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为什么《带珍珠耳环的女孩》被认为是一个杰作

Why is Vermeer's "Girl with the Pearl Earring" considered a masterpiece? - James Earle

她在向你走近还是远离?
Is she turning towards you or away from you?
没人能分辨得出来
No one can agree.
她是荷兰绘画大师约翰内斯•维米尔作品
She’s the mysterious subject of Dutch master Johannes Vermeer’s
《戴珍珠耳环的少女》里面的神秘少女
“Girl with the Pearl Earring,”
这幅画经常被认为是“北方的蒙娜丽莎”
a painting often referred to as the ‘Mona Lisa of the North.’
属于典型的荷兰理想主义派画作 有时候极富表现的画作
Belonging to a Dutch style of idealized, sometimes overly expressive paintings
被称作tronies流派
known as tronies,
《戴珍珠耳环的少女》拥有维米尔画作
the “Girl with the Pearl Earring” has the allure
那种诱惑力和微妙的特点
and subtlety characteristic of Vermeer’s work.
但是这幅画区别于之前安静的写实场景
But this painting stands apart from the quiet narrative scenes
在维米尔的许多画作中可以看到远景描写
that we observe from afar in many of Vermeer’s paintings.
窗前读信的少女
A girl reading a letter.
一堂钢琴课
A piano lesson.
绘画的寓言
A portrait artist at work.
这些画作给我们以亲切感尽管保持了其远景的角度
These paintings give us a sense of intimacy while retaining their distance,
一张画出来的帘子经常是为了强调空间感
a drawn curtain often emphasizes the separation.
我们可以看到女仆神情严肃倒着牛奶
We can witness a milkmaid serenely pouring a bowl of milk,
但是那杯牛奶不是给我们准备的
but that milk isn’t for us.
我们只是看客
We’re only onlookers.
维米尔的画作里面的元素
The studied composition in Vermeer’s paintings
营造出一种和谐的氛围
invokes a balanced harmony.
他在作品中大量使用格纹地板
With the checkered floor in many of his works,
他展现了他对透视法以及前缩透视法的熟练掌握
Vermeer demonstrates his command of perspective and foreshortening.
这种技法使物体失真
That’s a technique that uses distortion
以此使人产生了一种画中物体越来越远的幻觉
to give the illusion of an object receding into the distance.
其他的元素像视线 镜子 和光源
Other elements, like sight lines, mirrors, and light sources
通过空间和位置共同勾勒出一幅画
describe the moment through space and position.
坐在打开的窗子边读信的女人是被刻意设置在那个位置的
The woman reading a letter by an open window
这样一来观者就能从镜子的反射中看到女人背对着的部分
is precisely placed so the window can reflect her image back to the viewer.
维米尔甚至会为了构图把画架的一条腿藏起来
Vermeer would even hide the leg of an easel for the sake of composition.
隐藏这些物体使得“带珍珠耳环的少女”仿佛活过来了一样
The absence of these very elements brings the “Girl with the Pearl Earring” to life.
维米尔对光和影的的处理 或者说对明暗的配合
Vermeer’s treatment of light and shadow, or chiaroscuro,
使用深色的 平面的背景去另她显得更三维立体
uses a dark, flat background to further spotlight her three-dimensionality.
不是一个在夸张构造出的场景里面的一个物件
Instead of being like a set piece in a theatrical narrative scene,
她是一个有着心理活动的人
she becomes a psychological subject.
她的眼睛直视以及微微张开的双唇 就像是想要说些什么
Her eye contact and slightly parted lips, as if she is about to say something,
将我们引入她的意味深长的凝视中
draw us into her gaze.
传统的肖像画中的人物往往是贵族或者宗教人物
Traditional subjects of portraiture were often nobility or religious figures.
所以为什么维米尔画了一个不知名的女孩子呢?
So why was Vermeer painting an anonymous girl?
在17世纪 达夫特 与荷兰大部分地方一样
In the 17th century, the city of Delft, like the Netherlands in general,
都开始反抗贵族和基督教的统治
had turned against ruling aristocracy and the Catholic church.
经过80年对西班牙的反抗
After eight decades of rebellion against Spanish power,
荷兰人开始渴望自治以及建立一个有党派的共和国
the Dutch came to favor the idea of self-rule and a political republic.
国王和主教们都不管达夫特这样的城市
Cities like Delft were unsupervised by kings or bishops,
所以许多像维米尔这样的艺术家能够挣脱传统的控制
so many artists like Vermeer were left without traditional patrons.
幸运的是
Fortunately, business innovation
由荷兰-东印度公司带头的创新贸易
spearheaded by the Dutch East India Company
改变了荷兰的经济景象
transformed the economic landscape in the Netherlands.
它使得商人阶级和新型企业主开始出现
It created a merchant class and new type of patron.
希望能出现在自己资助的画家作品中
Wishing to be represented in the paintings they financed,
这些商人喜欢中产阶级的人物
these merchants preferred middle class subjects
在画中出现在类似于他们自己的家的地方
depicted in spaces that looked like their own homes
周围都是熟悉的物件
surrounded by familiar objects.
在维米尔的画中出现的地图 比如这幅
The maps that appear in Vermeer’s paintings, for example,
众所周知的荷兰黄金时期的商人阶级
were considered fashionable and worldly
认为这些地图既时髦又入世
by the merchant class of what is known as the Dutch Golden Age.
“戴珍珠耳环的少女”所戴的东方穆斯林头巾
The oriental turban worn by the “Girl with the Pearl Earring”
也强调了商人阶级的世俗心
also emphasizes the worldliness of the merchant class,
珍珠本身作为一种财富的象征实际上是一种夸张用法
and the pearl itself, a symbol of wealth, is actually an exaggeration.
维米尔付不起这么大的珍珠耳环真品的价钱
Vermeer couldn’t have afforded a real pearl of its size.
这串项链有可能是玻璃珠或者锡珠 涂上漆 从而看起来像珍珠
It was likely just a glass or tin drop varnished to look like a pearl.
如此对财富的幻想也反映了画作本身的意图
This mirage of wealth is mirrored in the painting itself.
从更大的周边环境中看来 珍珠看起来又圆又重
In greater context, the pearl appears round and heavy,
但是仔细近看 那只不过是画上漂浮的杂质污点
but a detailed view shows that it’s just a floating smudge of paint.
仔细近看 我们才猛然感觉到维米尔作为一个幻象制造者的厉害之处
Upon close inspection, we are reminded of Vermeer’s power as an illusion maker.
尽管我们可能永远也不知道“戴珍珠耳环的少女”的真实身份
While we may never know the real identity of the “Girl with the Pearl Earring,”
我们依然能以一种难忘的方式欣赏这幅肖像画
we can engage with her portrait in a way that is unforgettable.
被挂在荷兰海牙的莫瑞泰斯皇家博物馆她的专属房间里
As she hangs in her permanent home in the Mauritshuis Museum in The Hague,
她的展出既令人感到精妙至极又能穿透人心
her presence is simultaneously penetrating and subtle.
谜一般的,她代表了对于经济 政治以及爱情的现代视角的产生
In her enigmatic way, she represents the birth of a modern perspective on economics, politics, and love.

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