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为什么做决定这么难?

Why Is It So Hard to Make a Decision?

This episode is sponsored by Ground News,
本期节目由Ground News赞助
a new website and app that lets you compare
一个全新的网站及APP
how major events are being covered.
供您比较各大事件如何被报道
Head to ground.news/scishowpsych or click the link in the description
前往ground.news/scishowpsych或单击描述中的链接
to download the free app.
下载免费APP
[♪ INTRO]
[开场曲]
So maybe you want to be an organ donor or exercise more.
也许你想成为器官捐献者 想多运动
But have you done it?
但你做到了吗?
I’ve done half of those things…
这些事我都半途而废了
It can be really hard to do things that you know you want to do.
你知道自己想做什么 但做起来非常困难
Because sometimes you want to make a change but never get around to it.
因为有时你想做出改变 但永远抽不出时间
Sometimes you just don’t know how to get it done.
有时你就是不知道该怎么做
And sometimes you try to do too much too fast.
有时你想做的太多 欲速则不达
These are all legitimate barriers to just doing that thing already.
这些都是阻止你行动的正当理由
But giving change a chance has its benefits.
但尝试改变是有好处的
And psychology can give some insights into your decision-making,
当你决定做或决定不做某件事时
or not decision-making, process.
心理学能为你提供一些见解
Humans are complicated.
人性很复杂
Your actions don’t always align with your preferences.
你的行为和意愿不一定相符
For example, a Gallup survey published in 1993
比如 1993年发表的一项盖洛普调查显示
found that 85% of Americans like the idea of donating an organ,
85%的美国人愿意捐献器官
but only 28% were registered organ donors.
但只有28%的人是注册器官捐献者
Sometimes you really want to do something,
有时你真的很想做某件事
but it just never makes it onto the to-do list.
却从来没把它加到待办事项里
And in many ways, this is totally understandable.
从很多方面来说 这完全可以理解
But when that inertia is not in your way,
但当惰性不再成为阻碍
more people’s actions align with their preferences.
更多的人就能根据意愿做事
A study in 2012 published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science
2012年发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一项研究
found that organ donation rates are drastically higher
发现一些国家的器官捐献率特别高
in countries that automatically make everyone a donor.
这些国家的公民都被自动列为器官捐献者
Now, in those countries, you can still opt out of donating,
而他们仍然可以选择“不捐”
just like how in the US you can opt into donating.
而在美国 你要选择是否“捐献”
In opt-in countries, organ donation rates are 15%,
选择“捐献”的国家 器官捐献率为15%
while in opt-out countries, it’s 90%.
而选择“不捐”的国家 捐献率是90%
The percentage of organ donors in opt-out countries aligns very well
“不捐”国家的器官捐献者比例
with the percentage of well-intentioned US citizens.
和“善良”的美国公民比较搭
But because the burden of making that call and putting yourself on the donation list
但因为打电话把自己放到捐献名单上这事
is on the individual in the US, our organ donation rates are low.
对美国人压力太大 所以捐献率这么低
So if you’re finding it hard to make that decision that you know you want to make,
所以当你感到很难做出想做的决定
there could be a similar hurdle getting in your way.
你所处的困境可能是类似的
But sometimes it’s more that you just have no idea where to start.
但有时你更多地只是觉得无从开始
A study conducted in 1965 by researchers at Rutgers found that
1965年罗格斯大学的一项研究发现
people were much more likely to get a tetanus shot
给人们提供一份行动计划
when they were also provided with an action plan.
能提高破伤风疫苗接种率
Participants were given one of four pamphlets
受试者会拿到四种手册中的任意一种
that either outlined the risks of tetanus in a very frightful way,
其中两种用可怕语气描述破伤风的风险
like outlining the consequences of not getting the shot,
比如列明不打疫苗的后果
to instill fear in the reader,
以此向读者灌输恐惧
or in a less frightful way.
另两种则采用平淡的描述方式
And those pamphlets also either provided specific or nonspecific
同时 其中两种就如何预约和注射疫苗
recommendations for how to schedule an appointment and get the shot.
提供了具体建议 另外两种则很模糊
And the researchers found that in the next four to six weeks,
研究人员发现 在接下来的4到6周内
27.6% of the people who had specific action items
得到具体预防接种建议的人中
went to get a tetanus shot,
有27.6%打了疫苗
while only 3.37% of those who received
而未得到具体建议的人中
nonspecific prevention recommendations followed up with a shot.
只有3.37%后来接种了疫苗
Importantly, none of the people who read the scary pamphlet and got nonspecific recommendations
重要的是 既读了恐怖小册子又没得到具体建议的人中
ended up getting a tetanus shot afterward.
最终没有一个去打破伤风疫苗
So fear is not enough on its own to cause a behavioral change.
因此 恐惧本身不是行为改变的独立因素
A specific action plan is sometimes what it takes to make that move.
