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为什么氢能汽车会成为特斯拉的头号劲敌

Why Hydrogen Cars Will Be Tesla’s Biggest Threat

If you ask anyone what the future of cars looks like,
假如你问别人未来的车是什么样的
they’ll probably tell you it’s electric
他们很可能会说是电动的
and that Tesla is at the forefront of the movement.
毕竟特斯拉正走在这个变革的前沿
But what if I told you that there’s another option
但如果我告诉你还有其他
that could be just as good or even better than battery-electric vehicles?
与纯电动汽车相当甚至更好的选择呢?
What if you could power cars with the most abundant resource in the universe
如果你能用宇宙中最丰富的资源驱动汽车
with water as the only byproduct?
而最终的副产物只有水呢?
And they’re more likely to disrupt the auto industry
相比像特斯拉这样的纯电动汽车
than battery-powered cars, like Teslas.
它们更有可能颠覆整个汽车产业
Why hydrogen cars will be Tesla’s biggest threat
为什么氢能汽车会成为特斯拉的头号劲敌
Hydrogen fuel cells have been a technology of great promise
氢燃料电池是一项前景广阔的技术
as well as great skepticism.
但也受到了许多质疑
Elon Musk himself often mocks hydrogen fuel cell technology,
伊隆·马斯克经常嘲笑氢燃料电池技术
going so far as to call them “fool cells”
甚至称它们是“傻瓜电池”
and “mind-bogglingly stupid.”
“愚蠢至极”
But major automakers still see promise.
但许多汽车制造商仍看到了希望
First, let’s define the terms.
首先 我们定义一下术语
Battery electric vehicles, or BEVs,
纯电动汽车 或者说BEV
are the electric vehicles that most of us are familiar with today, like Teslas.
是指如今广为熟知的电动汽车 例如特斯拉
They use a battery to store electricity and power the electric motor.
它们使用电池储存电能 从而驱动电动机
A hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle, or FCEV,
氢燃料电池汽车 或者说FCEV
like Toyota’s Mirai,
比如丰田的Mirai
combines hydrogen with oxygen to produce electricity,
它通过氢氧的结合来产生电能
which then powers the electric motor that drives the car.
然后驱动电动机 带动汽车前行
Now, when it comes to why people don’t buy battery-electric vehicles like Teslas,
说到人们为什么不买像特斯拉一样的纯电动汽车
there are three main reasons:
主要有三个原因
They take too long to recharge,
它们充电太久了
they have a limited range before they need to be recharged,
充一次电的情况下 它们的续航能力有限
and they cost a lot more than your comparable gas-powered car.
相比于同性能的汽油车 它们的价格更贵
So, how do hydrogen cars stack up in these areas?
那么氢能汽车如何在这些方面竞争呢
When it comes to recharging,
充能方面
hydrogen cars have battery-electrics beat.
氢能汽车有着绝对优势
At a supercharging station,
在超级充电站
a Tesla can charge anywhere from 30% to 50% in 15 minutes,
一辆特斯拉能在15分钟内充30-50%的电
but you’ll be at the charging station for over an hour for a full charge.
但要充满的话就得在充电站呆1个多小时
Fuel-cell vehicles don’t require charging at all.
燃料电池汽车根本不需要充电
The hydrogen tank is refilled at a hydrogen station in less than five minutes,
在加氢站 氢气罐5分钟之内就能加满
just like your typical gas station today.
就像现在普通的加油站
That’s because FCEVs don’t store electricity like a battery;
这是因为氢燃料电池汽车不像电池一样储存电能
they create it on demand to power the motor.
它们按需产能来驱动发动机
When it comes to range,
续航方面
hydrogen-powered cars seem to come out on top again.
氢能汽车似乎也是最好的
Between the three fuel-cell vehicles on the road today,
已经上路的三种燃料电池汽车
they have a range of 312, 360, and 380 miles.
续航里程分别为310 360 380英里
Most electric vehicles have a range under 250 miles.
大多数电动汽车的续航里程都低于250英里
While some Tesla models offer a range
而特斯拉有些车型能达到
of more than 300 miles,
300多英里的续航里程
they often cost more than the average car buyer can afford.
但其价格往往高于一般人的预算
Range and refueling times are so important
续航能力和充能时间非常重要
that 78% of automotive executives believe
78%的汽车业高管相信
fuel-cell vehicles will be the breakthrough for electric mobility.
燃料电池汽车将成为电动汽车产业的先锋
But that’s not to say fuel-cell vehicles don’t have challenges of their own.
但这并不是说燃料电池汽车没有缺陷
FCEVs need more competitive pricing.
氢燃料电池汽车的价格需要更具竞争力
