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为什么小宝宝会盯着我? – 译学馆
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为什么小宝宝会盯着我?

Why Is That Baby Staring at Me?

开场曲
[INTRO ♪]
当你在食品杂货店排队时
So you’re in line at the grocery store,
这有一位父亲
and there’s a parent
抱着一个小孩正好在你前面
holding a baby right in front of you.
你正在忙 但当你往上看时
You’re minding your own business, but whenyou look up,
小宝宝一直目不转睛地凝视着你 就好像你
that baby just won’t stop staring at youlike you’re
是全地球最有意思的人
the most interesting thing on the planet.
你可能会感觉头大
You might feel like you’ve grown a second head,
或者你感觉满嘴都是巧克力
or like you have chocolate smeared all over your mouth,
但实际上 这小宝宝只是喜欢看你的脸
but in reality, that baby just likes lookingat your face.
为何婴儿喜欢看人脸
Because there’s a lot to figure out there!
婴儿阶段
From very early in life,
小宝宝好像喜欢看脸
babies seem to like looking at faces,
即使只是看起来像脸的组合形状
or even just configurations of shapes thatlook like faces.
比起陌生脸孔 他们更喜欢他们熟悉的脸孔
They also prefer faces they recognize to onesthey don’t,
但是偶尔他们将多花些时间看着陌生人
but they’ll sometimes spend a little moretime looking at strangers
因为它们是新鲜的或者与众不同的
because they’re new or different.
对小宝宝来说人脸是重要的 因为他们基本上
Faces are important to babies because they’rebasically
完全无助 只能依靠看护人生存
completely helpless and have to rely on theircaregivers to survive.
他们需要能够
They need to be able to
辨别出看护人并且进行人际交流
find and communicate with the people
给他们喂食和换尿布
who feed them and change their diapers,
知道他们的长相起了至关重要的作用
and knowing what they look like is an important part of that.
即使说交流只是让他们大声尖叫
Even if said communication just involves screaming at the top
一段时间
of their lungs for a while.
小宝宝也忙着接收大量的信息
Babies are also busy taking in huge amountsof information
去帮助他们理解这个世界 人脸能够传达给他们很多讯息
to help them understand the world, and faces can teach them a lot.
我们是如何从表情到嘴形成单词
From our expressions to how our mouths formwords,
我们人类大量沟通是通过表情传达来发生的
a lot of our communication as humans happensthrough our faces.
刚出生前几个月
In those first few months of life,
小宝宝不只开始去学习
babies are not only beginning to learn
如何辨识出他们的父母和爷爷奶奶
how to recognize their parents or grandparents,
但是几乎所有的情感由面部表情传达
but also about all the emotions conveyed byfacial expressions.
这需要大量学习
There’s a lot to learn!
所以当小宝宝凝视
So when a baby is staring
你在杂货铺
at you in the grocery store,
她的小脑袋将会尝试判断
her little brain is probably trying to figure
她是否认识你
if she knows you
将你的脸归入哪一类
and what categories your face fits into,
列如你开心还是悲伤 现在
like if you’re happy or sad. Now,
小宝宝可能出生
babies might be born
准备去认识他们周围的世界
ready to learn from the world around them,
但现今依旧有些难题
but there’s still some question about
看脸是天然本能
whether looking at faces is an innate characteristic—
还是后天习得 又或者
one you’re born with—or if it’s influencedby experience. And,
还是
like with a lot
年龄 先天与后天教养都有呢?
of the age-old, nature versus nurture debate,
答案是两者皆有
it’s a little bit of both.
有一些证据表明是天然本能造成的
On the nature side, there’s some evidence that,
出生后几个小时到几天内
within hours to days of being born,
小宝宝能模仿他们看到的面部表情
babies can copy facial expressions they see,
例如模仿他人吐舌头
like if you stick out your tongue at them.
并不是所有研究都支持这原因
Not all studies agree with those results,
但可能是
but it’s possible that there’s
本能的看到并模仿表情
an innate ability for finding and mimickingexpressions.
另一些研究发现在出生后几小时
Other research has found that within hoursof birth,
小宝宝能区分开他们妈妈和陌生人的脸
