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为何毛毛虫会如此饥饿?

Why Is The Very Hungry Caterpillar So Dang Hungry? | Deep Look

让我们面对这个现实
Let’s face it.
蝴蝶因其带着华丽外表去鼓动翅膀而获得所有赞美
Butterflies get all the glory, fluttering around with their flashy looks.
但是毛毛虫呢?
But caterpillars?
它们不只是处于一个尴尬的未成熟阶段
They’re more than just an awkward adolescent phase.
它们做的所有的努力 是为了有一天能变成 这样
They do all the hard work, so that one day they can look like this.
在成熟期 蝴蝶只有一份工作 交配
As adults, butterflies really only have one job: mating.
它们就是由糖和水驱动飞行的繁殖工具
They’re basically flying reproduction machines, powered by sugar water.
它们的喙是用来汲取花蜜的
Their proboscis is made for sipping nectar.
但液体食物不能给予它们足够蛋白质去构造蝶卵
But that liquid diet doesn’t give them much of the protein they need to make eggs.
所以十分饥饿的毛毛虫需要做一件大事
So that hungry, hungry caterpillar has a big job to do.
它并不只是为了喂饱自己
It’s not just eating for itself.
它正在囤积以后所需要的蛋白质
It’s stockpiling the protein it will need later on
以便繁殖下一代
to make the next generation.
从吃自己卵壳开始
It starts by eating its way out of the egg.
一点都不剩
No leftovers.
然后它的主要任务开始了
Then it’s onto the main course.
这些马兜铃凤蝶的幼虫正在大快朵颐它们最喜爱的
These pipevine swallowtail caterpillars are chowing down on their favorite – and only
也是唯一的食物 马兜铃
– food: the pipevine.
对黑脉金斑蝶来说 则是乳草属植物
For a monarch caterpillar, it’s all about the milkweed.
它们会在两周内长20倍
In two weeks they’ll grow 20 times longer.
就像人类婴儿长得和三层楼一样高
That’s like a human baby growing as tall as a three-story building.
毛毛虫的视力不是特别好
A caterpillar can’t see very well.
所以它要用触须去嗅找食物
So it uses antennae to smell for food.
不是上面那些大触角 那些是用来探索周围的
Not those big ones on top – those are for feeling around.
是在那边的小的那些
It’s the tiny ones right down there.
它吃啊吃啊吃啊
It eats and eats and eats…
储存尽可能多的蛋白质
storing up as much protein as possible.
树叶大概有¼的蛋白质
Leaves are about one quarter protein.
经过数周 这只黑脉金斑蝶的毛毛虫终于
After packing on the pounds for a couple of weeks, this monarch caterpillar is finally
为重要的日子做好了准备
ready for the big day.
它在树枝上织成一团丝
It weaves a ball of silk on a branch.
然后将自己挂上去
Then, it hooks onto it
用它的尾部
with its backside.
然后开始了
And lets go.
看它的皮肤
Look through its skin.
有什么东西在里面扭动
There’s something wiggling in there.
毛毛虫抽动着往外推
The caterpillar pumps and pushes.
直到
Until…
它身上的裂口打开
it splits open…
蜕去所有年少时的痕迹
shedding all traces of its youth…
包括它的表皮
including its face.
最外层的皮肤变成坚硬的茧 保护着里面的蛹
The outer skin hardens into the chrysalis that protects the pupa inside.
它的胃在收缩
Its stomach shrinks.
它在放弃它暴食的方法
It’s giving up its gluttonous ways.
当多日后蝴蝶出来 它会伸直它全新的喙
When the butterfly emerges days later, it uncurls its brand new proboscis –
这两片叫做盔状突起物 需要被紧紧扣成一束
two pieces called galeae that have to be zipped together into a single straw
在蝴蝶可以使用之前
before the butterfly can use it
然后它将那对美丽的翅膀展开
And it lets those glorious wings unfold.
翅膀会带它找到伴侣和利于产卵的多汁新植物
They’ll take it to find mates and a juicy new plant to lay its eggs on
通过使用储存的蛋白质
using that stored up protein.
这一完全的变形叫做完全变态
This complete metamorphosis is called holometaboly.
就是在一个生命中有着多重生存形式
Multiple lives in a single life.
这需要很多工作
It takes a lot of work.
而蝴蝶只能生存数周
And butterflies only live a few weeks.
但这种生存策略不是你想象的那样稀有
But this strategy is not as rare as you might think.
在动物王国里 这很常见
In the animal kingdom, it’s incredibly common.
想我们这种哺乳类动物则是奇怪的那一类
Mammals like us are the weird ones.
毕竟 我们的皮肤不会在我们长大时脱落
After all, our face doesn’t fall off when we grow up.

Hey!
我是劳伦
It’s Lauren.
你能看见挂在这树枝上的蝶蛹吗
Can you spot the chrysalises hanging on this branch?
它们需要那伪装
They need that camouflage.
否则它们会成为掠食者的靶子
Otherwise they’d be sitting ducks for predators.
你在寻觅一点新事物吗
Are you looking for something new?
试试Above the Noise KQED和PBS数码工作室出品的
Try Above the Noise, a new series from KQED and PBS Digital Studios
通过今日头条进行宣传的与科学相关的新系列
that cut through the hype of today’s headlines, with science.
下次再会
See you next time!

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视频概述

介绍了毛毛虫作为蝴蝶的成长期形态,它不断地吃是为了什么?成长为蝴蝶和繁殖的过程。这是一段易懂而有趣的自然科普视频。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Rai唐蕾

审核员

审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=el_lPd2oFV4

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