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日本人为什么不容易长胖? – 译学馆
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日本人为什么不容易长胖?

Why is it so Easy to be Thin in Japan?

如果你曾来过日本
If you’ve ever been Japan,
或许已经发现这里基本上看不到肥胖的日本人
you may have noticed that it’s really hard to find an
而在美国则是完全不同
obese Japanese person. In United States, it’s quite a different story.
在美国成年人肥胖比例为30%左右
The rate of obesity among adults in America is on average around 30 %
而在日本只有3.5%
whereas the Japan obesity rate is only 3.5%.
究竟是什么导致两个国家的国民体重有如此大的差别呢?
But what makes the weight of people in these two countries so different?
“日本人怎么了?”
“Why Japanese people?”
起初我认为是因为
At first, I was thinking about things like…
日本人喝大量绿茶
Japanese people drink a lot of green tea
而且吃大量的发酵食品
and they get a decent amout of fermented foods
比如泡菜和纳豆这些食物对肠道微生物菌有益
like kimuchi or nattou which is great for the gut microbiome.
但在本视频中 我想讲一个很简单但又很关键的点
But in this video I want to focus on the very simple yet key point about Japan.
就是两国之间饮食环境的差异
The food environment is drastically different from the US.
截至2017年美国有超过243000间快餐店
As of 2017 there’s over 243,000 Fast foodestablishments in America.
而日本仅有6169间
There’s only 6,169 establishments in Japan,
也就是说 美国人均快餐店的数量是日本的15倍
meaning per person, there’s about 15 times more fast food restaurants in America.
“为什么要吃麦当劳?”
“Why macudonarudo?”
话说回来 在日本 快餐 油炸食品 薯片
Then again, in Japan, fast food, fried food, chips,
巧克力 糖果 汽水 这些不健康的食品
chocolate, candy, soda, and not so
依然随处可见
healthy things are still available wherever you go.
但日本人也可以选择同样便利及种类繁多的健康食品
But there’s a huge variety of equally convenientreasonably healthy food.
假设我是一个具有健康意识的美国人
Let’s say I’m the average busy person in the states who would like to be healthy
和大家一样工作繁忙 没有时间做饭
but doesn’t have time to cook at home.
早餐吃什么呢?
What’s for breakfast?
大部分人没啥可选
Most people’s options are limited to things
比如一份汉堡配薯饼和咖啡
like a McGriddle with Hashbrowns and coffee,
或者在Dunkin’Donuts点一份
or maybe an Egg and processed Cheese sandwich
带炸薯球的芝士鸡蛋三明治
with tater tots at Dunkin’Donuts, or some
如果时间允许的话可以要一份Denny’s的薄煎饼
pancakes at Denny’s if you have more time.
当然 有一些人会有更健康的选择
Surely some people have more healthy options,
但是我说的是普遍情况
but I’m trying to think of what most people are going to have access to.
那么 日本的快速早餐是什么样的呢?
So what’s a quick breakfast in Japan?
虽然在日本有超过6000家快餐店
While there’s more than 6000 fast food establishmentsin Japan,
但这儿也有5000家日式米饭快餐连锁店
there’s also 5000″rice bowl” establishments.
其中几个最大的是吉野家 食其家以及松屋
The big ones are Yoshinoya, Sukiya and Matsuya.
而在食其家吃一顿早饭只需要4美元
And for 4 dollars at Sukiya, for breakfast
套餐内包括一碗白饭 一碗海带味增汤
you can get Plain Rice, Miso Soup with Seaweed,
一个煮鸡蛋 一条烤鱼以及一小份的土豆沙拉
an Egg, baked fish, and a small potato salad comes with it.
如果我特别饿 我可能会多花4美元 要一些泡菜 纳豆还有炖牛肉
If I’m extra hungry maybe I’ll add some kimchi, fermented soybeans and stewed beef for 4 more dollars
你也可以到便利商店买一份还不错的健康套餐
Or, you can put together a reasonably healthy meal from a convenience store.
在一家日式便利店
At a Japanese convenience store,
