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冰岛为什么要进口冰 – 译学馆
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冰岛为什么要进口冰

Why Iceland Imports Ice

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你可能在网上某些地方听说过
Chances are that somewhere on the internet you’ve heard
维京人以“冰岛”来命名家园实际上是
the “ fact ” that Iceland was named Iceland by its viking settlers
为了阻止他们的敌人来到岛上
to stop their enemies from coming to the island.
这个解释就像在披萨里放入菠萝一样不靠谱
Well, that fact is about as wrong as pineapple on pizza.
真相是 首位定居在冰岛的挪威人
The truth is that the first norse settler of the island was
因为女儿和家畜死于途中而闷闷不乐
feeling a lot bummed out upon the arrival since his daughter and livestock died on route,
所以他待了一个冬天才返回挪威
so he just stayed for the winter before returning to Norway,
又因为碰巧他待的地方结冰了
and since the particular area he stayed in happened to be icy,
他误认为整座岛都结了冰 故称之为冰岛
he figured all of the island was icy and therefore called it Iceland.
当然这很离谱 就好比看到平坦的人行道
Of course that’d be as absurd as, you know,seeing that the sidewalk was flat,
就断定整个地球都是平的 或是诸如此类
and deciding the whole earth must be flat, or something.
冬季的冰岛很冷并且伴随着大量冰雪
Iceland is cold and has plenty of snow and ice during winter,
但总体上依旧充满着活力
but as a whole, the country is fairly green.
对于这样一个寒冷的北方国家
Still for such a northern and wintery country,
却要进口冰块 不禁让人觉得荒唐
the idea that it imports ice is pretty absurd.
可这是不争的事实
Nonetheless that is reality,
但冰岛对冰的进口有令人惊讶的合理解释
but Iceland’ s ice importation has a surprisingly rational explanation
当今从某处取冰卖到别处不足为奇
Now taking ice from one place and selling it to another is nothing new.
El Chapo就精通此道 但事实上
El Chapo was great at it but as it turns out,
几个世纪前 人们的冰箱并没有制冰器
centuries ago people’s refrigerators didn’t have ice dispensers.
大部分历史时期中 人们和穴居人一样喝常温饮料
For the majority of history, people just dealt with having warm drinks like cave-people
但随着19世纪的到来 一切都变了
but when the 19th century rolled around that all changed.
一名叫弗雷德里克·都铎的企业家
An entrepreneur named Frederic Tudor
开始从缅因州等寒冷地区取冰
started taking ice from cold places like Maine
并将它卖到像古巴一样的热带地区
and selling it in hot places like Cuba.
很聪明 对不?
Genius, right?
但是却有一个问题——冰会融化
Only problem——ice melts.
弗雷德里克知道这一点并用锯末使货物隔热
Frederic understood this and insulated his cargo with sawdust
他相信至少有一部分冰块能够
and with enough ice, at least some of it would
完成1600英里旅程从缅因州抵达古巴
make it through the 1,600 mile journey from Maine to Cuba.
刚开始弗雷德不被热带人们待见
At first Frederick received a frosty reception from
因为他们觉得不太可能用得上冰
the hot place people as they were doubtful that they needed ice
因此弗雷德采用贩毒的方式
so Frederic channeled his inner drug dealer and gave them
先免费给他们一点冰让他们上瘾
their first bit of ice for free to get them addicted.
很快 生意就火爆了起来
soon business was booming.
现在 像纽约和华盛顿这些地方
Now places like New York and DC get too cold
冬天太冷不需要冰块
in the winter for people to want ice
但在夏天却热的人受不了
but in the summer, they too get swelteringly hot,
因此弗雷德里克想要找一种方法
so Frederic wanted to make a way to be able
能够在亚特兰大州中部的仲夏卖冰
to sell ice in the mid-Atlantic summers
唯一可行的办法就是取许多冰
Really the only solution was to take a whole lot of ice,
把它放在密闭的建筑里
put it in an insulated building,
并期望其中一部分冰块能一直保存到夏季
and hope some of it lasts until summer,
尽管这很疯狂 但却有效
and crazily enough, that worked.
北美大部分地区开始依赖冰块
Most of North America started to rely on ice,
因此弗雷德里克在大洲间做起了冰块交易
so it was time for Frederick to take the ice trade intercontinental
世界上也有别的炎热地带 如印度
The rest of the world also had hot places like India,
因此他定期往印度加尔各答运冰
so Frederic Tudor set up a regular shipment of ice
这得到了富足英国殖民者们的喜爱
to Calcutta, India, which became hugely popular with the rich English colonialists
因为殖民者受不了当地的高温
who were used to cooler temperatures.
弗雷德里克十分聪明
Amazingly, he had the process refined so well at that point
产自新英格兰的冰
that the ice from New England
他在印度仅以每英镑一美元的价格出售
was selling in India for, adjusted for inflation,
以此来适应通货膨胀
only $1 per pound.
随后 新英格兰的冰被装船卖到
Soon after, the ice from New England was shipped and sold
伦敦 里约热内卢
in London, in Rio de Janeiro,
开普敦 香港
in Cape Town, in Hong Kong,
甚至远达澳大利亚的悉尼
the New England ice even reached as far as Sydney, Australia,
在那里以每英磅两美元的价格出售
where it sold for only $2 per pound.
这是巧合吗?
So was it a coincidence
