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为什么无能的人认为他们非常厉害? – 译学馆
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为什么无能的人认为他们非常厉害?

Why incompetent people think they're amazing - David Dunning

Are you as good at things as you think you are?
是否你真的像你想象中那样擅长做某事呢?
How good are you at managing money?
你的理财能力怎么样?
What about reading people’s emotions?
读懂别人情绪方面呢?
How healthy are you compared to other people you know?
你觉得自己的健康状况和你认识的其他人相比如何?
Are you better than average at grammar?
你的语法能力是否高于平均水平?
Knowing how competent we are
认识到自身的能力
and how are skill stack up against other people’s
和将我们掌握的技能与他人相比
is more than a self-esteem boost.
都要比自我吹捧有意义
It helps us figure out when we can forge ahead on our own decisions and instincts
这会让我们明白 何时能在自我决定和直觉的帮助下不断前进
and when we need, instead, to seek out advice.
同时 我们也会清楚什么时候我们需要寻求建议
But psychological research suggests that we’re not very good
但是心理学研究表明 我们不是特别擅长
at evaluating ourselves accurately.
准确的评估自己
In fact, we frequently overestimate our own abilities.
事实上 我们经常高估了自己的能力
Researchers have a name for this phenomena,
研究者给这种现象取了个名字
the Dunning-Kruger effect.
叫邓宁-克鲁格效应
This effect explains why more than 100 studies
这种效应解释了一百多项研究显示的
have shown that people display illusory superiority.
人们产生虚幻的优越感的原因
We judge ourselves as better than others
我们觉得自己比别人优秀
to a degree that violates the laws of math.
这在某种意义上违背了数学定律
When software engineers at two companies were asked to rate their performance,
当要求两个公司的软件工程师评估他们的表现时
32% of the engineers at one company and 42% at the other
一个公司32%的工程师和另一个公司42%的工程师
put themselves in the top 5%.
把他们自己放在了前5%的位置里
In another study, 88% of American drivers
另一项研究表明 88%的美国司机
described themselves as having above average driving skills.
称自己的驾车技术超过平均水平
These aren’t isolated findings.
这些发现都不是个例
On average, people tend to rate themselves better than most
一般来说 人们倾向于评估自己优于众人
in disciplines ranging from health, leadership skills, ethics, and beyond.
这是在比如健康 领导能力 道德标准等等方面
What’s particularly interesting is that those with the least ability
有一点十分有趣 那就是那些能力并不强的人
are often the most likely to overrate their skills to the greatest extent.
往往最有可能在最大程度上高估他们的技能
People measurably poor at logical reasoning,
人们十分不善于在逻辑推理
grammar,
语法
financial knowledge,
金融知识
math,
数学
emotional intelligence,
情商
running medical lab tests,
进行医疗检验
and chess
和象棋方面
all tend to rate their expertise almost as favorably as actual experts do.
评估自己的专业水平 甚至几乎认为自己和真正的专家一样厉害
So who’s most vulnerable to this delusion?
那么谁最容易产生这种错觉呢?
Sadly, all of us because we all have pockets of incompetence
不幸的是 是我们所有人 因为我们都有无能的地方
we don’t recognize.
但我们却不承认
But why?
但是为什么呢?
When psychologists Dunning and Kruger first described the effect in 1999,
1999年 当心理学家邓宁和克鲁格第一次描述这种效应的时候
they argued that people lacking knowledge and skill in particular areas
他们认为 那些在某些特殊领域缺乏知识和技能的人
suffer a double curse.
经受着双重的打击
First, they make mistakes and reach poor decisions.
首先 他们错误频频并且会做出不明智的决定
But second, those same knowledge gaps also prevent them from catching their errors.
而第二是 那些相同知识缺口也使他们不能发现自身的错误
In other words, poor performers lack the very expertise needed
换句话说 表现不好的人所缺乏的正是
to recognize how badly they’re doing.
能够意识到自己做的有多差劲的能力
For example, when the researchers studied
例如 当研究人员研究
participants in a college debate tournament,
大学辩论比赛的参赛者的时候
the bottom 25% of teams in preliminary rounds
他们发现 团队里排在最后四分之一的队员在预赛中
lost nearly four out of every five matches.
五场比赛会输掉四场
But they thought they were winning almost 60%.
但是他们却认为自己赢了60%的比赛
WIthout a strong grasp of the rules of debate,
他们对辩论规则没有深入的了解
the students simply couldn’t recognize when or how often
使他们完全意识不到 在辩论中该在何时
their arguments broke down.
或者多久进行一次论点分析
The Dunning-Kruger effect isn’t a question of ego blinding us to our weaknesses.
邓宁-克鲁格效应并不是说人的自我意识会让我们无视自身的弱点
People usually do admit their deficits once they can spot them.
人们通常在发现自己的缺点时才承认自己的不足
In one study, students who had initially done badly on a logic quiz
在一项研究中 部分学生们在最初的逻辑测试中表现不佳
and then took a mini course on logic
之后简单上了节逻辑课
were quite willing to label their original performances as awful.
他们都十分愿意视自己原先的成绩很糟糕
That may be why people with a moderate amount of experience or expertise
这可能就是为什么那些具备一定能力和知识储备的人
often have less confidence in their abilities.
经常对自己的能力没信心
They know enough to know that there’s a lot they don’t know.
他们清楚地知道有许多他们还不知道的事情
Meanwhile, experts tend to be aware of just how knowledgeable they are.
同时 专家们往往能意识到自己博学多才
But they often make a different mistake:
但是他们经常犯的错误却很不同
they assume that everyone else is knowledgeable, too.
他们以为其他的人也都是学识渊博的
The result is that people, whether they’re inept or highly skilled,
结果是 不管是那些笨拙的还是技能高超的人
are often caught in a bubble of inaccurate self-perception.
他们都经常会有自我认知偏差
When they’re unskilled, they can’t see their own faults.
当人们无能的时候 他们看不到自己的缺点
When they’re exceptionally competent,
而当他们能力非凡的时候
they don’t perceive how unusual their abilities are.
他们则觉察不到自己的能力有多了不起
So if the Dunning-Kruger effect is invisible to those experiencing it,
所以 如果人们在无形之中会受到邓宁-克鲁格效应的影响
what can you do to find out how good you actually are at various things?
那么你怎么样才能知道 在做不同事情时自己的真实水平呢?
First, ask for feedback from other people,
首先 可以让别人给你反馈
and consider it, even if it’s hard to hear.
之后思考得到的反馈 尽管有时它们并不好听
Second, and more important, keep learning.
第二 也是更重要的一点就是保持学习
The more knowledgeable we become,
我们知识越渊博
the less likely we are to have invisible holes in our competence.
我们能力有无形缺陷的可能性就会少一些
Perhaps it all boils down to that old proverb:
或许 这些都可以归到那句古老的谚语上
When arguing with a fool,
当和一个傻瓜争吵的时候
first make sure the other person isn’t doing the same thing.
首先确保对方没有在做同样的事

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愚蠢的人总认为自己很聪明,聪明的人却知道自己的无知。

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