我可以买到一个三文鱼饭团 一小份沙拉
a rice ball which is just rice, salmon and salt, a small salad,
或是一份寿司 或是味增小鱼干 或是味噌汤
or a package of sushi, or a thing of fish with miso, or some soup
令人惊讶的是 这份早餐中几乎不含垃圾食品
I was pretty impressed with how little junk is in this.
基本上只有蔬菜 猪肉还有鱼汤
it’s basically just vegetables,pork and fish broth.
同样是10美元 在日本能买到各种不同的食品
And there’s a bunch of different foods like this
比如日本青豆 煮鸡蛋 沙拉 烤鱼 煮黄瓜 炖猪肉
-here’s what I can get for under 10 dollars USD.
但在美国的便利店
Compare this to what’s available in American convenience stores,
通常只能买到加热灯下放着的油炸食物
they usually limited to fried foods sitting under heat lamps
或满是反式脂肪酸 糖 防腐剂和不健康添加剂的食物
or foods loaded with trans fat, sugar, preservatives and unhealthy additives.
当然运气好的话
If you’re lucky you might be
你也许可以买到一袋无添加的坚果
able to get a package of plain nuts with nothing added.
也许日本便利店的食品称不上最健康的
So the items in Japanese convenience stores are not top quality health foods,
但也还不错
but they’re not bad.
重点是 几乎所有人都可以去这些地方
This is big because practically everyone has access to these places, convenience stores
便利店随处可见
like these are everywhere.
日本有差不多55000家便利店
Japan has about 55,000 convenience stores
也就是说每平方公里
meaning there’s about 10 times more convenience
美国的便利店数量仅为日本的十分之一
stores per square kilometer in Japan comparedto America.
对大多数日本人来说 走几步路就能看到便利店
For most, these places are in walking distance.
当然 在美国也有不少比较健康的餐馆
I understand that of course there are healthy restaurants here and there in America and
你也可以去市场买材料自己做真正健康的膳食
you can make a really healthy meal with ingredients from the supermarket.
但是 一般便宜 方便 快捷的食物
But when it comes to cheap, convenient and quick food –
大都不怎么健康
it’s almost always quite unhealthy.
在日本 午餐想吃快餐
In Japan, for a quick lunch,
可以去汉堡王
I can go to burger king, or right next
或者去旁边吃寿司
door I can get some sushi.
我可以在“Vandalism咖啡”吃汉堡和爆米花
I can get a Hamburger and some Popcorn at Vandalism cafe,
也可以去隔壁的松屋要一碗
or I can go next door to Matsuya and get a bowl of spicy tofu soup
有少许牛肉 大葱 卷心菜的辣豆腐汤
with a bit of beef, green onion and cabbage,
一份猪肉 一个太阳蛋 一些芥末菠菜
some pork, a soft boiled egg, some mustard spinach,
配上米饭和免费的泡姜
rice and there’s free pickled ginger to go with it.
当然 也可以选择一些非连锁式店铺
And of course there are many healthier non-chain places
他们会提供丰富又健康的食物 这是非常重要的
that offer many different types of cuisine, and this variety is important.
不必因在同一个地方总吃同一种食物而感到厌烦
It’s going to be much easier
这样也更容易坚持健康的饮食习惯
to stick to healthier options if you aren’t getting bored of having to eat the same things at the same places over and over.
即使你打算与朋友晚上出去喝一杯
Even if you’re going out to drink with friends at dinner time, there’s still a variety
也有大量可选的健康美食
of good food choices.
最适于饮酒的地方莫过于居酒屋
The standard place to drink at is an izakaya –
近10000家居酒屋遍布日本
at 10,000 establishments, there’s almost
几乎是日本快餐店的两倍
twice as many izakayas as there are fast food places in Japan.
酒肯定是代替不了快餐的
Replacing fast food for alcohol is not a good strategy,
但我们可以看看常见的连锁居酒屋能提供什么食物
but let’s see what one of the common izakaya chains have to offer in theway of food.