世界精英阶级开始用
that the climate started rapidly warming only a century
蒸汽船从别处运来的冰
after the world’s elite started using ice
制作冰镇饮料享用
shipped from the other side of the world by steamship
而一个世纪后气温就变暖了
all, so they could have a chilled beverage?
我并非说气候变化由冰块贸易单方面造成
I’m not saying that the ice trade singlehandedly caused climate change,
但它显然也是原因之一
but it certainly didn’t help.
而随后人工制冷逐渐变得廉价而广泛
of course with time artificial refrigeration became cheap and widespread
但弗雷德早已家财万贯
but not before making Frederic Tudor a very rich man.
尽管有人会想 现在的冰岛
Iceland today, despite what some may think it
拒绝使用冰箱
is not some backwards heathen society
不是为了返璞归真
that shuns the use of refrigerators.
而是因为冰块是经济发展的重要一环
Its importation of ice has to do with something else—economics.
众所周知 冰岛的生活开销很高
you see, Iceland is a very expensive place.
像很多北部岛国一样
Like many isolated and northern counties,
冰岛许多东西依赖进口 如油
Iceland relies on imports for many things like oil,
木材 小麦和其他食物
wood, wheat, and other food.
冰岛并没有能力在国内生产这些产品
It just doesn’t have the ability to produce these items domestically
由于地理位置原因 到冰岛的海运很便宜
due to its geography but shipping to Iceland is also relatively cheap,
因为冰岛是出口驱动型经济
since its economy is export-driven.
并且冰岛最大的出口是鱼类
While fish is Iceland’s biggest export
这些主要靠空运
this is mostly shipped by plane
但是由于冰岛用电开支很低
but the country also has an enormous aluminium industry
大量铝工业也有了立足之地
thanks to its low electricity cost.
铝和几乎所有冰岛制造的东西一样
Aluminum, along with most everything else Iceland makes,
靠海运出口
is exported by ship, which means
这就意味着冰岛对海运出口有着需求
that there’s the demand for shipping from Iceland.
也意味着冰岛已有船只
That means that ships are already coming to Iceland
把商品带到世界各地 同时也可以
to bring items elsewhere so it’s relatively inexpensive
相对便宜地满载其他货物运回冰岛
to fill those ships with other goods to bring to Iceland,
冰岛人的平均年收入是5.7万美元
at the same time the average Icelander makes about $57,000 per year.
是世界上收入最高的国家之一
It’s one of the highest income countries in the world,
这意味着冰岛的物品造价往往很昂贵
so that means making things in Iceland, in most cases, is expensive.
你可以去查冰岛的关税表
If you go and check your handy dandy Icelandic schedule of tariffs,
你会发现水 冰和雪都是没有进口税的
though, you see that water, ice, and snow have no import duty
但前提必须从欧洲经济区进口
if imported from the European Economic Area.
于是冰岛从别国的经济特区低价进口冰块
Therefore, Iceland imports ice from other less expensive countries in the EEZ
比如在英格兰 仅需额外在运费上花点钱
such as Scotland and the only additional cost is the cheap shipping.
然而也有许多国家
While there are plenty of other countries
不征收冰块进口税
that don’t charge import duties on ice,
那里几乎没有
there are few that have the mix of
高额劳动成本和低廉入境船费
high domestic labor costs and cheap inbound shipping
这使得冰岛进口冰块十分划算
that make it worth it for Iceland to import ice.
这就是为何冰岛杂货店储存着
That’s why Iceland’s grocery stores are being stocked with
从数百里或千英里远的国家买来的冰
this imported ice from hundreds or thousands of miles away as
但销售的价格比冰岛本地冰少百分之四十
it ends up being about 40 % less than Icelandic ice.
如果你想卖不同种类的冰制品
If you want to sell a different kind of ice,
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创建一个全功能网店
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你可以全身心投入建设你的冰……淇淋帝国
you can put all your attention into building your ice cream empire.
事实上 无论做哪一种业务
In fact, if you run any sort of business
不管是实体店 播客节目
whether that be a brick and mortar store, a podcast,
youtube频道
a youtube channel,
还是想给未来的顾客留下好的第一印象
or anything else you want to make a great first impression for
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your potential customers and Squarespace helps you do that
因为他们那有漂亮的设计模板
because their beautiful designer templates
能帮你轻松建立一个很酷的网站
make it easy to build a websitethat looks great.
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Best of all, you can start building your website
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the same link will get you 10 % off.

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译制信息
视频概述

从历史和经济的角度来分析冰岛进口冰的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

summer

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y3cSbcVXR2w

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