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为什么我仍然对珊瑚礁抱有希望?

Why I still have hope for coral reefs | Kristen Marhaver

我第一次在水下流泪是2008年
The first time I cried underwater was in 2008,
那是在加勒比海南部的库拉索岛
the island of Curaçao, way down in the southern Caribbean.
那是个很美的地方
It’s beautiful there.
我因攻读博士学位而研究这些珊瑚
I was studying these corals for my PhD,
在日复一日潜行于同一片珊瑚礁后
and after days and daysof diving on the same reef,
我已经对它们了如指掌
I had gotten to know them as individuals.
我和珊瑚群交朋友
I had made friends with coral colonies —
也是一件再正常不过的事情
totally a normal thing to do.
但飓风“奥马尔”将它们撕碎 使它们变得体无完肤
Then, Hurricane Omar smashed them apartand ripped off their skin,
只留下一小片
leaving little bits of wounded tissue
难以愈合的受伤组织
that would have a hard time healing,
以及大片会被海藻覆盖的残骸
and big patches of dead skeleton that would get overgrown by algae.
当我第一次看到这种程度的损坏
When I saw this damage for the first time,
一直沿着珊瑚礁向下延伸
stretching all the way down the reef,
当我戴着潜水器沉到沙滩上时 不禁流下了泪
I sunk onto the sand in my scuba gear and I cried.
如果珊瑚这么快就死掉了
If a coral could die that fast,
珊瑚礁又怎么可能幸免
how could a reef ever survive?
我又为何要以为它们的生存而战为业?
And why was I making it my job to try to fight for them?
直到去年我才听到另一位科学家 讲过这样一个故事
I never heard another scientisttell that kind of story until last year.
关岛的一位科学家写道
A scientist in Guam wrote,
看到珊瑚礁受到破坏时 “我对着自己的面罩哭了起来”
“I cried right into my mask,” seeing the damage on the reefs.
然后澳大利亚的一位科学家写道
Then a scientist in Australia wrote,
“我把珊瑚调查结果给我的学生看后 我们都哭了”
“I showed my students the results of our coral surveys, and we wept.”
为珊瑚哭泣是一种享受 伙计们
Crying about corals is having a moment, guys.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
这是因为太平洋的珊瑚礁
And that’s because reefs in the Pacific
正在以前所未有的速度死亡
are losing corals faster than we’ve ever seen before.
由于气候变化
Because of climate change,
夏天的水温持续过高
the water is so hot for so long in the summers,
这使珊瑚虫不能存活
that these animals can’t function normally.
它们吐出生活在皮肤里的彩色藻类
They’re spitting out the colored algaethat lives in their skin,
而那些白化的透明组织
and the clear bleached tissue that’s left
通常会饿死 腐烂
usually starves to death and then rots away.
然后骸骨被藻类覆盖
Then the skeletons are overgrown by algae.
这种情况正以令人难以置信的速度进行
This is happening over an unbelievable scale.
去年 大堡礁北部
The Northern Great Barrier Reef
数百英里范围内的珊瑚数量
lost two-thirds of its corals last year
减少了三分之二
over a distance of hundreds of miles,
今年又开始白化
then bleached again this year,
且白化现象一直向南延伸
and the bleaching stretched further south.
太平洋的珊瑚礁数量现在正急剧下降
Reefs in the Pacific are in a nosedive right now,
没人知道还会不会变得更糟
and no one knows how bad it’s going to get,
除了……
except…
在我工作的加勒比海
over in the Caribbean where I work,
我们已经见证了它们的数量大面积急剧下降
we’ve already been through the nosedive.
那里的珊瑚礁已经遭受了人类数百年的虐待
Reefs there have sufferedthrough centuries of intense human abuse.
我们已经知道是怎么一回事了
We kind of already know how the story goes.
我们也许能预测接下来将会发生什么
And we might be able to help predictwhat happens next.
我们来看一下图表
Let’s consult a graph.
自从水肺发明以来
Since the invention of scuba,
科学家们已经统计了海底珊瑚的数量
scientists have measured the amount of coral on the seafloor,
以及它们是如何随着时间而变化的
and how it’s changed through time.
几个世纪以来 人类不断给海洋环境带来压力
And after centuriesof ratcheting human pressure,
加勒比海的珊瑚礁也受到了威胁
Caribbean reefs met one of three fates.
有些死亡的速度很快
Some reefs lost their corals very quickly.
有些则稍微慢一点
Some reefs lost their corals more slowly,
但最终结果都一样
but kind of ended up in the same place.
到目前为止 情况并不乐观
OK, so far this is not going very well.
但在加勒比海地区的一些珊瑚礁
But some reefs in the Caribbean —
那些受到了最好保护的和
the ones best protected
离人类稍远的
and the ones a little further from humans —
它们得以保住了它们的珊瑚
they managed to hold onto their corals.
向我们提出了挑战
Give us a challenge.
我们不会看到珊瑚礁消失
And, we almost never saw a reef hit zero.
我第二次在水下流泪是2011年
The second time I cried underwater
在库拉索的北岸
was on the north shore of Curaçao, 2011.
那是一年中最平静的一天
It was the calmest day of the year,
但在那里潜水不能深潜
but it’s always pretty sketchy diving there.
我和男朋友逆浪游泳
My boyfriend and I swam against the waves.
我看着指南针
I watched my compass
这样我们就能找到回去的路
so we could find our way back out,
他看到了鲨鱼
and he watched for sharks,
接下来我们游了20分钟 感觉像过了一个小时
and after 20 minutes of swimming that felt like an hour,
当我们终于抵达珊瑚礁上时
we finally dropped down to the reef,
我感到很后怕
and I was so shocked,
接着我流下了喜悦的泪水
and I was so happy that my eyes filled with tears.
这里的珊瑚有着一千年的历史
There were corals 1,000 years old