The suggested retail price for the fuel-cell vehicles available today is around $60,000,
现在燃料电池汽车的建议零售价大概是60000美元
which is about $20,000 more than an entry-level BEV.
比入门级的纯电动汽车贵了大约20000美元
That’s because production size of these vehicles is incredibly low.
因为这些汽车的生产规模非常小
With only a few thousand or few hundred being made every year,
每年只能生产几千甚至几百辆车
it’s nearly impossible for prices to be competitive.
要使价格更具竞争力几乎不可能
But that could soon be changing.
但这个事实即将改变
Automakers are looking to increase the production of their FCEVs.
汽车厂商正在计划扩大氢燃料电池汽车的生产规模
Toyota in particular has increased its production capabilities tenfold
特别是丰田 为了最终能够降低Mirai的价格
to eventually bring down the cost of its Mirai.
他们已经将生产规模扩大了10倍
The real challenge for hydrogen fuel cells is the lack of infrastructure.
氢燃料电池汽车面临的真正挑战是配套设施的缺乏
In the US, the majority of hydrogen stations are in California,
在美国 大多数加氢站都位于加利福尼亚
with just over 40 available to fuel-cell owners.
且只有40多座可供氢能汽车车主使用
For FCEVs to become the breakthrough that automotive executives believe in,
为了让氢燃料电池汽车成为汽车高管们希望的先锋
a vast network for hydrogen stations is vital.
建立一个庞大的加氢站网络至关重要
And automakers are slowly working to make it happen.
汽车厂商正逐步努力实现这个目标
Jackie Birdsall: We do get to work together with the other automakers,
我们确实在和其他汽车厂商合作
as well as with, you know, here in California,
以及和加利福尼亚这儿的
the state of California and the industrial gas suppliers,
加利福尼亚政府 工业燃气供应商
or whomever the energy provider is,
还有其他能源供应商合作
to be able to site hydrogen stations
把加氢站建在
where it makes the most sense for all of the automakers’ vehicles.
对所有氢能汽车厂商都合理的位置上
And so that’s to try to make sure that any investment that we make is best leveraged
这也是为了确保我们所做的投资能够
by all of the consumers from all of the automakers that currently offer fuel-cell vehicles.
被所有燃料电池汽车厂商的消费者充分利用
Narrator: If and when fuel-cell vehicles scale,
如果当燃料电池汽车得到普及
Tesla will have a tough challenge on their hands.
特斯拉将会面临艰难的挑战
They’ll have to increase range
他们必须要提高续航能力
while simultaneously decreasing recharging time and price.
同时减少充电时间并降低价格
But Teslas, and any battery-electric vehicles, are limited
但是由于收益递减定律
because of the law of diminishing returns.
特斯拉和其他电动汽车很难做到这一点
Increasing the range requires a larger battery.
增加续航里程需要更大容量的电池
A larger battery will add more weight to the car.
而更大的电池会增加汽车的重量
After a certain point,
超过某一特定值时
the added weight no longer yields additional range.
增加的重量将不再提高续航能力
With FCEVs, it’s just a numbers game.
但对氢能汽车来说 只是一场数字游戏
More hydrogen stations equal more cars,
加氢站的增加意味着会有更多的汽车
and more cars equal more affordable fuel-cell vehicles.
汽车的增加则带动燃料汽车价格的降低
Tesla has a lock on the zero-emissions market in America,
特斯拉完全控制着美国的零排放市场
controlling a whopping 60% of the EV market.
占据美国电动汽车市场的60%
But that’s still only 2% of the entire US car market.
但也只是占了美国整个汽车市场的2%
And those numbers decrease when we talk about the global car market.
放到全球汽车市场来说 占比将会更低
The only thing really holding FCEVs back is infrastructure,
唯一阻碍氢燃料电池汽车普及的是配套设施
and as hydrogen stations become more abundant,
当加氢站大量建成时
Tesla could lose the majority of the zero-emissions market.
特斯拉将因为一项“愚蠢至极”的技术
For a technology that’s “mind-bogglingly stupid,”
失去零排放市场的主导地位
it has serious potential to become a real competition
氢能汽车很有可能成为一个棘手的竞争对手
for the very same customers that Tesla’s aiming for.
抢夺特斯拉的目标客户
So, Elon might want to take notice.
因此 伊隆可要注意了

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视频概述

本视频主要介绍了纯电动汽车在充电、耗油量和价格方便的缺点。再介绍氢能汽车在这些方面的优点,还有氢能汽车要普及的话现在所面临的挑战。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Syllab

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DbojSLdgs50

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