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鱼子酱是全世界最贵的食物之一,为什么? – 译学馆
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鱼子酱是全世界最贵的食物之一,为什么?

Why Is Caviar So Expensive?

【叙事者】鱼子酱是世界上最昂贵的食物之一
– [Narrator] Caviar is oneof the most expensive foods
其每千克售价高达35000美元
in the world, selling forup to $35,000 per kilo,
被全球的贵族所尊崇和喜爱
it’s revered and relished byaristocrats around the globe.
但它只是一种嗜好
But it’s an acquired taste.
(咳嗽声)
(coughing)
【男人】祝你早日康复
– [Male] Gesundheit.
【叙事者】结果表明鱼子酱并不是一直都这么贵
– [Narrator] Turns out caviarwasn’t always so valuable.
在十九世纪 美国的鲟鱼
In the 19th century,sturgeon species in the U.S.
很常见 当时在酒吧里
were so common, that therewere accounts of caviar
免费提供鱼子酱 就像免费提供坚果一样
being offered in saloonsfor free, like bar nuts.
在欧洲 渔民把鱼卵喂给猪吃
In Europe, fishermen werefeeding the eggs to their pigs,
或者丢在沙滩上让其腐烂
or just leaving themon the beach to spoil.
所以 发生了什么变化
So what changed?
(优雅的音乐)
(elegant music)
与纯正香槟一样 鱼子酱并不是随处可得
Similar to true Champagne, caviar doesn’t come from just anywhere.
只是举个例子 这不是鱼子酱
This for example, is not caviar.
(哔哔哔)
(buzzer)
真正的鱼子酱 必须取自鲟鱼的卵
To get the real thing, it has to be eggs from a sturgeon.
世界上有27种鲟鱼
There are 27 species around the world,
分布在北美洲 欧洲和亚洲
in North America, Europe, and Asia,
但是可能情况不太乐观
but probably not for long.
【阿恩】因为人类过度捕捞鲟鱼种群
– [Arne] In this case,sturgeon will die out
破坏它们的栖息地
because humans areover-harvesting the populations
长此以往 它们将灭绝
and destroying their habitats.
【叙事者】在2010年
– [Narrator] In 2010,
国际自然保护联盟
the International Unionfor Conservation of Nature
将18种鲟鱼
placed 18 species of sturgeon
列在了濒临灭绝物种的红色名单上 鲟鱼成为
on its Red List for threatenedspecies, making the sturgeon
地球上最易濒临灭绝的物种
the most endangered groupof species on earth.
但是这项举措喜忧参半
But lists like this are bittersweet.
一方面他们能够帮助保护鲟鱼
On one hand they canhelp protect the sturgeon
避免数量下降 比如 在美国的很多地方
from further population decline, for instance, in many places in the U.S.
捕捞濒临灭绝的鲟鱼是违法的
it’s illegal to fishendangered sturgeon species
包括进口鲟鱼籽
or import their eggs.
在另一方面 鱼子酱变得越来越稀有
On the other hand, themore rare caviar becomes,
而我们的需求却在不断增长
the more we can’t get enough of it.
实际上有一个经济理论能够解释这个现象
There’s actually an economicidea that explains this,
它被称为“稀有价值论”
it’s called the rarity value thesis
它描述了物品本身从未改变的情况下
and it describes how rarityincreases the value of the item,
是如何增值的
even though the itemitself has never changed.
鲟鱼重达几千磅
Sturgeon can weigh up toseveral thousand pounds
每次可以产出几百磅的鱼卵
and produce hundreds ofpounds of roe at a time.
打破世界记录的是白鲸鲟鱼
The world record belongsto a beluga sturgeon
它重达2520磅 并且可产出900磅鱼卵
that weighed 2,520 pounds andyielded 900 pounds of roe.
如今“她”价值五十万美元
Today she’d be worth abouta half a million dollars.
直到二十世纪
It wasn’t until around the 20th century
那些淡水鱼及其鱼卵成为了一种稀有商品
when these freshwater fish and their eggs became a rare commodity.
污染物污染了它们所生活的水域 大坝堵塞了它们上游的产卵地
Pollution poisoned their waters and dams blocked theirspawning grounds upstream.
它们无处繁衍 而人类为了得到它们的肉和卵
They had nowhere to reproduce and continued to be overfished
继续对其过度捕捞
for their meat and roe.
最重要的是:一个雌性鲟鱼需要8到20年的时间
On top of that, it takeseight to twenty years
才能达到性成熟
for a female to sexually maturedepending on the species.
“她”一次可以产出几百万个鱼卵
