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为什么全世界的奶奶都很矮

Why Is Your Grandma So Short?

嗨 我是《分钟地球》的艾米丽
Hi, this is Emily from MinuteEarth.
你的奶奶可能特别矮
Your grandma is probably pretty short.
实际上 全世界的奶奶们都是那么的矮小
In fact, grandmas all over the world are prettyshort.
随着年龄增长 她们的软骨开始萎缩
As they ’ ve aged, their cartilage has shrunk,
她们的骨骼会受到磨损 肌肉
their bones have worn down, and their muscles
也会老化 结果就是
have deteriorated; as a result,
从她40岁之后的每十年
your grandma has been losing about half an inch of height
她都会变矮大概半英寸
each decade since she turned 40.
但是即使在你的奶奶开始变矮之前
But even before she started shrinking,
她也没有长到她本应该
your grandma was probably never as tall as she
达到的身高
might have been.
这是因为很多奶奶们在婴幼儿时期就营养不良
And that’s because many grandmas were malnourished as babies,
这限制了她们在以后
which inhibited their ability to
长得足够高的能力
reach full height later on.
造成奶奶们营养不良的原因有很多
There were lots of reasons for this – historically,
过去有很多人长期缺乏食物
many people were chronically short on food,
甚至遭受着饥荒
or lived through famines.
婴儿们也变得比正常情况下更加虚弱
Babies also used to get a lot sicker a lot more often,
因为那些会损害
with illnesses that compromise
他们身体吸收营养的疾病 再加上
the body’s ability to absorb nutrients. Plus,
我们其实对于婴幼儿所需的营养知之甚少
we simply didn’t know a whole lotabout infant nutrition.
结果 营养失调导致你的奶奶
As a result, malnutrition robbed your grandma
比潜在身高矮上
of somewhere between 2 and 3.5 inches of her
2~3英寸 嗯
potential height. OK,
也许并不只是你的奶奶 而是全天下的奶奶
maybe not your grandma, but grandmas on average around the world.
好消息是 多亏了增长的财富
The good news is that, thanks to increasing wealth,
更好的疫苗 得到改善的环境卫生
better vaccines, improved sanitation,
以及更多的营养知识
and more nutritional know-how,
不论年龄、国籍 所有人都长得更高了
people of all genders and nationalities have gotten taller
在过去的数百年间
over the past hundred years.
并且 在不同的国家
And in some countries,
谷物产量已经得到提升——韩国的男人和女人 就是一个例子
the gains have been huge – men and women in South Korea, for example,
比起一个世纪前 他们分别长高了6英寸和8英寸
are 6 and 8 inches taller, respectively, than they were a century ago.
这就是插图画家和我之间的身高差异
That’s about the height difference betweenEver, our illustrator, and me!
这并不仅仅只是身高——好吧 有营养的孩子
And it ’ s not just about height – well-nourished kids
有正常的身高很少有健康
with normal growth have fewer health
问题 并且 他们学习得更轻松
problems and an easier time learning,
同时 他们可以挣更多的钱
And go on to make more money than people whose
比起那些由于营养失调而身高发育不良的人
growth is stunted from malnutrition.
而且
What ’ s more,
如今大多数的发展中国家人口的身高仍然在增长
the populations of most developing countries are still gaining height today;
事实上 只有几个
in fact, there are only a few
地方的人口停止了身高的增长
places where the population has stopped getting taller
在过去的几十年间里
in the last few decades:
发达国家如美国和丹麦 这些国家几乎所有的人
very wealthy countries like the US and Denmark, where almost all
都有足够的食物以保证他们达到潜在最高身高
people have enough food to reach their maximum potential height,
但极度贫穷的国家
and very poor countries
像尼日尔、印度、新几内亚岛
like Niger, India, and Papua New Guinea,
这些国家依旧面临着诸如食品不安全
where people still face major challenges with food insecurity,
疾病以及环境卫生的主要挑战
disease, and sanitation.
在这些地方 我们仍然考虑不周
In those places, we’re still coming up short.
对这些地方依旧需要做许多努力
There is still a lot of progress to be made,
这也就是为何比尔·盖茨和他的妻子梅琳达·盖茨
which is why the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
和我们合作录制这个视频的原因
partnered with us to make this video.
今年 比尔·盖茨和妻子
This year Bill and Melinda Gates
一同写了“守门员”报道来追踪
created the Goalkeepers report to track the progress of
欧盟的可持续发展计划的进展
the U.N. ’ s Sustainable Development
并且激励新一代的“守门员”
Goals and inspire a new generation of goalkeepers
去担起他们的领导责任并为推动项目进程实施行动
to hold their leaders accountable and driveaction to accelerate progress.
目标之一就是在2030年之前
One of those goals is to end stunted
结束因营养不良而引起的发育不良问题 借由一系列
growth due to malnutrition by 2030 through a range
被设计来大范围处理健康和营养问题的规划
of programs designed to address health andnutrition broadly.
但是项目还未确立 仍有很多的努力要做
But progress is not inevitable and there is still more to be done.
可通过点击下方细节栏中的链接
Check out the report by clicking the link
查看这篇报道 并了解
in the description box below and learn how
怎样你就可以成为一名“守门员”
you can becomea goalkeeper.

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视频概述

呼吁人们为至今都还有营养不良问题的贫困地区提供帮助。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQTyRVBkeIw

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