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为什么直布罗陀不属于西班牙?

Why is Gibraltar not part of Spain?

Gibraltar, on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula,
位于伊比利亚半岛南部的直布罗陀
has a long and complex history.
拥有悠久而复杂的历史
Throughout the centuries many have coveted the land,
几个世纪以来 许多人觊觎过这片土地
and who wouldn’t?
谁不想拥有它呢?
The Rock of Gibraltar boasts panoramic views
直布罗陀巨岩拥有
of the Mediterranean Sea and North African coast.
地中海和北非海岸的全景视角
and is strategically located at the gateway to the Atlantic
巨岩战略上位于通往大西洋的门户
its location, location, location at its best!
它的位置 位置 位置是最有优势的!
Today, at just 6.7 square kilometres
今天 在这占地6.7平方公里的地方
and home to over 30,000 people
居住着超过3万人
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory.
直布罗陀是英国的海外领土
So why is a small piece of land on the southern end of Spain,
那么 为什么西班牙南端的这一小块土地
one of the last remaining colonies of the British Empire?
会是大英帝国仅存的殖民地之一呢?
Soliloquy
频道名:《独白》
We pick up our story in October 1700.
我们回到1700年10月
The Kingdom of Spain,
在查尔斯二世时期
with Charles the Second on the throne, controls Gibraltar.
西班牙帝国掌控着直布罗陀
Generations of royal inbreeding
王室几代人的近亲通婚
had left Charles physically, emotionally, and mentally retarded
使查尔斯在身体 情感和精神上都很迟钝
as well as infertile.
而且不能生育
He died childless on the first of November,
他死于11月1日 没有儿女
leaving Spain without a clear heir.
没有给西班牙留下一个明确的继承人
European powers had seen this coming
欧洲列强预见到了这一点
and had attempted to make diplomatic arrangements.
并试图做出外交安排
There were three competing claims for the throne
有三个国家试图争夺王位
from Austria, France and Bavaria.
它们是奥地利 法国和巴伐利亚
Bavaria being the weakest of the three
三个国家中最弱的巴伐利亚
was preferred by European leaders.
受到欧洲领导人的青睐
King Louis the 14th of France colluded with his rival, William of Orange
法王路易十四与对手奥兰治王子威廉
who was both Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic
荷兰共和国的统治者
and the King of England.
也是英国的国王相勾结
The two signed the Treaty of Den Haag to resolve the issue.
双方签署了《海牙条约》以解决这一问题
They proposed dividing the Spanish Kingdom,
他们提议分割西班牙王国
which included holdings in Italy,
其中包括意大利
the Southern Netherlands,
荷兰南部
and colonies in the Americas and Pacific between the three houses.
和美洲在太平洋的殖民地这三个地方
But Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria
但巴伐利亚的约瑟夫·费迪南德
was suggested as the bulk of the Spanish Empire.
被选成西班牙帝国的继承人
preserving the balance of power between France and Austria.
以保持法国和奥地利之间的权力平衡
Quite to everyone’s surprise, however,
然而 令所有人惊讶的是
the health stricken Spanish King outlived Joseph,
这健康受损的西班牙国王比约瑟夫活的更久
undermining the whole treaty.
这毁掉了整个条约
Louis and William reconvened and signed another treaty
路易和威廉重新集结商讨并签署了另一项条约
under the new arrangement;
根据新的安排
Archduke Charles from Austria was to inherit the Spanish Crown,
奥地利的查尔斯公爵将继承西班牙王位
with the Italian holdings going to France.
但意大利的财产将归法国所有
However the Spanish didn’t want to see their Empire split,
然而 西班牙人不想看到他们的帝国分裂
and refused to sign.
所以拒绝签署
As did the Austrians, who desired the entire inheritance for themselves
奥地利人也是如此 他们渴望得到全部遗产
and furthermore were more interested in Italy than Spain.
并且相比西班牙 他们对意大利更感兴趣
In one final effort to find a diplomatic solution
在最后一次努力寻找解决方案时
Charles on his deathbed, named his grandnephew Philip,
查尔斯在临终前 提名他的侄孙菲利普
the second-eldest grandson of King Louis as Heir to the Spanish Crown.
然而最后路易二世的次孙成为西班牙王位的继承人
