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患疱疹是件好事?

Why It Might Be Good to Have Herpes | Trained Immunity

If you know just one thing about herpesviruses,
关于疱疹病毒 如果你只知道一件事的话
it’s probably that once you get infected by one,
那可能就是一旦你感染了一种病毒
you have it for life.
它就伴你终生
Which, obviously, stinks in many ways.
显然 这在很多方面让人感觉糟糕
After all, these viruses are behind things like mono,
毕竟 这些病毒是诸如单核细胞增多症
chickenpox and shingles, infectious blindness, and even some cancers.
水痘和带状疱疹 传染性失明甚至某些癌症的幕后黑手
But it turns out that they might also be kind of good for you.
但事实证明 它们也可能对你有好处
Having herpes may protect you from things that have nothing to do with herpes,
患疱疹可能会保护你免患与疱疹无关的疾病
like the freaking plague.
比如可怕的瘟疫
and that’s because herpesvirus infections do something
因为由于疱疹病毒做了一些
immunologists have only recently realized was even possible:
免疫学家最近才意识到这是可能的事:
they train your first-line immune defenses!
它们训练你的一线免疫防御能力!
Now, we’ve known for a very long time
我们很早就知道
that the human immune system can remember pathogens
人类免疫系统可以记住病原体
and launch a better counterassault if they dare show up again.
如果病原体敢再次出现 就会更好地发起反击
That’s thanks to the adaptive immune system:
这要归功于适应性免疫系统:
the arm of the immune system that includes things like antibodies,
它是包括像抗体之类物质的免疫系统的分支
those Y-shaped molecules that glom onto viruses and the like,
抗体的Y型分子可以粘附在病毒等东西上
taking them out of commission.
使它们失去作用
But apparently, your innate immune system can learn from experiences as well.
但显然 你的先天免疫系统也可以从经历中学习
That’s the arm of the immune system
这是免疫系统的另一个分支
that spots infectious agents to begin with
能在一开始发现感染因子
and takes a first stab at kicking them to the curb.
并首先试图杀死它们
And for more than a century,
在一个多世纪的时间里
scientists didn’t think it could remember anything,
科学家们认为它什么都记不住
let alone use that memory to adapt how it responds to threats.
更不用说利用这些记忆来适应如何应对威胁了
I mean, it’s right there in the names: innate versus adaptive.
我的意思是 它们的不同就在名字里:先天与适应性
In fact, the idea it can remember and adapt is so new
事实上 它能够记忆和适应的想法是如此新奇
that the term for it—“trained immunity”, was only proposed in 2011.
以至于“驯化免疫”这个术语直到2011年才被提出
The innate immune system doesn’t remember specific attackers
先天免疫系统不像适应性免疫系统那样
like the adaptive immune system does.
能记住特定的攻击者
Basically, it just remembers that bad guys exist
基本上 它只是记住了有坏蛋存在
and that they could come after you at any time,
而且坏蛋可能像先前那样
like they’ve done before.
会随时来找你
But this is probably enough to alter
但这可能足以改变
how well you fight off a potentially deadly infection.
你抵御潜在的致命感染的能力
And apparently one way to get this trained immunity
显然 获得驯化免疫的一种方法
is with a little help from a herpesvirus,
是借助于疱疹病毒
which is a weirdly constructive way to think about herpes.
这是一种看待疱疹异常有建设性的方式
“Herpesviruses” are members of the Herpesviridae family,
“疱疹病毒 “归类于疱疹病毒科
eight of which infect humans, and they’re everywhere.
其中有八种会感染人类 而且它们无处不在
The odds of you getting at least one in your lifetime is pretty high.
你在一生中至少感染一种疱疹病毒的几率是相当高的
Two-thirds of young people in the world probably have Herpes Simplex 1, for instance,
例如 世界上三分之二的年轻人可能有单纯疱疹1
the virus behind cold sores and some cases of genital herpes.
它是引起唇疱疹和生殖器疱疹的病毒
And they’ll have it forever,
而且病毒会跟随他们一生
because herpesviruses can do something few viruses can.
因为疱疹病毒可以做一些其它病毒做不到的事情
They can hunker down inside cells
它们可以潜伏在细胞内
and remain dormant for long periods of time,
并在很长一段时间内保持休眠状态
a feat known as latency.
这一行为被称为潜伏期
And this is where the immune training idea comes in.
这就是免疫驯化理论的用武之地
Studies suggest that while herpesviruses are hanging out in their hosts,
研究表明 当疱疹病毒在宿主体内游荡时
they can help the immune system fight off deadlier pathogens.
它们可以帮助免疫系统抗击更致命的病原体
See, while latent infections generally aren’t attacked like active ones,
你看 虽然潜伏感染通常不会像活跃感染那样受到攻击
they don’t go totally unnoticed by your immune system.
