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蕃茄酱为什么不易倒出来? – 译学馆
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蕃茄酱为什么不易倒出来?

Why is ketchup so hard to pour? - George Zaidan

French fries are delicious.
薯条很好吃
French fries with ketchup are a little slice of heaven.
蘸番茄酱的薯条简直就是一片天堂
The problem is it’s basically impossible to pour the exactly right amount.
问题是 基本上不可能倒出适当的量
We’re so used to pouring ketchup that we don’t realize
我们并没有意识到自己习惯
how weird its behavior is.
去倒番茄酱行为有多奇怪
Imagine a ketchup bottle filled with a straight up solid like steel.
想象 番茄酱瓶装满纯固体 例如钢铁
No amount of shaking would ever get the steel out.
即使再大的摇晃也难以使钢铁出来
Now imagine that same bottle full of a liquid like water.
现在想象一下 同样的装满水的瓶
That would pour like a dream.
水梦幻般地一泻千里
Ketchup though, can’t seem to make up its mind.
然而 番茄酱并不会如此顺利倒出
Is it is a solid? Or a liquid?
番茄酱是固体还是液体?
The answer is, it depends.
答案是 视情况而定
The world’s most common fluids like water, oils and alcohols
世界上最常见的液体像水 油类 酒类
respond to force linearly.
对力的回应是线性的
If you push on them twice as hard, they move twice as fast.
如果你加倍挤压 它们会加速运动
Sir Isaac Newton, of apple fame, first proposed this relationship,
艾萨克•牛顿先生 因苹果得名 首先提出这种关系
and so those fluids are called Newtonian fluids.
所以 这些液体被称为牛顿流体
Ketchup is part of a merry band of linear rule breakers
番茄酱是线性规则破坏者中的一个
called Non-Newtonian fluids.
被称为非牛顿流体
Mayonnaise,toothpaste, blood, paint, peanut butter
蛋黄酱 牙膏 血液 油漆 花生酱
and lots of other fluids respond to force non-linearly.
以及其他很多液体 对力的回应是非线性的
That is, their apparent thickness changes
即 它们的表观厚度变化
depending on how hard you push, or how long, or how fast.
取决于你所挤压的力度 时间或速度
And ketchup is actually Non-Newtonian in two different ways.
番茄酱以两种不同的方式表现非牛顿流体性质
Way number one: the harder you push, the thinner ketchup seems to get.
第一种 力度越大 挤出的番茄酱越薄
Below a certain pushing force, ketchup basically behaves like a solid.
低于一定的作用力 番茄酱就像固体
But once you pass that breaking point,
一旦你的力度超过了断点
it switches gears and becomes a thousand times thinner than it was before.
番茄酱开始转变 变得比之前薄一千倍
Sound familiar right?
似曾相识 对吧?
Way number two: if you push with a force below the threshold force,
第二种 如果压力小于临界力
eventually,the ketchup will start to flow.
最终 番茄酱会开始流动
In this case, time, not force,
在这种情况下
is the key to releasing ketchup from its glassy prison.
使酱逃离瓶子的关键 是时间而非力度
Alright,so, why does ketchup act all weird?
为什么番茄酱的流动如此奇怪?
Well,it’s made from tomatoes, pulverized, smashed, thrashed,
番茄酱是由番茄粉碎研磨得到的
utterly destroyed tomatoes.
即完全粉碎的番茄
See these tiny particles?
看到这些小粒子了吗?
This is what remains of tomatoes cells after they go through the ketchup treatment.
这就是番茄酱粉碎后番茄粒子的模样
And the liquid around those particles?
那些粒子周围的液体呢?
That’s mostly water and some vinegar, sugar, and spices.
大部分都是水 醋 糖 和香料
When ketchup is just sitting around,
当番茄酱静置时
the tomato particles are evenly and randomly distributed.
番茄粒子会均匀随机地分布
Now,let’s say you apply a weak force very quickly.
打个比方 你迅速施一个很小的力
The particles bump into each other,
粒子会互相撞击
but can’t get out of each other’s way, so the ketchup doesn’t flow.
但是没办法逃离彼此 所以番茄酱不流动
Now,let’s say you apply a strong force very quickly.
打个比方 现在 你快速用力
That extra force is enough to squish the tomato particles,
额外的力量足以压坏番茄粒子
so maybe instead of little spheres,
可能不再是小球体
they get smushed into little ellipses, and boom!
相互挤压变成小椭圆体 然后嘣
Now you have enough space for one group
现在有足够的空间
of particles to get passed others and the ketchup flows.
使粒子通过 番茄酱开始流动
Now let’s say you apply a very weak force but for a very long time.
打个比方 你持续施加一个小的力道
Turns out, we’re not exactly sure what happens in this scenario.
结果是 我们无法确定这种情形下会发生什么
One possibility is that the tomato particles
一种可能是
near the walls of the container
靠近瓶壁的番茄粒子
slowly get bumped towards the middle,
慢慢地向中间撞击
leaving the soup they were dissolved in,
离开原来所溶于的番茄酱体
which remember is basically water, near the edges.
即 之前提及的靠近瓶壁的水
That water serves as a lubricant betwen the glass bottle
水在玻璃瓶和番茄酱中心区域
and the center plug of ketchup,
担任润滑剂的角色
and so the ketchup flows.
所以 番茄酱会流动
Another possibility is that the particles slowly rearrange themselves
另外一种可能性是
into lots of small groups, which then flow past each other.
粒子之间重新排列成相互流动的小组
Scientists who study fluid flows are still actively researching
研究液体流动的科学家仍然积极地研究
how ketchup and its merry friends work.
番茄酱和它的好朋友是如何工作的
Ketchup basically gets thinner the harder you push,
压力越大 番茄酱就变得越薄
but other substances, like oobleck or some natural peanut butters,
但其他物质 例如欧不裂或天然花生酱
actually get thicker the harder you push.
若压力越大 它们会变得越厚
Others can climb up rotating rods,
一旦开始挤压
or continue to pour themselves out of a beeker,
其他物质能够爬到旋转棒上
once you get them started.
或继续被挤压出烧杯
From a physics perspective,
从物理学方面来说
though,ketchup is one of the more complicated mixtures out there.
虽然番茄酱是一种较复杂的混合物
And as if that weren’t enough, the balance of ingredients
似乎这还不够
and the presence of natural thickeners like xanthan gum,
成分的平衡和天然增稠剂的存在 比如黄原胶
which is also found in many fruit drinks and milkshakes,
这种很多水果饮料和奶昔都包含的东西
can mean that two different ketchups can behave completely differently.
能够表明 两种不同的番茄酱表现完全不同
But most will show two telltale properties:
但大多都会显示两种特征:
sudden thinning at a threshold force,
施加阙值力时突然变薄
and more gradual thinning after a small force is applied for a long time.
施加持续的小的力度后 逐渐变薄
And that means you could get ketchup
这就意味着
out of the bottle in two ways:
有两种方法把番茄酱倒出瓶子:
either give it a series of long, slow languid shakes
要么长时间轻微地摇晃
making sure you don’t ever stop applying force,
确保施加持续的力
or you could hit the bottle once very, very hard.
或者使劲击一次瓶子
What the real pros do is keep the lid on,
最好的方法是盖上盖子
give the bottle a few short, sharp shakes
短暂而有力地摇晃瓶子
to wake up all those tomato particles, and
来唤醒番茄粒子
then take the lid off and do a nice
然后取下盖子
controlled pour onto their heavenly fries.
有控制地把番茄酱倒在薯条上

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番茄酱为什么不像其他液体一样能顺利地倒出来?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KB43fM_ozKQ

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