As Philip was not directly in line for the Throne of France
由于菲利普并不是法国王位的直接继承者
his advisors hoped this would ease tensions
他的顾问希望这一点能缓和紧张局势
and stabilise the power dynamics across the continent.
稳定整个欧洲大陆的权力格局
This left Louis with a decision to make.
这让路易斯不得不做一个决定
He could follow through with his agreement and forbid his grandson from claiming the throne
他可以坚持他的协议 禁止他的子孙继承王位
or he could accept the will of Charles of Spain
或者他可以接受西班牙查尔斯的遗嘱
and back Philip’s claim
支持菲利普的主张
Both option appeared to lead to war,
这两种选择似乎都会引起战争
and accepting the Austrian claim would leave France with nothing,
但接受奥地利人的要求会让法国一无所有
so he choose the latter.
所以他选择了后者
The growing dominance of Europe’s big blue blob
欧洲皇室贵族的主导地位日益增长
worried the other European powers.
其他欧洲大国为此感到担忧
The Grand Alliance that had fought France in Nine Years’ War was reconvened
在九年战争中与法国作战的大联盟被重新召集起来
And Britain, The Dutch Republic, and Austria
英国 荷兰共和国和奥地利
declared war on France on the 15th of May 1702.
并于1702年5月15日对法国宣战
The War of the Spanish Succession had begun.
西班牙王位继承战争由此开始了
While the majority of the land offence took place to the north of the Pyrenees
虽然大部分的侵略在比利牛斯山脉的北部
the British sent a force to the Mediterranean
但英国人派了一支部队到地中海
to carry out a diversionary naval offensive.
实施一次牵制性的海军进攻
This took the form of an attack on Gibraltar.
这是一场对直布罗陀的袭击
After heavy bombardment,
在猛烈的轰炸之后
British marines attacked the town,
英国海军陆战队袭击了这个城镇
and the Spanish surrendered shortly after.
不久西班牙人就投降了
Although the Spanish attempted to retake Gibraltar
尽管西班牙人试图夺回直布罗陀
they failed to do so before the end of the war.
但在战争结束前他们以失败告终
Legend has it, that during one such attempt
据说在一次这样的尝试中
Spanish soldiers attempted to sneak into position
西班牙士兵试图潜入英国阵地
to launch a surprise attack,
以发动一次突袭
only the monkeys that inhabit the Rock spoilt the surprise.
但是栖息在岩石上的猴子破坏了这次突袭
This has led to the notion
于是这形成了一种观点
that as long as the monkeys remain on Gibraltar
只要这些猴子留在直布罗陀
so will the British
英国人就会留在直布罗陀
However, during the war, the King of Austria
然而 在战争期间 奥地利的国王
who was by way, the Holy Roman Emperor
也就是神圣的罗马帝国的皇帝
and his successor died, leaving the Empire to Charles.
他的继任者死了 并把帝国留给了查尔斯
The prospect of a union of the Austrian and Spanish crowns
奥地利和西班牙王室联合的前景
was just as undesirable as a unified Bourbon monarchy of France and Spain.
和法国和西班牙统一的波旁王朝一样不受欢迎
Peace would come with the Treaty of Utrecht;
和平会随着《乌得勒支条约》而来
Philip was accepted by Britain and Austria as King of Spain.
英国和奥地利同意菲利普成为西班牙国王
In exchange for guarantees that the crowns of France and Spain would not be unified
而作为交换 法国和西班牙不会统一
and Spain ceded lands to the Austrians and British.
并要求西班牙将土地割让给奥地利和英国
Crucially for our story, Gibraltar was officially ceded to Britain,
至关重要的是 直布罗陀自此正式割让给了英国
But Spain resented the loss of territory.
但西班牙对此表示不满
Spain attempted to recapture Gibraltar
在1727至1729的英西战争中
during the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727 to 1729,
西班牙试图夺回直布罗陀
and again during the American War of Independence.
并在美国独立战争期间又进行了类似的尝试
But they failed to retake the region.
但他们未能夺回该地区
Gibraltar’s strategic value became more apparent with time.
随着时间的推移 直布罗陀的战略价值更加显著
Allowing the Allies to control naval traffic into and out of the Mediterranean Sea during war
战争期间是允许盟军控制进出地中海的海上交通
and during peace she was a useful port for trade vessels sending cargo east via Egypt.
