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为什么医院要雇演员来假冒病人

Why Hospitals Hire People To Fake Being Sick

Lucas Cusumano:谢谢
LUCAS CUSUMANO: Thank you.
张开你的嘴 说“啊”
Open your mouth and say, aah.
Galen Murphy-Hoffman:啊
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN: Aah.
Lucas Cusumano:很好
LUCAS CUSUMANO: Excellent.
疼吗
Any pain?
旁白:这样的场景每天都会发生在
NARRATOR: Scenes like this take place every day
诊所里
in doctor’s offices.
同时在Einstein医疗中心 正真实的上演着
And at Einstein Medical Center, that’s
这一幕
exactly what this is, a scene.
医生是医学生
The doctor is a medical student.
而病患 是演员
And a patient, an actor.
Lucas Cusumano:那儿疼吗
LUCAS CUSUMANO: Any pain right there?
还好
OK.
旁白:在这个国家很多地方
NARRATOR: At facilities around the country,
医科大学会雇佣一批标准化的病人 简称为SP
medical schools employ standardized patients, or SPs,
他们常常也是专业演员
who are often professional actors,
这些病人能让学生实战演练
to give students an education into the real world.
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN:我们塑造的形象
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN: We are creating characters
与医科学校所要求的相一致
with the information that the medical school will give us.
为了锻炼学生 我们这些演员
In order for it to be effective, we as actors
必须真实演绎我们的疼痛
have to truly believe that we’re in the pain that we’re in,
以及真心需要医生的帮助
and we need the help that we need.
MARLENA DATER:你有固定的台词
MARLENA DATER: You have certain lines
他们问你这个的时候 你就该这么说
that when they ask you this, you should say this,
这样的目的就是为了标准化 让每一位学生
to keep it standardized while the students are
都得到相同的锻炼
given equal opportunity.
同时所有场景都会被录像
And also it’s videotaped.
学生们可以训练过后自己倒带
The students get to go back later,
看 观察 思考
and look, and watch, and see.
同时我也会给学生们打分
And also I’m grading the students as well, not only
其中不仅仅看他们的病史采集情况 还有体检操作能力
on their history taking and their physical exam skills,
而且最重要的是 作为病人的我 对这位医生的评价
but most importantly, how they made me feel as a patient.
旁白:情景演练从简单的门诊
NARRATOR: Testing scenarios range from simple office visits
到去安抚可能刚刚失去亲人的
to comforting family members that might have just lost
一家子
a loved one.
案例中充满着各种细节与线索
The cases are full of details and clues
学生们必须去寻找正确的诊断
that the students must navigate to find the right diagnosis
给予恰当的回应
or response.
LUCAS CUSUMANO:特别棒
LUCAS CUSUMANO: Perfect, excellent.
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN:有时候
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN: And sometimes there
会掩人耳目
are red herrings.
有时候你认为是很重要的信息
Sometimes there is information that you think is significant,
但是事实上 却把人们带入错误的方向
but in fact, it’s in there to send them down the wrong path
让人们陷入困境
and to trap them.
LUCAS CUSUMANO:当有人过来打针
LUCAS CUSUMANO: When someone came for a shot then,
你那时候在干嘛
what were you doing at the time?
GALEN MURPHY HOFFMAN:我那时候刚刚吃好午饭
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN: I had just finished lunch.
LUCAS CUSUMANO:好吧
LUCAS CUSUMANO: OK.
GALEN MURPHY HOFFMAN:我那时候正在办公室
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN: It came on as I was at office.
LUCAS CUSUMANO:有多疼
LUCAS CUSUMANO: How severe is this pain?
GALEN MURPHY HOFFMAN:如果给疼痛打分的话 差不多6级或7级
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN: It’s probably a six or a seven.
LUCAS CUSUMANO:好的
LUCAS CUSUMANO: OK.
FELISE MILAN:在医科学校
DR. FELISE MILAN: Using this kind of modality for assessment
使用这种形式评估
has really become the gold standard, if you will,
已经成为典范
in medical education.
在他们大四那年
And ultimately in their fourth year,
最终得通过12项标准化病人测试
the students have to pass a 12 encounter standardized patient
才能拿到本国的医师资格证
test to get a license in this country.
LUCAS CUSUMANO:我不得不说 第一次
LUCAS CUSUMANO: I would say the first time I ever
遇到标准化病人 有点让我气馁
worked with an SP, it was a little daunting.