babies can discriminate between their mother’sface and a stranger’s,
那可能意味着他们的小脑袋已经准备好识别信息不多的面孔 所以
which might mean their brain is ready to recognize faces without much information. So,
一些证据表明小宝宝天生就掌握看脸的能力
some evidence suggests that babies maybe predisposed to
在他们刚出生时 直接找寻人脸的信息
look for information from faces right whenthey’re born.
但另有研究展示出
But other studies have shown
要精通看脸这能力还需要积累一定经验
that it takes experience to get really good at it.
无论哪种说法正确 始终
Either way, all the time
小宝宝和他们的养育者朝夕相对
babies and their caregivers spend looking at each other
小宝宝加工辨别人脸的能力得到飞速提升
causes rapid improvement in babies’ abilitiesto process and recognize faces.
3个月大开始
Starting around 3 months old,
他们甚至开始归纳不同种类的人脸
they even begin to group different kinds of faces—
类如人类不同于动物 小孩不同于成人
like human versus animals and kids versusadults.
一个特别新奇的研究 让小宝宝和成人看
One especially cool study had babies and adults look
一系列猴子脸
at a series of different monkey faces,
也来对比一串不同成人的脸孔
and also at a bunch of different adult humanfaces.
他们发现6个月大的小宝宝的确明显
They found that 6-month-old babies are actuallybetter at
比成人更善于区分猴子脸
differentiating between monkey faces thanadults are!
但他们9个月时 这种能力就消失了
But when they’re about 9 months old, thatability goes away
出于“知觉窄化”
because of what’s called perceptual narrowing,
他们的知觉开始基于经验的改变 基本上
where their perception starts to change basedon their experience. Basically,
小宝宝学习
the baby learns
将注意力放在区分人间之间的差别上
that paying attention to the differences in human faces
这事儿在他们的人生中
is way more important for its life
比区分猴子脸重要
than the differences in monkey faces,
所以更应该关注人脸而不是猴子脸
so it should focus more on humans than monkeys.
人脑成熟在这时最为旺盛 脑路习惯分辨
As the brain develops over time, the pathwaysused to recognize
人脸变得更加有用 辨识猴子脸的一部分将会褪去
human faces get more efficient, and the ones for monkeys get pruned away.
但研究者使小宝宝看许多猴子脸
But when researchers expose babies to lotsof monkey faces
那些6到9个月大的
between when they’re 6 and 9 months old,
他们深深地传达给小宝宝的小脑袋一个讯息
they effectively teach their brains
猴子是着重注意的对象
that monkeys are important to pay attention to,
他们能保持功能更长时间
so they keep that ability for a lot longer.
即使小宝宝一出生就携有很多技能
Even though babies are born with some skills,
经验有助于告诉他们哪部分
experience helps tell them what parts
是他们需要去关注的
of the world they should pay attention to,
这决定了他们小脑袋的知觉和辨识系统的发展 所以
and that shapes how their brain’s perceptionand recognition systems develop. So,
一点点
it’s a little bit
先天和一点点后天
of nature and a little bit of nurture
使得这可爱的大眼睛小宝宝凝视你
that goes into that cute, big-eyed baby staringat you.
是的 就在那一刻
And yeah, in that moment,
你的脸可能是这整个世界上最有趣的事物
your face might just be the most interesting thing on the planet.
但不要恼火
But don’t rule
也不排除你可能满嘴巧克力的状况
out the possibility that you might have a little chocolate on your face, too.
多谢观看本期《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych,
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brought to you by our patrons on Patreon.
如果你愿意
If you’d
赞助我们继续探索所有新奇纷繁的事
like to help us keep exploring all the weird and wonderful things
在我们脑中发生的事 请登录“patreon.com/scishow”
that happen in our brains, you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
[片尾♪]
[OUTRO ♪]

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视频概述

既可以了解《发展心理学》,同时也可以知道什么是“知觉窄化”?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aR6pURirUCE

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