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这幅画因何令人如此震撼 – 译学馆
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这幅画因何令人如此震撼

Why is this painting so shocking? - Iseult Gillespie

我们都清楚艺术不是真相艺术是让人们认清真相的谎言
——巴勃罗·毕加索
1937年4月26日
On April 26th, 1937,
法西斯势力轰炸了西班牙北部格尔尼卡的巴斯克村
Fascist forces bombed the Basque village of Guernica in Northern Spain.
这是西班牙内战中平民伤亡最惨重的事件之一
It was one of the worst civilian casualties of the Spanish Civil War,
属于民主共和国与弗朗哥将军的法西斯派系之间的斗争
waged between the democratic republic and General Franco’s fascist contingent.
对于毕加索来说 这场悲剧激发了他混乱的创作风格
For Pablo Picasso, the tragedy sparked a frenzied period of work
他创作出了一副大型反战壁画
in which he produced a massive anti-war mural,
画作名字被恰如其分地命名为《格尔尼卡》
aptly titled”Guernica.”
这副画是记录历史和政治抗议的力作
The painting is a powerful work of historical documentation and political protest.
尽管毕加索的艺术动机非常明确
But while Picasso’s artistic motivations are clear,
这幅画中的象征意义却和这场战争一样
the symbolism of the painting can be as confusing and chaotic
混乱且充满迷惑性
as war itself.
我们应怎样解读这幅充满象征意义的画作?
How can we make sense of this overwhelming image,
究竟是什么让它成为反战艺术的杰作?
and what exactly makes it a masterpiece of anti-war art?
这幅画作从一开始就没有按照顺序来创作
The painting’s monumental canvas is disorienting from the start,
画作是毕加索开创的抽象立体主义风格的呈现
rendered in the abstracted Cubist style Picasso pioneered.
立体主义有意强调画布的二维性
Cubism deliberately emphasized the two-dimensionality of the canvas
将多个角度的物体在同一个画面中呈现出来
by flattening the objects being painted.
给观看者展示一个无法被同时看到的多角度的物体
This afforded viewers multiple and often impossible perspectiveson the same object;
这种惊人的技法也出现在毕加索其他室内作品中
a technique considered shocking even in Picasso’s domestic scenes.
但在这幅画作中
But in this context,
这种风格呈现出的是极端的暴力 破坏和伤亡
the style offers a profoundly overwhelming view of violence, destruction, and casualties.
多个视角加剧了画面的恐怖感
Multiple perspectives only compound the horror on display–
观看者浏览整幅画作 却找不到一丝和平的存在
sending the eyes hurtling around the frame in a futile hunt for peace.
在最左边
On the far left,
一个女人怀抱着自己逝去的孩子
a woman holding her dead child
发出一声尖叫
releases a scream;
她的眼睛以泪水的形状滑落她的脸
her eyes sliding down her face in the shape of tears
她的头以诡异地角度弯折过去 与孩子相呼应
and her head bending back unnaturally to echo her baby’s.
在她下方 有一名士兵形象
There is the statue of a soldier present below,
但是他无法为这个女人和孩子提供保护
but he is unable to defend the woman and child.
相反 他破碎的身体已散落成碎片
Instead his broken body lies in pieces,
他的手紧紧地抓着一把碎裂的剑 象征了抵死的斗争
his arm clutching a splintered sword in a signal of utmost defeat.
他的剑尖正对着一个女人的脚
The tip of his sword
这个女人正试图逃离这场灾难
as she attempts to flee the devastation.
但是她的另一条腿似乎被压在了原地
But her other leg appears rooted to the spot,
即使她试图抽出自己的腿
locked in the corner of the canvas
这条腿依然被钉死在画布的角落
even as she stretches to move it.
这个没精打采的身影背后是另一名受害者
Another victim appears behind this slouching figure.
被火焰舔舐着的女人 无助地从空中坠落
Falling helplessly as flames lick around her,
和其他人一样 她也陷入了属于她的绝境
she too is caught in her own hopeless scene.
每一个角色都十分凄惨地被困在画中