和平时期是有用的港口 贸易船只通过埃及向东运送货物
In 1954 the Queen visited Gibraltar,
而1954年女王访问直布罗陀
this angered Spain’s fascist Dictator General Franco
激怒了西班牙的法西斯独裁者佛朗哥将军
who responded by imposing increasingly stringent restrictions on trade and the movements with Gibraltar.
他决定对直布罗陀的贸易和往来施加更严格的限制
But this didn’t weaken the resolve of the population to remain British as intended,
但这并没有减弱英国人继续留在这的决心
the isolation did quite the opposite,
孤立的结果适得其反
and now they say that Gibraltarians are more British than the British.
现在他们说直布罗陀人比英国人更像英国人
After the war
战后
the United Nations was established, and opposed to imperialism.
联合国成立了反帝国主义
The UN called for decolonisation throughout the world,
呼吁全世界非殖民化
including Gibraltar.
包括直布罗陀
But while other British colonies moved through self-governance and then onto independence,
但当其他英国殖民地通过自治走向独立时
that option was unavailable to Gibraltar.
直布罗陀并没有这种选择
The Treaty of Utrecht contains a reversion clause
《乌得勒支条约》中有一项归还条款
where if Britain is to give up her claim on Gibraltar,
规定如果英国放弃对直布罗陀的主权
it will be returned to Spain.
它将被归还给西班牙
But the UN push for decolonisation
但联合国推动的非殖民化
reignited Spanish efforts to recover the territory.
重新点燃了西班牙恢复领土的努力
The result was a referendum in 1967
结果在1967年的全民公投
where Gibraltarians were asked
直布罗陀人被要求
to choose between Spain and Britain.
在西班牙和英国之间做出选择
The results were resounding,
结果很明显
with over 12,000 opting to maintain the current relationship with Britain,
超过12000人选择与英国保持目前的关系
to only 44 supporting a union with Spain,
只有44人支持与西班牙联合
less than the number of invalid or blank votes.
小于无效或空白投票的数目
The Francoist regime responded to the defeat
佛朗哥政权对这次失败作出了反应
by ramping up pressure on the dependency and closed the border.
增加对属地的压力并关闭了边境
While Gibraltar moved to establish a constitution
直布罗陀也采取行动 制定了一部宪法
that agreed the British would not impose a solution on Gibraltarians
同意英国不会将意识强加于直布罗陀人
and acknowledged their right to self-determination.
并承认他们的自决权
After General Franco’s death,
佛朗哥将军死后
Spain sought to join the European Economic Community,
西班牙寻求加入欧洲经济共同体
and needed British support.
这需要英国的支持
The Lisbon Agreement was the first of a series between the British and Spanish Governments
《里斯本协议》是英国和西班牙政府一系列协议中的第一个
intended to resolve their differences over Gibraltar.
旨在解决他们在直布罗陀问题上的分歧
These talks eventually led to the reopening of the border,
这些谈判最终导致重新开放边界
but didn’t quite settle the issue.
但并没有解决实质问题
Eventually, in 2002,
最终在2002年
Britain and Spain proposed to share sovereignty,
英国和西班牙提议共享主权
but the government of Gibraltar,
但是直布罗陀的政府
excising their now constitutional right, put it to a referendum
取消了他们现在的宪法权利并将其付诸公投
and the agreement was rejected 17,900 to 187.
该协议以17900票对187票被否决
It seems, given their options,
看起来 即使给了他们选择
the Gibraltarians wish to remain a British dependency.
直布罗陀人更希望继续作为英国的属地
But Britain’s impending departure from the European Union
但英国脱欧事件
has once again brought up the issue,
再次引发了这个问题
and Gibraltar finds itself again
直布罗陀再次发现
as a pawn in a bigger European game.
自己是欧洲游戏中的一颗小棋

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视频概述

你想知道为什么直布罗陀在西班牙南部而不属于西班牙吗?一起来探索这其中之间发生的神奇曲折的故事吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小龙

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INZJNgIQgyU

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