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为什么阿里斯多芬尼斯被称为“喜剧之父” – 译学馆
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为什么阿里斯多芬尼斯被称为“喜剧之父”

Why is Aristophanes called "The Father of Comedy"? - Mark Robinson

公元前426年 一年一度的雅典戏剧节上
At the annual Atheniandrama festival in 426 BC,
一个年轻的诗人 阿里斯多芬尼斯
a comic play called The Babylonians,
编写了一出名叫《巴比伦人》的喜剧
written by a young poetnamed Aristophanes,
这部剧获得了一等奖
was awarded first prize.
但是这部剧对雅典在伯罗奔尼萨战争中行动的描述
But the play’s depiction of Athens’conduct during the Peloponnesian War
在后来很受争议
was so controversial that afterwards,
一个叫科勒昂的政客以“涉嫌在外国人面前诽谤雅典人”的罪名
a politician named Kleontook Aristophanes to court
把阿里斯多芬尼斯起诉到了法院
for”slandering the people of Athensin the presence of foreigners.”
两年后 阿里斯多芬尼斯创作了一部叫做 《骑士》的剧 给予回击
Aristophanes struck back two years later with a play called The Knights.
在《骑士》这部剧中 他公开嘲弄科勒昂
In it, he openly mocked Kleon,
以低贱的 在城门口卖香肠为生
ending with Kleon’s character working asa lowly sausage seller
作为科勒昂角色的结局
outside the city gates.
这种讽刺方式是
This style of satire was a consequence
5世纪雅典自由民主的一个结果
of the unrestricted democracyof 5th century Athens
现在被称为 旧喜剧
and is now called”Old Comedy.”
阿里斯多芬尼斯的戏剧 是这个世界上现存最早的喜剧
Aristophanes’ plays, the world’s earliestsurviving comic dramas,
充满了拙劣模仿 歌唱 性笑话 以及 超现实幻想
are stuffed full of parodies, songs,sexual jokes, and surreal fantasy.
它们经常运用狂热的情境
They often use wild situations,
比如英雄乘坐屎壳螂飞向天堂
like a hero flying to heaven on a dung beetle,
或用网罩住一个房子 使房主的父亲困在房子里
or a net cast over a house to keep the owner’s father trapped inside,
以颠覆听众的期待
in order to subvert audience expectations.
从那时起 他们塑造了喜剧的编写形式和表现形式
And they’ve shaped how comedy’sbeen written and performed ever since.
comedy 一词来源于古希腊 komos 以及 oide 两词 komos 意思是 狂欢
The word”comedy” comes fromthe Ancient Greek”komos,” – revel,
oide 意思是 唱歌
and”oide,” – singing,
comedy 在很多方面 不同于它并存的艺术形式 即 tragedy
and it differed from its companionart form,”tragedy” in many ways.
古雅典悲剧以强权力量的
Where ancient Athenian tragedies dealt with the downfall
衰败为主
of the high and mighty,
古雅典的喜剧通常以欢快的形式结尾
their comedies usually ended happily.
悲剧几乎都从传奇中借鉴故事情节
And where tragedy almost alwaysborrowed stories from legend,
喜剧表达了当时事件
comedy addressed current events.
阿里斯多芬尼斯的喜剧歌颂普通人并抨击强权
Aristophanes’ comedies celebrated ordinarypeople and attacked the powerful.
他的目标是自大的政客
His targets were arrogant politicians,
尚武的将军 以及 自大的知识分子
war-mongering generals, and self-important intellectuals,
这些都是坐在
exactly the people who sat
剧院最前排的人
in the front row of the theatre,
这样每个人都能看到他们的反应
where everyone could see their reactions.
结果是 他们被提及为Komoidoumenoi:
As a result, they were referred toas komoidoumenoi:
那些在喜剧中被嘲弄的人
“those made fun of in comedy.”
阿里斯多芬尼斯恶意的 可憎的嘲弄
Aristophanes’ viciousand often obscene mockery
使这些领导者承担责任 检测他们对城市的承诺
held these leaders to account,testing their commitment to the city.
