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为何想象力如此重要?

Why Imagination Is So Important

This episode is proudly made possible by the all-new 2015 Subrau legacy.
本视频由2015年全新上市的斯巴鲁力狮大力赞助
It’s not just a sedan. It’s a Subrau.
它不仅是一款轿车 还是斯巴鲁轿车
Can you imagine what it would be like if we couldn’t imagine things?
你能设想 如果我们没有想象力会怎样吗?
Whoaaaaaaa.

[music]
[音乐]
Hello out there in imagination land,
嗨 这里是想象之地
I’m Julian and this is DNews.
我是Julian 这里是DNews
The human brain is so amazing
人类大脑如此惊人
that we often take for granted just how special it is.
以至于我们常意识不到大脑是多么特别
Our ability to think creatively to solve problems
我们创造性解决问题的思维能力
makes us a force to be reckoned with.
使我们的力量不可限量
It’s also enriched our lives by giving us music and art.
也创造了音乐和艺术 充实了我们的生活
But it’s something we can do at a level
我们能够做一些
almost no other creatures on earth can.
地球上其他生物几乎无法做到的事
So why are we so special?
为什么人类这么特别呢?
According to Steven Mithen, an anthropologist
根据雷丁大学研究人脑进化的
who specialises in the evolution of the mind at the University of Reading,
人类学家史蒂文·米森所说
we went through 7 steps on the way to being human
人类进化经历了7个阶段
that let us have and harness our imagination.
最终我们才拥有并能驾驭想象力
The first step, Mithen says,
米森指出第一阶段
was developed waaaay back,
在很久以前形成
about 3 and a half million years ago.
大概是在350万年以前
Technically there weren’t people yet but australopithecus,
严格来说 那时还没有人 只有南方古猿
and they started understanding the theory of mind
就在巴拿马地峡形成的同期
right around the same time Panama was settling into place.
南方古猿开始形成心智
Theory of mind is the ability to understand that
心智是一种理解能力
other creatures have thoughts and beliefs that may be different to our own.
懂得我们与其他生物的想法可能有所不同
Though after spending 5 minutes on the internet,
虽然花了5分钟上网
I’m not so sure everyone has this ability.
我不那么确定谁都有这个能力
The next big development came
下一个巨大的发展阶段
thanks to Homo habilis’ long path to adulthood.
得益于能人通向成年的漫长之路
Researchers think a lengthy childhood and adolescence
研究人员认为漫长的童年和青春期
means they, and by extension we,
意味着他们 引申也就是我们
have a long time to learn and play
有一段漫长时间学习和玩耍
without adult responsibilities getting in the way.
不用履行成年人的责任
It’s called Human Life History.
这就是人类生活史
It’s also the best excuse ever for not leaving college.
这也是有史以来不离开大学的最好借口
Mithen credits Homo erectus with developing Specialized Intelligence about a million years ago.
米森认为大约一百万年前的直立人发展了特定的智能
Now our ancestors could build specific thoughts into more complex ideas
这时我们的祖先能把具体想法升级为更为复杂的概念
and start to compare them to each other
并开始对比自己与他人的想法
to form new ideas.
以此形成新的概念
Homo sapiens had finally come onto the scene about 200 thousand years ago,
大约20万年前 智人终于登上历史舞台
and they developed the final four leaps to imagination within the last
从10万年前到1万年前 各家观点不同
10 thousand to hundred thousand years, depending who you ask.
在这个时间段智人实现了想象力的最后四个飞跃
It starts with Language.
首先是语言的飞跃
Now we can assign sounds to concrete objects and abstract ideas.
这时人类能用语音表达具体事物和抽象概念
This leads to Cognitive Fluidity,
促使了认知流动性的产生
where we can use metaphors and symbols
这时人类能运用隐喻和符号
to help us understand and explain an idea.
以助于理解和解释观点
Those developments segue nicely into step 6.
这些发展顺利进入了第六阶段
Now we can clearly communicate an idea to someone else,
这时人类已经可以清晰地与他人交流观点
and they can add their brain power to the equation.
并且可以将自己的智能运用到方程式中
Mithen calls it the extended mind.
米森说这是延伸了的思想
Sharing information and ideas helps them grow and change.
分享信息和观点有助于智人的成长和演化
It’s why, in my opinion,
在我看来 这就是为什么
the internet is the single greatest invention ever.
互联网是唯一的有史以来最好的发明
Aside from sliced bread, obviously.
当然了 除了切片面包
Finally modern humans could put all this to use
最后 在发展农业 生产盈余粮食时
when they developed farming that produced a surplus of food.
现代人类能运用上述所有能力
Now that we weren’t moving around all the time
这时候我们不用一直到处迁徙
and trying to solve our daily problems of finding food and shelter,
以努力解决寻找食物和住所的日常问题了
we could turn our collective imaginations
我们可以把集体想象
towards thinking of new inventions or creative pursuits like art.
变成新发明的思考或创造性追求 如艺术
And being able to imagine things that seem impossible
并能够想象那些似乎不可能的事
challenges us to find ways to make it real.
挑战自我以设法实现它们
Like how in Star Trek 40 years ago
就像40年前《星际迷航》里写到
they all had communicators
他们都有通讯器
long before the cell phone was invented.
那时离手机发明出来还远着呢
Of course, because they had to keep the plot going,
确实 这只是要让情节发展下去罢了
Star Trek writers also imagined something else
但《星际迷航》作者还有其他想象
that ended up happening, no reception.
最后也成真了 无一例外
Thanks, Star Trek.
谢谢你《星际迷航》
If you want to learn more ways language advanced the human race,
若想更多了解语言是如何促进人类发展的
Tara looks into that for you here.
Tara会在节目中带你探究
And what’s an idea you want to get the collective might of the human network behind?
你想从人类合作的集体力量中得到什么点子呢?
Let us know in the comments,
评论告诉我们吧
and thanks for watching DNews!
感谢收看DNews!

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视频概述

人类如此特别,因为我们拥有想象力。想象力可以让我们创造性解决问题,创造新事物等等。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Eureka

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90cfz2JHx1U

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