She can produce millions of eggs at a time
但是胜算是唯一的
but the odds are that only one,
只有一个鱼卵将存活到成年期
one will survive to adulthood.
最后
In the end,
鲟鱼数量不能满足需求
the sturgeon population just couldn’t keep up with that demand.
梦寐以求的鱼卵成为
And their coveted eggs became the jewels
奢侈食物餐桌上的珍宝
of the luxury food scene.
如今鱼子酱的进口和出口
Today caviar imports and exports
在美国被严格管制
are closely regulated in the U.S.,
这就一定程度上解释了为何它如此昂贵
which is partly why it’s so expensive.
每一个鱼籽 这些鱼籽中的每一个
– Every single egg,every one of these eggs
都是手工处理的
is taken off by hand.
记住 我们正在处理的是生海鲜濒危物种
Now remember we’re dealing with a raw seafood endangered species,
所以基本上鱼子酱的食用和处理
so it’s basically likeeating and dealing with,
和可食用象牙一样
you know edible elephant tusk,
都是受到严格管制的
it is that heavily regulated.
【叙事者】这就是为什么现在大多数的鱼子酱
– [Narrator] And that’s whytoday the majority of caviar
来源于鲟鱼农场
comes from sturgeon farms.
2011年前 我几乎不知道
– Little did I know that by 2011,
所有的野生鱼子酱在地球上都是非法的
all wild caviar would become illegal on the planet.
那时我发现在世界上有六个农场养鲟鱼
When I started there were six farms in the world raising sturgeon,
但其中只有两个农场生产鱼子酱
and only two producing caviar, in the world.
那是在2004年 现在世界上有2000个农场
And that was in 2004, now there’s 2,000 farms around the world.
【叙事者】中国的一个
– [Narrator] One farmin particular in China
名叫卢卡加王的农场生产了世界上35%的鱼子酱
called Kaluga Queen produces35% of all the world’s caviar.
用传统的俄罗斯和伊朗技术可以得到鱼子酱
Caviar there is harvested with the classic Russianand Iranian technique,
它包括杀死鱼 然后取出鱼卵
which involves killing the fish and then extracting the eggs.
其他的农场正在探索一种不同的技术
Other farms are exploringa different technique
这项技术不涉及杀鱼
which doesn’t involve killing the fish,
被称为剥脱术
it’s called stripping.
是指鱼被注入一种激素 这种激素能够令它们有排出鱼卵的冲动
The fish are injected with a hormone that triggers their urge to release eggs.
农民干这活已经好多年了
Farmers have been doingthis for many years
但这不是为了得到鱼子酱 只是为了产出更多的鱼
but not to get caviar,just to produce more fish.
直到最近
It wasn’t until recently
人们开始将鱼卵做成罐头 作为鱼子酱进行出售
that people started canning this stuff and selling it as caviar.
【达米杰思】现在最重要的事情
– [Dmitrijs] The biggest thing for now
是鱼儿保持存活
is that yes, fish stays alive,
因为我们让鱼排卵的过程真的非常迅速
you have really small impacts on the fish
所以对鱼的生命只有较小影响
because we do it really really fast.
(具体过程为)你把鱼从水里捞出来
You take the fish out of the water,
把它放在特殊的容器里
you put it on thespecial holding facility,
鱼儿已经开始产卵了
the fish has already started to spawn
然后它需要的主要是
and then all it requires is basically
你按压肚子 按摩肚子
for you to press on thebelly, massage the belly,
鱼子酱就会从里面流出来
and the caviar will justflow out of the fish.
【叙事者】不通过杀生来获得鱼子酱的方法
– [Narrator] The ideabehind no-kill caviar
是值得称赞的 但是它仍然要去捕鱼
is a commendable one, but it has yet to really catch on.
不管怎样 随着鱼子酱生产养殖场的出现
Either way, with caviar farms in place,
给了野生鲟鱼种群一个恢复的机会
this gives the wild sturgeonpopulation a chance to recover,
但是否取得这样的效果 很大程度上取决于我们
but whether or not thathappens, is largely up to us.
(渐弱的音乐)
(upbeat music)

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译制信息
视频概述

本视频主要讲述了鱼子酱从便宜到昂贵的过程,以及它的制作方法。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YUNA

审核员

审核员 W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_O5bT3hfkQ

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