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为什么荷兰不在水下? – 译学馆
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为什么荷兰不在水下?

Why isn’t the Netherlands underwater? - Stefan Al

《TED教育》 值得分享的课程
“我们好像看到了世界末日的到来” ——1953年荷兰洪灾的幸存者
In January of 1953,
1953年1月
a tidal surge shook the North Sea.
洪水冲击了北海
The titanic waves flooded the Dutch coastline,
巨大的海浪淹没了荷兰的海岸线
killing almost 2,000 people.
导致将近2000人死亡
54 years later,
54年后
a similar storm threatened the region.
一场类似的风暴再次袭来
But this time, the Netherlands were ready.
但这一次 荷兰已经做好了准备
As the water swelled,
当水位慢慢上升时
state-of-the-art computer sensors activated emergency protocols.
先进的电脑传感器 启动应急预案
Over the next 30 minutes,
在接下来的30分钟
a pair of 240-meter steel arms swung shut,
一对240米长的铜墙铁壁旋转闭合
protecting the channel ahead.
保护前方航道
Using 680-tonne ball joints,
拥有重680吨球形转轴的屏障
the barrier moved in rhythm with the shifting wind and waves.
随着风浪的变化 有节奏地移动
By morning, the storm had passed with minimal flooding.
到早晨 暴风雨已经离开 只有少量洪水
The first field activation of the Maeslantkering
马仕朗防风暴大坝的首次实践
had been a resounding success.
是一次举世瞩目的成功
As one of the planet’s largest mobile structures,
作为地球上最大的可移动建筑物之一
this storm surge barrier
这个抵挡风暴潮的屏障
is a marvel of human engineering.
是人类工程学的奇迹
But the Maeslantkering is
但是马仕朗防风暴大坝
just one part of a massive interlocking system of water controls
只是环环相扣的大型水利工程的一部分
known as the Delta Works—
也就是三角洲工程
the most sophisticated flood prevention project in the world.
它是世界上最先进的防洪治理工程
The Netherlands has a long history with water management.
荷兰在水利工程方面 有长远的历史
The country lies along the delta of three major European rivers,
荷兰位于欧洲三大河流形成的三角洲
and nearly a quarter of its territory is below sea level.
将近1/4的领土都在海平面之下
This geography makes the region extremely prone to flooding.
荷兰的地理位置使其极易发生洪灾
So much so that some of the earliest Dutch governing bodies
洪灾频发致使最早成立的一些荷兰治理机构
were” informal water boards”
可谓是“非正式防洪理事会”
that coordinated flood protection projects.
就是为了协调防洪项目
But after the storms of 1953,
而在1953年的暴风雨之后
the Dutch government took more official measures.
荷兰政府出台了更多的官方措施
They established the Delta Commission,
成立了三角洲专项治理委员会
and tasked them with protecting the entire southwestern region.
负责保护整个西南区域不受洪灾侵害
Focusing on densely populated cities,
重点是人口密集城市
their aim was to reduce the annual odds of flooding below 1 in 10,000—
目标是将年发洪率降低到1/10000以下
about 100 times as safe as the average coastal city.
大约比普通沿海城市安全100倍
Accomplishing this lofty goal
实现这个宏伟的目标
required various infrastructure projects
需要在西南沿海地区开展各种各样的
along the southwestern coast.
基础设施建设项目
The first line of defense
第一道防线
was to dam the region’s flood-prone estuaries.
是在易发洪灾的海湾建造拦海大坝
These large inlets
这些大型入海口
fed many of the country’s rivers into the North Sea,
使流经该国的许多河流汇入北海
and during storms they allowed flood water to surge inland.
导致风暴来临时 洪水很容易涌入内陆
Using a series of dams, the Delta Commission
三角洲专项治理委员用许多的拦海大坝
transformed these estuaries into expansive lakes
将这些海湾变成了广阔的湖泊
that serve as nature preserves and community parks.
这些湖泊可以作为自然保护区和社区公园
However, this solution wouldn’t work for the Nieuwe Waterweg.
然而 这种方法并不适用于鹿特丹新航道
As the lifeblood of the local shipping industry,
作为当地航运产业的命脉