但它们也不会被你的免疫系统完全忽视
So, because they’re there,
所以 因为它们的存在
your innate immune system essentially keeps its bouncers on high alert.
你的先天免疫系统本质上会保持高度警惕
That high alert state is your trained immunity.
这种高度警戒状态就是你的被驯化的免疫
And experimental research in mice suggests it could save your life.
对小鼠的实验研究表明它可以拯救你的生命
And in a 2007 study,
在2007年的一项研究中
researchers exposed mice to two different bacteria:
研究人员将小鼠暴露在两种不同的细菌中:
Yersinia pestis, aka the plague, and Listeria monocytogenes,
鼠疫耶尔森氏菌 又称鼠疫 和单核增生李斯特菌
which causes very serious foodborne infections.
后者会导致非常严重的食源性感染
Mice that were latently infected with mouse versions of herpesviruses
潜伏感染鼠型疱疹病毒的小鼠
were resistant to both bacteria.
对这两种细菌都有抵抗力
Ah, the perks of having herpes.
呵 这是患疱疹的福利
These perks didn’t start right away, though.
不过 这些福利并不是一开始就有的
Mice that were still in the acute stage of infection,
仍处于感染急性阶段的小鼠
so, before the virus had established latency,
在病毒进入潜伏期之前
weren’t resistant to the pathogens.
对病原体没有抵抗力
That’s all in mice, of course,
当然 这只是小鼠的情况
and scientists haven’t definitively proven
科学家们还没有明确证明
that infections in humans similarly lead to better defenses against other pathogens.
人类的感染同样会导致对其它病原体的更好防御
Because, well, we don’t generally infect people with deadly pathogens
因为 我们一般不会仅仅为了证明疱疹的保护作用
just to prove their herpes is protecting them.
而让人们感染致命的病原体
But there are clues that human herpesviruses confer similar benefits.
但是有线索表明人类疱疹病毒也有类似的好处
Like, when researchers looked at the immune cells of people
比如 当研究人员观察 潜伏感染
with latent infections of the herpesvirus CMV,
疱疹病毒巨细胞病毒的人体免疫细胞时
they saw changes consistent with trained immunity.
他们看到了与被驯化免疫一致的变化
Specifically, they found differences in the participants’ natural killer cells,
具体来说 他们发现了参与者自然杀伤细胞的不同之处
immune cells awesomely named
这种免疫细胞的名字令人敬畏
because they recognize and kill infected cells.
因为它们能识别并杀死受感染的细胞
And in infected participants, these cells produced more interferon gamma,
在受感染的参与者中 这些细胞产生了更多的干扰素-γ
a protein which helps your immune system to keep an eye out for trouble.
这是一种帮助你的免疫系统警惕威胁的蛋白质
And researchers think heightened state of vigilance
研究人员认为高度警惕的状态
could last up to a few years after a latent infection starts.
可以在潜伏感染开始后持续数年
So while herpesviruses hide in our bodies,
因此 虽然疱疹病毒隐藏在我们的身体里
they may also help those bodies stay alive longer.
但它们也可能帮助身体保持更长的生命力
A frenemy-with-benefits kind of situation,
这是一种类似对友敌有利的情况
which from an evolutionary perspective, makes sense for the virus, too,
这从进化的角度来看 对病毒也有意义
since it can’t replicate inside dead cells.
因为它不能在死细胞内复制
Now, trained immunity may not always be a good thing.
但是 驯化的免疫也许并不总是一件好事
Researchers think that it could go awry and lead to autoimmunity,
研究人员认为它可能出错并导致自体免疫
the immune system attacking a person’s own tissues.
即免疫系统攻击人自己的组织
Still, it’s probably pretty useful a lot of the time.
不过 很多时候它可能还是很有用的
And further research on the phenomenon could really help people.
对这一现象的进一步研究可以真正帮助我们
Like, eventually, studying herpes could teach scientists
比如 最终研究疱疹可以教科学家
how to give people trained immunity without the viral infection.
如何在没有病毒感染的情况下 给人们驯化的免疫力
In fact, some preliminary research suggests certain vaccines are already doing this!
事实上 一些初步研究表明 某些疫苗已经做到了这一点!
We just need to take a closer look to figure out how.
我们只需仔细研究 找出原因
And this could mean we can finally get a jump
这可能意味着我们终于可以
on some of our more persistent foes.
在治疗更多的顽固疾病上取得优势
And hey, since most people are stuck with these viruses anyhow,
既然大多数人无论如何也摆脱不了这些病毒
it’s nice to know that there are some upsides.
知道一些正面消息令人愉快
Thanks for watching SciShow!
感谢观看科学秀!

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视频概述

患疱疹可以训练你的免疫力,提高对其它一些更可怕疾病的防御能力。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Winnie

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmqy4rgSwGA

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