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为什么希罗多德被称作历史之父? – 译学馆
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为什么希罗多德被称作历史之父?

Why is Herodotus called “The Father of History”? - Mark Robinson

“环境支配人类 人类倚赖环境”
“Circumstances rule men;men do not rule circumstances.”
巨大的掘金蚁
Giant gold-digging ants,
暴怒的帝王下令
a furious king who orders the
鞭笞大海300下
sea to be whipped 300 times,
海豚将著名诗人从溺死的边缘救回
and a dolphin that saves a famous poet from drowning.
这些故事都是
These are just some of the stories
著作《历史》中故事的一部分
from The Histories by Herodotus,
其作者希罗多德 是公元前5世纪的古希腊作家
an Ancient Greek writer from the 5th century BCE.
并不是所有的故事都确切地
Not all the events in the text may have happened
像他的文字中所记录的那样发生过
exactly as Herodotus reported them,
但他的努力却变革了记录历史的方式
but this work revolutionized the way the past was recorded.
在希罗多德之前 历史只是由一件件的事情组成
Before Herodotus, the past was documented as a list of events
基本上没有或很少解释发生的原因
with little or no attempt to explain their causes
除了将原因归为诸神的意志
beyond accepting things as the will of the gods.
而希罗多德想要更深层次的 更理性的解释
Herodotus wanted a deeper, more rational understanding,
因此他采用了一个新方法:
so he took a new approach:
观察事物的两面 以求理解背后的原因
looking at events from both sides to understand the reasons for them.
尽管他是希腊人 但他的故乡哈利卡尔那索斯
Though he was Greek, Herodotus’s hometown of Halicarnassus
却隶属波斯帝国
was part of the Persian Empire.
他在强大的波斯帝国
He grew up during a series
与偏弱的希腊人的一系列战争中
of wars between the powerful Persians
成长起来
and the smaller Greeks,
并决定要找出两方发生战争的原因
and decided to find out all he could about the subject.
在希罗多德的叙述中 公元前449年 波斯战争
In Herodotus’s telling, the Persian Wars began in 499 BCE,
从雅典人帮助了波斯统治下的希腊人的叛乱开始
when the Athenians assisted a rebellion by Greeks living under Persian rule.
前490年 波斯帝王大流士
In 490, the Persian King, Darius,
发兵雅典 报复希腊人
sent his army to take revenge on Athens.
但在马拉松战役中 雅典人取得了出乎意料的胜利
But at the Battle of Marathon, the Athenians won an unexpected victory.
十年后 波斯人卷土重来
Ten years later, the Persians returned,
在大流士的儿子塞瑟斯的领导下
planning to conquer the whole of Greece
意图征服整个希腊
under the leadership of Darius’s son, Xerxes.
据希罗多德载 当塞瑟斯抵达雅典时
According to Herodotus, when Xerxes arrived,
他的百万大军却一开始就在塞莫皮莱的一个山口遭到
his million man army was initially opposed by a Greek force
由300位斯巴达勇士领导的希腊军的抵抗
led by 300 Spartans at the mountain pass of Thermopylae.
波斯军队伤亡惨重
At great cost to the Persians,
斯巴达人和斯巴达国王列奥尼达也在战斗中丧生
the Spartans and their king, Leonidas, were killed.
这次英勇的抗争从此对处于劣势的人们是一种激励
This heroic defeat has been an inspiration to underdogs ever since.
数周后 希腊海军用计将波斯舰队
A few weeks later, the Greek navy tricked the Persian fleet
引入了希腊附近一条狭长的海上通道 再次进行战斗
into fighting in a narrow sea channel near Athens.
波斯军队战败 塞瑟斯逃亡 从此再未进军希腊
The Persians were defeated and Xerxes fled, never to return.
为了解释这些战争是如何发生的
To explain how these wars broke
以及希腊人为什么会胜利
out and why the Greeks triumphed,
希罗多德收集了所有地中海区域人们的说法
Herodotus collected stories from all around the Mediterranean.
他趁着希腊人和非希腊人的成就