Each of these figures bordering the painting are horribly trapped,
使画面呈现出强烈的幽闭恐惧感
giving the work an acute sense of claustrophobia.
或许你会以为画布的巨大尺寸可以缓解这种不适
And where you might expect the canvas’massive size to counteract this feeling,
然而巨幅尺寸中近乎与真人等高的暴行
its scale only highlights
却使画作更加具有表现力
the nearly life-sized atrocities on display.
一个幽灵般的女人紧紧地握盏油灯 伸出她的窗户
Some possible relief comes from a lamp held tightly by a ghostly woman
这或许能缓解不适感
reaching out her window.
但真的是这充满希望的光芒照亮了场景吗?
But is her lantern’s hopeful glow truly lighting the scene?
还是象征着现代战争科技的锯齿状灯泡
Or is it the jagged lightbulb– thought to represent the technologies of modern warfare–
代她阐明了对下方一片混乱的看法?
which illuminates her view of the chaos below?
她从棺材般的窗子穿出来
From the coffin-like confines of her window,
用她的手臂引导着观看者
her arm guides the viewer
来到画作中最骇人 也最具争议的一处象征
back into the fray, to perhaps the most controversial symbols of all–
一片废墟中的两只幽灵般可怕的动物
two ghostly animals caught in the destruction.
尖叫的马是否体现了弗朗哥民族主义军队的威胁?
Does the screaming horse embody the threat of Franco’s military nationalism;
穿过它身体的长钉是否表明它的受害者身份?
or does the spike running through its body convey its victimhood?
白牛是否代表拥有斗牛精神的西班牙
Does the white bull represent Spain, the country of matadors
和毕加索作品中的共同主题?
and a common theme in Picasso’s work–
还是它代表了战争的残酷?
or does it stand for the brutality of war?
在画作呈现的纷争中
In this scene of strife,
这些动物带来的问题多过答案
these animals raise more questions than answers.
并且整个作品中还隐藏了其他元素
And additional elements hidden throughout the frame
为观看者提供了更多的秘密
offer even more secrets for close observers.
在画布的顶部
At the top of the canvas
闪过一只试图逃离大屠杀的绝望鸟儿
flashes a bird desperate to escape the carnage.
画作中大量出现的动物
And the abundance of animals on display
暗示了轰炸的日期
may hint at the bombing’s date–
这是个充满村民 动物和其他东西的集市
a market day which flooded the streets with villagers, animals, and other potential causalities.
就像发生在格尔尼卡的轰炸一样
Like the bombing of Guernica itself,
毕加索的画作中充分体现出了破坏性
Picasso’s painting is dense with destruction.
但隐藏在这种混乱之下的
But hidden beneath this supposed chaos,
是他精心设计的场景和象征
are carefully crafted scenes and symbols,
他在画作中用多种角度攻讦法西斯主义
carrying out the painting’s multifaceted attack on fascism.
画作完成后数十年
Decades after its creation,
《格尔尼卡》依旧拥有震撼人心的艺术性
“Guernica” retains its power to shock viewers
和引发激烈辩论的力量
and ignite debate,
画作多次出现在世界各地的反战集会中
and is often referenced at anti-war gatherings around the world.
数百名观看者都为它粗旷的画风
Hundred of viewers have grappled with its harsh imagery,
令人震撼的象征性
shattering symbolism
和复杂的政治信息所折服
and complex political messaging.
即便对画作隐含的诸多信息并不了解
But even without a close understanding of it’s complicated subtext,
毕加索的作品仍然能够传达出
Picasso’s work remains a searing reminder
对暴力行为造成的伤亡的强烈抨击
of the true casualties of violence.

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视频概述

这是毕加索最著名的画作之一,这幅画蕴涵的艺术性和诸多历史信息被人们大量研究。视频分析了画作中突出的几处象征,解释了为何这幅画如此令人震撼。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJnH5CPCImY

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