再一次声明
Let me point out one more time that there’s
日本人不会天天在便利店 日式快餐店
of course much better quality food than what
以及居酒屋解决饮食问题
you get at convenience stores,
大多数的日本人并不会每天都吃快餐
rice bowl chains or izakayas and this is not what most Japanese people eat on a daily basis.
而且我也不推荐便利店等地方
I’m not really recommending these places either –
大多数日本人也认为这些地方并不“健康”
Most Japanese people wouldn’t think of these places as “healthy”. But,
但这个视频想讨论的不是如何吃最健康
this isn’t about optimal health.
我只是想指出
I just mean to point out
在日本 不需要花费很多精力
that even someone who puts minimal effort into being healthy
也能方便地吃到相对健康的膳食
can get some reasonable quality meals out of these very convenient places.
那么 吃饭的时候喝的又是什么呢
By the way, what’s everyone drinking withand between meals?
在美国 汽水可以说是首选
In America, more often than not it’s soda,
一项调查显示
considering a survey of 80 countries found
2011年 80个国家中
that America comes in at rank # 1
美国人均汽水消耗量达170升 居世界首位
for soda consumption at 170 liters purchased per person in 2011.
日本人均32升 排名56
Japan came in at rank # 56 at 32 liters per person.
在日本大多数地方 用餐期间有免费茶供应
In Japan most places serve tea with your meal
而且通常很难买到大瓶装汽水
for free and in general it’s harder to purchase massive quantities of soda –
日本711的杯子不像美国那样大得夸张
there’s no comically large big gulps at seven eleven,
在这我也没见到过这种包装的汽水
I haven’t seen these packs of soda here,
日本麦当劳的大杯是世界上最小的
and Japan has the smallest “ large ” cup size at McDonald’s –
美国的中杯要比日本的大杯还要大
An American medium size drink is bigger than a Japanese large.
日本们很少喝汽水的另一个原因就是 他们有很多选择
Another factor to thank for keeping people’ssoda intake low is again: variety.
有趣的是 即使日本人的汽水饮用量是美国人的1/6
What’s interesting is despite Japan drinking 5 times less soda than America,
你依然可以在随处可见的贩卖机中买到汽水
soda is available in vending machines everywhere in Japan.
在日本有552万台贩卖机
There’s 5.52 million vending machines,
意味着每23个人拥有一台
meaning there is a vending machine for every 23 people
已经是世界上最高的人均拥有量
in Japan – that’s the highest vending machine per capita on the planet.
那这些贩卖机里有什么呢
So what’s in these vending machines?
不如来看看在箱根中部偏僻街头
Why don’t we take a look at this vending machine I came
看到的这台贩卖机里
across on the side of the road
有什么东西吧
in the middle of nowhere in Hakone.
这里有黑咖啡 六种不同类型的无糖茶和水
Among other things, They have black coffee, Six different types of unsweetened tea and water .
在美国通常贩卖机会出售13种饮品
A typical american vending machine offers 13 varieties
唯一不甜的就是水
of drink, the only non-sweet one being water.
仅仅是方便易得和种类繁多就造成了差别
So convenience and variety – simple, but itmakes a difference.
如果健康食品和垃圾食品一样选择多又很方便
It’s easier to pick the healthy choices when they are just as easy and convenient
那肯定选健康的
as the unhealthier choices.
当然导致这种情况的因素还有很多
Now this is by no means the full story
但我认为这两个因素 是最重要的
on Japan and health, but I think these are two key factors.
后续我也会做几期视频
I’ll be doing another video on some
有关日本健康的其他事情
of the many other things that contribute to health in Japan,
如果有你特别想了解的 请在下面留言
so if there’s a particular point you want to hear discussed, leave a comment below.

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视频概述

本视频从吃喝两方面将日本与美国进行了对比,告诉我们为什么日本人不容易长胖

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

孟璐璐啊

审核员

审核员BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lr4MmmWQtZM

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