He recorded the achievements of bothGreeks and non-Greeks
还未被时间湮没之前 将它们记录下来
before they were lost to the passage of time.
《历史》中以这句著名的句子开头:
The Histories opens with the famous sentence: “Herodotus,
“哈利卡尔那索斯的希罗多德 由此展开他的探索”
of Halicarnassus, here displays his inquiries.”
该书被他设计成一种“探索”的模式
By framing the book as an “inquiry,”
因此可以包含很多不同的故事
Herodotus allowed it to contain many different stories,
有些严肃 有些不太严肃
some serious, others less so.
他既记录波斯宫廷的内部争论
He recorded the internal debates of the Persian court
也记载埃及的飞蛇传说
but also tales of Egyptian flying snakes
还记录怎样抓住一条鳄鱼这样实用性的建议
and practical advice on how to catch a crocodile.
这种研究方法用希腊语来说就是”autopsy”
The Greek word for this method of research is”autopsy,”
意为“亲眼去看”
meaning”seeing for oneself.”
希罗多德是第一位这样的作家:通过综合各种收集到的证据来检验过去
Herodotus was the first writer to examine the past
这些证据比如”opsis” 意为“眼见为实”
by combining the different kinds of evidence he collected: opsis,
“akoe” 意为“传闻”
or eyewitness accounts, akoe, or hearsay,
以及”legomena” 意为“传统”
and ta legomena, or tradition.
他后来又用”gnome” 意为“理性”
He then used gnome, or reason,
来推测得出真实发生的事情
to reach conclusions about what actually happened.
《历史》的早期读者很多实际上都是听众
Many of the book’s early readers were actually listeners.
这本书起初写了28卷
The Histories was originally written in 28 sections,
每卷大声朗读完毕要花费约4个小时
each of which took about four hours to read aloud.
随着希腊的世界影响力和国力增强
As the Greeks increased in influence and power,
希罗多德的作品和他对于历史的观点传遍了地中海地区
Herodotus’s writing and the idea of history spread across the Mediterranean.
作为第一位真正的历史学家 希罗多德不是完美的
As the first proper historian, Herodotus wasn’t perfect.
有时候 在希腊和波斯两方他更倾向支持前者
On occasions, he favored the Greeks over the Persians
也会过于轻信
and was too quick to believe some
某些他所听到的故事
of the stories that he heard,
这也就导致了他作品中有不准确的地方
which made for inaccuracies.
但是 现代证据事实上已经证明
However, modern evidence has actually explained
他的某些很明显的极端观点
some of his apparently extreme claims.
比如 喜马拉雅山脉上确实有一种土拨鼠
For instance, there’s a species of marmot in the Himalayas
它们在挖土的时候会散落金粉
that spreads gold dust while digging.
古波斯语中土拨鼠的写法与
The ancient Persian word
希腊语中蚂蚁的写法着实很像
for marmot is quite close to the word for ant,
所以希罗多德可能只是犯了一个翻译上的错误
so Herodotus may have just fallen prey to a translation error.
总之 说到某个以全新风格写作的人
All in all, for someone who was writing in an entirely new style,
希罗多德做的非常出色
Herodotus did remarkably well.
从古至今的历史记载
History, right down to the present day,
总是承载着历史学家们的
has always suffered from the partiality
偏见和错误
and mistakes of historians.
希罗多德的做法 使他在数百年后
Herodotus’s method and creativity earned him the title
获得罗马作家西塞罗赋予他的称号:
that the Roman author Cicero gave him several hundred years later:
“历史之父”
“The Father of History.”
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视频概述

希罗多德被称为“历史之父”是因为他变革了历史的记录方式~

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

海参崴

审核员

审核员V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A542ixwyBhc

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