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恐惧中何来乐趣 – 译学馆
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恐惧中何来乐趣

Why is being scared so fun? - Margee Kerr

【启点字幕组】
此刻 在世界某处 一定有人正排队等待恐惧
Somewhere right now, people are lining up to scare themselves,
可能是坐过山车 或者看恐怖片
maybe with a thrill ride or horror movie.
事实上 仅在2015年10月内
In fact, in October of 2015 alone,
美国就有2800万人去鬼屋
about 28 million people visited a haunted house in the U.S.
很多人不理解这种行为
But many consider this behavior perplexing,
不禁要问
asking the question,
被吓怎么会是一件有趣的事呢
“What could possibly be fun about being scared?”
诚然 恐惧会带来不良影响 但也不全然如此
Fear has a bad rap, but it’s not all bad.
若是首次置身某种情况 恐惧可能是有益的
For starters, fear can actually feel pretty good.
当某种威胁激发出“战斗或逃跑”反应
When a threat triggers our fight or flight response,
人体便会通过释放特定的化学物质
our bodies prepare for danger
来改变大脑和身体功能 以应对危险
by releasing chemicals that change how our brains and bodies function.
这种自动反应可以激活帮助我们求生的系统
This automatic response jumpstarts systems that can aid in survival.
这类系统能确保我们有足够的能量
They do this by making sure we have enough energy
降低我们对疼痛的感觉
and are protected from feeling pain,
同时 非关键系统将关闭 比如辩证思维系统
while shutting down nonessential systems, like critical thought.
全身充满能量 感觉不到疼痛
Feeling pain-free and energized,
还不会被那些常常萦绕不去的不安想法而牵绊
while not getting caught up in worrisome thoughts that normally occupy our brains,
听起来似乎都挺不错的
that all sounds great,
这确实很棒 因为 尽管不完全一致 但这种状态
and it can be because this response is similar, though not exactly the same
跟我们处于正面高唤醒状态时相似
to what we experience in positive, high-arousal states,
比如兴奋 开心 或是啪啪啪时的感受
like excitement, happiness, and even during sex.
其差异在于所处的情境
The difference lays in the context.
如果真的遭遇危险 我们的注意力会集中在生存 而非乐趣上
If we’re in real danger, we’re focused on survival, not fun.
不过如果在安全的情境下触发这种高唤醒状态
But when we trigger this high arousal response in a safe place,
我们自然就能感受到恐惧所带来的快感
we can switch over to enjoying the natural high of being scared.
这就是为什么人们坐过山车的时候会在尖叫中突然笑起来
It’s why people on roller coasters can go from screaming to laughing within moments.
你的身体已经在一种兴奋状态了
Your body is already in a euphoric state.
你只是换个角度体验这种感觉罢了
You’re just relabeling the experience.
不过 虽然人们对威胁的反应具有普遍性
And though the threat response is universal,
但研究显示不同个体所产生的化学物质
research shows differences between individuals
和威胁反应之间的相互作用 还是有些不同
in how the chemicals associated with the threat response work.
这就解释了为什么有些人更喜欢寻求刺激
This explains why some are more prone to thrill-seeking than others.
其他普遍性的心理差异则解释了
Other normal physical differences explain
为什么有些人喜欢那种一圈圈旋转所带来的眩晕感
why some may love the dizziness associated with a loop-de-loop,
却讨厌在陡上陡下的过山车上造成的反胃感
while loathing the stomach-drop sensation of a steep roller coaster,
抑或是为何有的人会在鬼屋中兴奋地尖叫
or why some squeal with delight inside a haunted house,
却又怯于真正的墓地
but retreat in terror if taken to an actual cemetery.
恐惧所带来的 不止乐趣与天然的快感
Fear brings more than just a fun, natural high.
完成令自己恐惧的事情可以有力提升自信心
Doing things that we’re afraid of can give us a nice boost of self-esteem.
就像任何挑战一样
Like any personal challenge,
比如参加赛跑或是读完一本大部头的书
whether it’s running a race or finishing a long book,
当我们努力完成挑战
when we make it through to the end,
一种成就感会油然而生
we feel a sense of accomplishment.
即便我们并非真的身处险境 这样的关联也依然成立
This is true even if we know we’re not really in any danger.
我们的大脑清楚地知道鬼屋里的鬼怪都不是真的
Our thinking brains may know the zombies aren’t real,
但身体却对鬼怪做出真实的反应
but our bodies tell us otherwise.
这种恐惧的感觉很真实
The fear feels real,
因此 当我们完好无损地度过恐惧的时刻
so when we make it through alive,
那种满足感和成就感也同样真实
the satisfaction and sense of accomplishment also feel real.
这也算得上是一个伟大的适应性进化了
This is a great evolutionary adaptation.
那些有勇有谋
Those who had the right balance of bravery and wit
进退有时的人
to know when to push through the fear and when to retreat
得以生存
were rewarded with survival,
并获得新的食物
new food,
和领地
and new lands.
最后 恐惧还能促人团结协作
Finally, fear can bring people together.
情绪具有感染力
Emotions can be contagious,
当你看到朋友又叫又笑时
and when you see your friend scream and laugh,
你也不禁想要跟着叫 跟着笑
you feel compelled to do the same.
这是因为我们会在自己身上
This is because we make sense of what our friends are experiencing
复制朋友的情绪状态
by recreating the experience ourselves.
事实上 朋友尖叫时其大脑的活跃区域
In fact, the parts of the brain that are active when our friend screams
与我们看着他们尖叫时 自身大脑活跃着的区域 是相同的
are active in us when we watch them.
这不仅强化了我们的情绪体验
This not only intensifies our own emotional experience,
也使我们感觉到 与身边的人更加亲近
but makes us feel closer to those we’re with.
这种在恐惧中出现的亲近感
The feeling of closeness during times of fear
被“战斗或逃跑”反应中释放的荷尔蒙激素所强化
is aided by the hormone oxytocin released during fight or flight.
恐惧是一种强烈的情绪体验
Fear is a powerful emotional experience,
而任何能够激发强烈反应的经历
and anything that triggers a strong reaction
都会被牢牢储存在记忆里
is going to be stored in our memory really well.
你不会忘记那些能伤害到你的东西
You don’t want to forget what can hurt you.
同理 如果跟朋友一起看恐怖电影的经历是正面的
So if your memory of watching a horror film with your friends is positive
并且给你带来了强烈的满足感
and left you with a sense of satisfaction,
那么 你就会想要反复体验这份感觉
then you’ll want to do it over and over again.

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