有时一个具体的计划才是采取行动的必要条件
And when making an action plan, you might be stalled by the idea
在制定行动计划时 你可能会因为
that it doesn’t accomplish everything you hoped for all at once.
不能一次性完成所有的想法而止步不前
All-or-nothing thinking can shut everything down.
孤注一掷的思维会让一切成为不可能
But making incremental progress toward things you want to get done
欲为之 循序渐进
still eventually gets you where you want to end up.
终亦能如愿
For example, a study published in the journal Health Psychology
例如 发表在《健康心理学》杂志上的一项研究发现
found that people who go from not exercising at all
完全不运动的人突然进行高强度锻炼
to suddenly doing high-intensity workouts were less likely to finish their workouts,
完成锻炼的可能性较小
compared to people who started with moderate exercises.
而从中等强度锻炼开始的人完成度更高
Jumping straight into high-intensity workouts is less sustainable than easing into it,
直接开始高强度锻炼比循序渐进更难以持续
because people can either burn out mentally or injure themselves physically.
因为突然的高强度会让人精神倦怠或受伤
And in this study, easing into it refers to the intensity
此研究中 循序渐进是指锻炼强度层面
but not the frequency of exercise.
而锻炼频率保持不变
If you make a habit of exercising every day
如果你每天保持缓慢稳定的锻炼强度
and keep the intensity slow and steady, you’re more likely to keep doing it.
并形成习惯 你就更有可能坚持下去
But not when you try to do too hard of a workout right away.
若你马上进行高强度锻炼 就难以坚持
So even when you know exactly what you want to do,
所以 即使你明确知道自己想干什么
sometimes making those easy decisions and doing the thing is hard.
有时要做个简单的决定干它 其难也
But research suggests that removing obstacles for yourself, making a game plan,
但研究表明 排除阻难 制定游戏计划
and moving forward gradually can get you to your end goal.
循序渐进 就能让你达成最终目标
And this brings us to a much more difficult decision.
现在我们要做一个更困难的决定
We’re sad to share that after next week’s video,
很遗憾地告诉大家 下周节目过后
SciShow Psych will be going on an indefinite hiatus.
本节目《心理科学秀》将无限期停播
Over the last five years, we have had the privilege of making videos on this channel
过去五年 我们有幸在这个频道制作节目
exploring the wonderful and complex world of psychology and the human mind.
探索奇妙而复杂的心理学和人类心理世界
In 2022, we’re excited to spend more time making episodes
2022年 我们很高兴能花更多时间
over on our main channel, SciShow,
在我们的主频道《科学秀》上制作剧集
where all of our future psychology content will be shared.
未来所有的心理学内容都将在那里分享
And all of the videos already on this channel will still be available.
这个频道上播出的所有视频仍然可以收看
Here. Forever. To watch any time.
永远 随时 都能在这里观看
Thank you so much for your support of SciShow Psych over the years.
非常感谢您多年来对《心理科学秀》的支持
And another huge thank you to today’s sponsor, Ground News.
再次感谢今天的赞助商Ground News
This channel is all about the human brain and the ways we interact with the world.
这个频道是关于人脑和我们与世界互动的方式
How we consume news is also a big part of how we perceive the world around us.
如何消化新闻也是我们感知周围世界的一个重要部分
There’s so much information available on the Internet,
互联网上有如此之多的信息
but often, an algorithm decides what you see.
但通常会有一个算法决定你看到什么
And this tends to sort us into ideological bubbles.
这往往会让我们陷入意识形态泡沫
If you’re interested in seeing how a single news story
如果您有兴趣了解单单一条新闻故事
is being covered across the political spectrum,
是如何被各种政治派别所报道的
you might be interested in checking out Ground News.
你可能会对Ground News感兴趣
Ground News is a new website and app
Ground News是一个全新网站和APP
that shows you the bias of some media outlets
向你揭示某些媒体的偏倚
and lets you compare how they’re framing a major event or issue
让你比较不同的新闻机构
compared to other news organizations.
如何对一个重大事件或问题有不同的构建
It’s a great tool for curious people who want to cut through media bias
对于想要消除媒体偏见 重点关注科学或健康的
and follow the issues that matter most to them – like science or health.
好奇宝宝们 这是一个很好的工具
You can see every side of every news story
通过登陆ground.news/scishowpsych
by going to ground.news/scishowpsych
了解每个新闻故事的方方面面
or click the link in the description to download the free app.
或者点击说明中的链接下载免费APP
Thank you again for watching this episode, and other episodes, of SciShow Psych!
再次感谢您收看本集以及《心理科学秀》的其他节目!

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视频概述

即使你知道你想做什么,有时候真正去做一件事是很难的。幸运的是,研究表明有一些方法可以让做决定更简单。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

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审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=duPUrUuofI0

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