它们一个接一个地排列在一起
lined up one after another.
它们在欧洲殖民主义在加勒比海的整个时期
They had survived the entire history
幸存了下来
of European colonialism in the Caribbean,
且在那之前已经存在了几百年
and for centuries before that.
我从来不知道珊瑚能做什么
I never knew what a coral could do
如果给它们机会繁殖的话
when it was given a chance to thrive.
事实上 即使我们失去这么多珊瑚
The truth is that even as we lose so many corals,
甚至经历大面积珊瑚的死亡
even as we go through this massive coral die-off,
还是有些珊瑚礁能存活下来
some reefs will survive.
有些支离破碎 有些依旧漂亮
Some will be ragged on the edge, some will be beautiful.
通过保护海岸线 为我们提供食物
And by protecting shorelines and giving us food to eat
推动旅游业发展
and supporting tourism,
它们仍会每年价值数十亿美元
they will still be worth billions and billions of dollars a year.
保护珊瑚礁的最佳时机是在50年前
The best time to protect a reef was 50 years ago,
其次就是现在
but the second-best time is right now.
即便我们经历过白化事件
Even as we go through bleaching events,
更频繁且发生在更多的地方
more frequent and in more places,
但一些珊瑚将能够恢复过来
some corals will be able to recover.
2010年 我们在加勒比海经历了一次白化事件
We had a bleaching event in 2010 in the Caribbean
就像这些 珊瑚大块脱落
that took off big patches of skin on boulder corals like these.
失去了近一半的珊瑚
This coral lost half of its skin.
但如果你在几年后
But if you look at the side
再看珊瑚的侧面
of this coral a few years later,
就会发现它又恢复了健康
this coral is actually healthy again.
它在做健康珊瑚所做的事
It’s doing what a healthy coral does.
它在复制珊瑚虫
It’s making copies of its polyps,
它在击退藻类 收复自己的领地
it’s fighting back the algae and it’s reclaiming its territory.
如果有一些珊瑚虫存活下来 珊瑚就可以再生
If a few polyps survive, a coral can regrow;
它只需要时间 保护和一个合适的温度
it just needs time and protection and a reasonable temperature.
有些珊瑚可以在10年内再生 但有些则需要更长的时间
Some corals can regrow in 10 years — others take a lot longer.
我们在当地减轻的压力越多
But the more stresseswe take off them locally —
比如过度捕捞 污水污染 化肥污染 疏浚
things like overfishing,sewage pollution, fertilizer pollution, dredging,
沿海建设
coastal construction —
它们就越能在我们稳定气候的过程中
the better they can hang onas we stabilize the climate,
更好地存活下来 也能更快地再生
and the faster they can regrow.
在我们经历稳定地球气候的
And as we go through the long,tough and necessary process
漫长 艰难和必要的过程中
of stabilizing the climateof planet Earth,
一些新的珊瑚将会诞生
some new corals will still be born.
这就是我在研究中学到的
This is what I study in my research.
我们试图了解珊瑚是如何繁衍后代
We try to understandhow corals make babies,
以及这些新生命是如何找到通向珊瑚礁之路的
and how those babiesfind their way to the reef,
我们发明了新的方法来帮助它们
and we invent new methodsto help them survive
度过生命初期脆弱的阶段
those early, fragile life stages.
我最喜欢的珊瑚宝宝之一
One of my favoritecoral babies of all time
是在奥马尔飓风过后出现的
showed up right after Hurricane Omar.
这是我在风暴前研究的同一物种
It’s the same speciesI was studying before the storm,
但你几乎从未见过这种物种的幼崽
but you almost never seebabies of this species —
这真的很罕见
it’s really rare.
实际上这是一种濒临灭绝的物种
This is actually an endangered species.
在这张照片中 是只小珊瑚宝宝
In this photo, this little baby coral,
这只小珊瑚的虫圈
this little circle of polyps,
却已经有几年的历史了
is a few years old.
就像它的兄弟们会白化一样 它也在抵抗藻类
Like its cousins that bleach, it’s fighting back the algae.
和它在北岸的表亲一样
And like its cousins on the north shore,
它的目标是活1000年
it’s aiming to live for 1,000 years.
地球和海洋中发生的一切
What’s happening in the worldand in the ocean
改变了我们的时间进程
has changed our time horizon.
我们可能会在短期内极度悲观
We can be incredibly pessimisticon the short term,
对我们失去的和我们认可的东西感到悲伤
and mourn what we lost and what we really took for granted.
但从长远来看 我们仍可保持乐观
But we can still be optimisticon the long term,
我们仍可雄心勃勃地为之奋斗
and we can still be ambitiousabout what we fight for
对我们的政府和我们的星球抱有期望
and what we expect from our governments, from our planet.
珊瑚在地球上生活了数亿年
Corals have been living on planet Earth for hundreds of millions of years.
它们从恐龙灭绝中幸存下来
They survived the extinctionof the dinosaurs.
它们是坏蛋
They’re badasses.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
珊瑚个体可以在经历巨大的创伤后 完全恢复
An individual coral can go throughtremendous trauma and fully recover
只要给它一个机会 使它得到保护
if it’s given a chanceand it’s given protection.
珊瑚就会一直进行长期的活动
Corals have alwaysbeen playing the long game,
就和我们一样
and now so are we.
非常感谢
Thanks very much.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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译制信息
视频概述

珊瑚礁的现状

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

阿遥

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FauPVZxDXxk

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