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为什么倒车很难? – 译学馆
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为什么倒车很难?

Why is it Harder to Drive Backwards?

当转动方向盘的角度不变时 无论前行还是后退
When you turn a car’s steering wheel a certain amount, the car follows the same arc regardless of
车的行驶轨迹不会改变
whether you go forwards or backwards.
因此 倒车看起来好像和前行一样简单
So it seems like it should be just as easy to steer going backwards as going forwards.
但是显然并不是这样
But clearly, it’s not.
令人惊讶的是 倒车的难度与你所面对的方向
Suprisingly, the difficulty of driving backwards has almost nothing to do
几乎没有任何关系
with the direction you’re facing
这主要与你用前轮控制方向有关
and everything to do with the fact that you steer using the front wheels.
当前行时 汽车朝前轮指向的方向行驶
When driving forwards, a car goes in the direction the front wheels are pointed.
而倒车时 汽车朝后轮指向的方向行驶
And when driving backwards, the car goes where the back wheels are pointed.
简单吧!
Simple!
但不同的是 前行时
But the difference is that going forwards,
行进方向同样也由你控制的方向盘决定
the direction of travel is determined by the same wheels you steer with,
所以想朝哪个方向走
so you just point them where you want to go,
转方向盘就行了
and that’s where you go,
后轮会自动跟随
the back wheels follow automatically.
在物理学中 我们称之为稳定系统
In physics, we call this a “stable” system,
就像手里捏一根铅笔
like dangling a pencil from your fingers – move your hand around
手动 铅笔就跟着动 不需要考虑
and the pencil follows, no thought required.
然而 倒车时
However, when driving backwards,
行进方向由后轮控制
the direction of travel is determined by the back wheels,
但方向盘控制的是前轮
but you steer with the front wheels.
所以 不只是再通过前轮控制方向
So rather than just pointing the front wheels where you want to go,
你需要通过它来调整后轮指向
you have to point them in the direction that will get the BACK wheels
你想要的行进方向
to point in the direction you want to go,
想让车按你想的方向走 这些是需要你额外考虑的
it’s an additional level of separation before the car does what you want.
事实上 如果你不做任何修正
And in fact, if you don’t make any corrections,
随着时间的推移后轮就会
then over time the back wheels point farther
越来越偏离你想要的方向
and farther away from the direction you want to go:
车就会失控
instead of following the front wheels,
而不是按前轮的轨迹行进
they want to run away!
这是不稳定系统 就像试图让铅笔在指尖上保持平衡一样
This is an unstable system, like trying to balance a pencil on your fingertip.
这很难操作 需要手眼保持高度协调
It’s incredibly finicky and requires a ton of coordinated hand-eye feedback to maintain.
这也是倒车时 要不断调整方向盘的原因
That’s why you constantly have to readjust your steering when driving backwards,
数学上来说 你的车就像一支倒立的铅笔
mathematically, your car is like an upside-down pencil!
当然 也有一些后驱的汽车
Of course, there are some successful rear-steering wheeled vehicles,
例如 叉车 它们的行驶速度很慢
forklifts, for example, drive only slowly
它们用后轮进行转向 以便更好地控制叉子
and choose rear-steering for greater control of their forks.
让我们从另一方面考虑 给你的汽车
But let’s go in the other direction and add a trailer to your car,
再加一辆拖车 倒车的难度就更大了
steering backwards has gained another level of difficulty:
你用前轮控制后轮
you use your front wheels to get the back wheels
来指引拖车
to point in the direction needed to get the TRAILER
驶向所需的方向
to point in the direction you want to go.
还不够复杂
Not complicated enough
你添加的拖车越多 情况就越复杂
It becomes worse the more trailers you add
每加一辆拖车
each one adds another level of separation
你的操控难度就会增加一级
between the direction of your steering and the actual direction of travel.
这就是为什么推动链条或绳子的一端 让另一端朝
That’s why it’s nearly impossible to push on one end of a chain or a rope
你想去的方向移动 几乎是不可能的
and have the other end go where you want it to,
也是为什么你永远也不能让柔软的绳子
and why you will never, ever balance a flexible rope
在你的手指上直立的原因
or chain upright on your finger.
这样显得倒车其实也并不难
Which makes backwards driving seem downright easy!
谢谢大家到Littlebits来支持微小物理
Thank you to Littlebits for supporting this episode of minute physics.
Littlebits制作了这些小的电子模块
Littlebits makes these little module electronics kits
你只需要通过磁性将这些模块贴到一起
You just snap these pieces together
额……你即使不懂焊接
Uh…… you don’t even know anything about soldering
我没有物理老师指导
I don’t have a theoretical physicist
我不碰电子器件
I don’t touch real electronics
但是你看可以做一个电路回路
but you know, here look can make a little circuit
让LED灯闪闪发光
make a blinking light LED on
这里还有伺服马达
there’s also things like servos
也有一些需要自己组装的模块
they have some fancy yourself too
这个模块可以连接无线
this one connects to the wireless
当我按下按钮 它会呼叫我的手机
When I press the button it should call my cell phone
如果它连接了网络 我就把它打开
that I have it set up on If this in the net
你可以在Littlebits.com上自己选购电子模块
you can start exploring electronics yourself at littlebits.com
如果你使用宣传码 minute physics
If you use promo code minute physics
当购买满80美元 你可以获得20美元的优惠
They’ll give you twenty dollars off any purchase of eighty dollars or more
我不知道具体的价格 因为这是他们免费给我的
I don’t know exactly how much one of these kids are since they sent it to me for free
所有的模块是装在这个小袋子里面寄过来的
but it comes in the little bag thing with all the electronics in it
额 我想这个模块现在准备好了
Um. I think this one back here is set up now.
所以如果我按按钮
So if I press the button
它应该在某个时候呼叫我的手机
it should at some point call my cell phone
我们看一下它需要多长时间
We’ll see how long it takes to do
它应该要激活
It’s supposed to activate
我们看看会发生什么情况
Let’s see. Let’s see what happens
总之 再次感谢到Littlebits来支持微小物理
So anyway, thank you again to Littlebits for supporting minute physics
如果你去littlebits.com选购 你可以使用宣传码 minute physics来获得折扣
And if you go to littlebits.com, you can use promo code minute physics to get a discount
这也会让他们知道你们是这里介绍过去的 谢谢你们的支持
And it also let them know that you came from here. So thank you for supporting me
哦……我想我要接到这个模块打来的电话了
Um, oh, I think i’m getting phone call from a little bit thing
我们看它会说什么
Let’s see what it says

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视频概述

倒车真的像你想过的那么简单吗?看看这个视频吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

winter

审核员

审核员CX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iFwfexZstO4

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