is actually not a bad score,
15英寸 这个分数还可以
It’s real.
是真实的数据
Now that might sound like a big difference,
看起来可能跟之前的数据差别很大
but remember the Vertec isn’t very precise.
但是请记得 Vertec并不准确
You can cheat it with the arm extension trick.
你可以用手臂屈伸的花招来作弊
And it’s measuring your jump from a flat-footed start,
它测量的是你平步弹跳的数据
even though your body is fully extended at the peak of your jump.
即使在你跳到最高的时候你的身体是完全伸展的
The force plate just uses the speed you leave the ground
测力板仅使用你离地的速度
to determine your jump height.
来测定你弹跳的高度
Wagner says the highest any athlete has achieved on the Sparta Plate,
Wagner说Sparta Plate上测得的最高的数据
that includes pros he can’t talk about,
包括那些需要保密的专业运动员
is about 30 inches.
也只是30 英寸左右
But he doesn’t think we’re at the limit just yet.
但他并不认为我们已经到了极限
I believe that we’re capable of getting up on this,
我也认为我们可以跳得比这个数据高
you know, to a 40-inch vertical jump.
比如说 垂直弹跳到40英寸
– Really? – Yes, and really that strong enough.
-真的? -是的 人类有那么强壮
The highest we’re seeing right now, as a reminder, is about 29, 30.
提醒你一下 我们现在看到的最高的数据只有29 30英寸左右
That’s correct.
你说的没有错
It’s a fight between gravity and muscle.
这是重力和肌肉的较量
Drop some weight and you might float a bit higher.
减掉一些重量 你就可能跳得更高一点
– If I lose 10 pounds, am I gonna jump higher? – Yes.
-如果我减掉了10磅 那我能跳得更高么? -是的
As long as you don’t lose the capability of making force with the same proportion.
只要你没有失去释放同样比例力量的能力
So it counts as the ratio:
所以这是通过比率来计算的:
force you can make on the ground,
你蹬地面的力量
or muscle tension that you can make,
也就是你可以释放的肌肉张力
divided by body weight or body mass.
比上体重或者质量
So the ratio is what counts.
所以比率才是最重要的
So you can make your body mass be one half,
所以你可以把你的体重减去一半
which is impossible.
当然这是不可能的
Or imagine if you can make it be one half, that’ll be amazing.
假设 如果你能减去一半的话 那真的就很不可思议
The problem is that if your capability for force is also one half what it was before,
但是问题是如果你释放的力也是之前的一半
you’d jump the same.
那你还是只能跳那么高
Wagner says better nutrition, careful training, and injury prevention
Wagner认为更好的营养 细致的训练以及损伤预防
could see athletes cruising even higher.
这些能够让运动员跳得更高
I think the true limiting factor
我认为真正的限制因素是
is how well can we allow individuals to recover,
我们如何让个体进行恢复
and that’s why monitoring is so important.
这也是为什么监测那么重要
and how do we can do to add capacity on each individual
同时如何让个体提高能力
without having a setback.
而不退步也很重要
So it’s possible we’ll see somebody with a greater vertical leap someday,
所以未来我们可能看到垂直弹跳更高的人
but for now, bear in mind
不过现在请记住
that what some of these athletes are doing is already almost impossible.
这些运动员中正在做的一些事本来就几乎是不可能的

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视频概述

人类跳高的极限是多少呢? 怎么测量才是最准确的方式?我们能打破当前的记录吗?

听录译者

翻译译者

jinger

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tn0lqMuGguw

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