this passage had to be kept open in safe conditions,
这一航道必须在安全的条件下开放
and barricaded during storm surges.
在风暴潮来袭时关闭
In 1998, the completed Maeslantkering
1998年竣工的马仕朗防风暴大坝
provided the flexible protection necessary.
在必要时提供了灵活的保护作用
Alongside additional barriers,
与其他一些屏障一起
like grassy dikes and concrete seawalls,
比如草堤和混凝土海堤
these fortifications made up the bulk of the Delta Works project,
这些防御工事构成了大部分的三角洲工程
which was primarily focused on holding back ocean storms.
主要着力于阻止海洋风暴的入侵
But in the following decades,
但在接下来的几十年中
the Dutch pursued additional plans to complement the Delta Works
荷兰制定了附加计划来完善三角洲工程
and protect against floods further inland.
进一步抵御洪水侵害内陆
Under the “Room for the River” plan,
在“河道扩容计划”中
farms and dikes were relocated away from the shore.
将农场与河堤迁移至远离海岸的地方
This left more space for water to collect
这样留出了更多空间使水流汇集在
in low-lying floodplains,
地势低洼的泛洪平原
creating reservoirs and habitats for local wildlife.
还为当地野生动植物设立保护区和栖息地
This strategic retreat
此次战略性后撤
not only decreased flood risk,
不仅降低了洪水侵袭的风险
but allowed for the redeveloped settlements
还顾及到这些重建的居住地
to be built more densely and sustainably.
使其更具密集性和可持续性
Perhaps no city embodies the Netherlands’ multi-pronged approach
也许没有哪个城市能像荷兰鹿特丹那样
to water management as much as Rotterdam,
多管齐下进行水治理
a thriving city almost entirely below sea level.
这座繁荣的城市几乎完全位于海平面以下
When a storm threatens,
当风暴潮侵袭时
densely populated older districts are protected by traditional dikes.
人口密集的旧城区受原有堤坝保护
Meanwhile, newer districts have been artificially elevated,
同时 新城区的建筑已经被人为建在高位
often sporting green roofs that store rainwater.
通常会在屋顶培育绿植吸收雨水
Numerous structures around the city transform into water storage facilities,
城市里的很多建筑都被改造为储水设施
including parking garages and plazas
包括停车场和广场
which normally serve as theaters and sports arenas.
平常是作为剧院和体育竞技场使用
Meanwhile in the harbor,
与此同时在海港
floating pavilions rise with the water level.
可浮动的建筑物随着水位而上升
These are the first of several planned amphibious structures,
它们都是第一批设计使用的水陆两用的建筑
some of which house water purification systems and solar collectors.
其中一些配置了净水系统和太阳能收集装置
These strategies are just some of the technologies and policies
这些策略只是荷兰最前沿的水利工程的
that have put the Netherlands at the cutting edge of water management.
水治理技术和政策措施的一部分
The country continues to find new ways
荷兰一直在寻找新的方法
to make cities more resilient to natural disasters.
使城市能更加灵活地应对自然灾害
And as the rising sea levels caused by climate change
全球气候变暖导致的海平面不断上升
threaten low-lying cities across the world,
使全球地势低洼的城市承受着威胁
the Netherlands offers an exceptional example of how to go with the flow.
而荷兰为全球各国提供了治理洪水的优秀先例
As climate change causes natural disaster to become more, well, disastrous.
当全球气候变暖使自然灾害加剧
How can we build smarter more resilient cities and towns?
如何建造更加智能 更具适应性的城镇呢?
Explore how we use physics
探索如何利用物理学
to creat flexible buildings that can withstand earthquakes.
建造适应性强的建筑 来抵御地震的侵袭
Or how scientists are experimenting with a form of concrete that can heal itself.
探索科学家如何实验可自行修复的混凝土

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本期视频详细介绍了荷兰先进的水治理措施,为地势低洼的国家提供了有效的治洪方法。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=25LW_PG2ZuI

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