特别是 由阿里斯多芬尼斯的作品引起的一个问题
One issue, in particular,inspired much of Aristophanes’ work:
雅典和斯巴达之间的伯罗奔尼萨战争
the Peloponnesian Warbetween Athens and Sparta.
写于公元前421年的《和平》一剧中
In Peace, written in 421 BC,
一个中年的雅典人把和平的化身从被暴力政客
a middle-aged Athenian freesthe embodiment of peace from a cave,
流放的一个山洞中解放出来
where she’d been exiledby profiteering politicians.
然后 在公元前411年
Then,in the aftermath of a crushing naval defeat
雅典一只舰队彻底溃败后
for Athens in 411 BC,
阿里斯多芬尼斯写下了《吕西斯特剌忒》
Aristophanes wrote”Lysistrata.”
在这部剧中 雅典的女性很讨厌战争
In this play, the womenof Athens grow sick of war
直到她们的丈夫实现和平 她们一直都在进行性罢工
and go on a sex strikeuntil their husbands make peace.
其他戏剧运用相似有趣的情节来串联主旨
Other plays use similarly fantasticscenarios to skewer topical situations,
例如 在 《云》这部剧中
such as in”Clouds,”
阿里斯多芬尼斯嘲弄 前卫哲学思想
where Aristophanes mockedfashionable philosophical thinking.
英雄 斯瑞西阿德 在苏格拉底的新哲学学校登记
The hero Strepsiades enrolls inSocrates’s new philosophical school,
他在那里学习怎样去证明错即是对的
where he learnshow to prove that wrong is right
以及 债务并非债务
and that a debt is not a debt.
无论这些剧本有多古怪
No matter how outlandish these plays get,
男主人公总能在最后获胜
the heroes always prevail in the end.
阿里斯多芬尼斯也成为parabasis的大师
Aristophanes also becamethe master of the parabasis,
一种喜剧手法 即在古典希腊喜剧中演员直接向观众的致辞
a comic technique where actorsaddress the audience directly,
经常赞颂剧作家或制造主题评论自己笑话
often praising the playwrightor making topical comments and jokes.
例如 在 《鸟》这部剧中
For example, in”Birds,”
合唱队担任不同种类鸟的角色
the Chorus takesthe role of different birds
并恐吓雅典法官
and threatens the Athenian judges
如果他们的剧作不能获得第一名
that if their play doesn’t win first prize,
他们将边围着城市走路边排便
they’ll defecate on themas they walk around the city.
结果这个剧获得了第二名
Perhaps the judgesdidn’t appreciate the joke,
也许法官并没有领会这个玩笑
as the play came in second.
通过在雅典社会探索新想法
By exploring new ideas
并鼓励自我批评
and encouraging self-criticismin Athenian society,
阿里斯多芬尼斯不仅嘲弄他的公民同胞们
Aristophanes not onlymocked his fellow citizens,
但他塑造了喜剧的本质
but he shaped the nature of comedy itself.
被一些学者尊称为喜剧之父
Hailed by some scholarsas the father of comedy,
从低俗闹剧到双簧表演再到模仿再到政治讽刺
his fingerprints are visibleupon comic techniques everywhere,
他的印记在喜剧手法上无处不在
from slapstick to double acts to impersonations to political satire.
通过自由演讲的赞美
Through the praise
以及 普通角色的欢呼
of free speech and the celebration of ordinary heroes,
他的剧作使听众在大笑的同时思考
his plays made his audience thinkwhile they laughed.
他在公元前425年对科勒昂的反驳在今天仍然能使人们产生共鸣
And his retort to Kleon in 425 BCstill resonates today:
我是一个喜剧演员 所以 无论实现正义是多么地不易
“I’m a comedian,so I’ll speak about justice,
我将为正义呐喊
no matter how hardit sounds to your ears.”

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阿里斯多芬尼斯是喜剧之父 他的主要贡献 主要剧作 以及他成为喜剧之父的原因

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arQ6U3ev5ic

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