我根本不知道该干什么 就自报家门说
I didn’t really even know what to do, other than to say,
我的名字是Luke
hi, my name is Luke.
GALEN MURPHY HOFFMAN:不是我的心脏有什么问题吧
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN: And It won’t be my heart, will it?
LUCAS CUSUMANO:你的心脏怎么了
LUCAS CUSUMANO: Oh, what’s going on with your heart?
你是担心……
Are you concerned about this being–?
GALEN MURPHY HOFFMAN:好吧 只是
GALEN MURPHY-HOFFMAN: Well, I– just my father
我的父亲死于心脏病
had a heart attack and died of it.
所以我 我就想来确保一下
So I, was– I guess, just wanted to make sure
我不知道胃里的某种异样感
that– I don’t know if anything in the stomach
是不是因为心脏出了问题
is about the heart.
LUCAS CUSUMANO:我觉得那反映了卫生保健服务
LUCAS CUSUMANO: I think that’s the reality of what
目前的现状
a health care system is now.
我们必须缩短同情心泛滥的交谈
We have to make these very empathetic interactions
尽快对症下药
happen very quickly, and get the information
但同时要保证
as quickly as possible, while still trying
人性化
to maintain our humanity and everything
保留医德 给病患带来帮助
that people expect as doctors.
旁白:根据2016年医景医生薪酬报告
NARRATOR: According to the 2016 Medscape Physician Compensation
大多数病人预约一次就诊 平均就诊时间
Report, most patients only have 13 to 15 minutes
只有13-15分钟
with their doctor at an average appointment.
医生们不仅要学会充分利用这个时间段
Doctors have to learn to be efficient in that time
并且要改善对待病人的态度
but also develop a bedside manner.
MONICA:Joanne 你好
MONICA: Hi, Joanne.
我的名字叫Monica Genger
My name’s Monica Genger.
我是个医学生
I’m a medical student.
今天我和你的大夫一起为你看病
I’m working with your doctors today.
MARLENA DATER:我最喜欢扮演的角色
MARLENA DATER: My favorite role to play,
也是我经常扮演的——一个青少年病患
and one I get cast in a lot, is adolescent roles.
我扮演的角色就是
It’s an acting process for me, just trying
要有点冷漠
to be, like, disinterested.
我的天哪 我真心不想呆在这里
Oh my god, I don’t really want to be here.
MONICA:你麻麻为啥想叫你来这儿呢?
MONICA: Why do you think your mom wanted you to come in?
MARLENA DATER:我不知道
MARLENA DATER: I don’t know, like,
我头一直很大
I’ve been having these headaches,
但是我觉得这没啥大不了的 管她呢
but, like, I don’t think it’s, like, a big deal, but whatever.
如果是她头疼的话 她会来看病的
If she does, she’ll come in.
MONICA:你的头疼可以具体再说说嘛?
MONICA: Can you tell me some more about the headaches?
MARLENA DATER:我不晓得
MARLENA DATER: I don’t know.
我不晓得 就是头疼吧
I don’t know, it’s, like, a headache.
怎么说呢 没法向你解释
How do you explain that.
FELISE MILAN医生:我们的目的是让演员们
DR. FELISE MILAN: We’re really asking
立即调动大脑多项功能
them to use multiple parts of their brain
因为此刻他们正在专注于演绎
at once, because they’re concentrating
另外一个人 真正地融入那个角色
on being another person and truly being in that role.
同时 他们必须记住
At the same time, they have to remember,
学生有没有问过我是否发烧
did the student ask me if I had a fever?
学生有没有问过我吃过什么药?
Did the student ask me what medicines I take?
学生问我这些情况时的表现
And how did the student ask me that?
值得注意的是 要看他们的表现
To watch them do what they do, and to see how fabulous they
同时评判他们的操作是否娴熟
are at it, is remarkable.
MARLENA DATER:标准化病人的工作
MARLENA DATER: Standardized patient work, it’s
会给你带来奖赏 以及满足感
like immediate gratification and reward.
因为你在影响着一名学生
Because you are affecting a student.
你在改变全世界未来的医生们
You’re affecting future doctors of the world.
同时正是因为有了这些病患 才组成了世界本身
And that sense, the world itself because of all the patients.
它形成了涟漪效应
And it’s just such a rippling effect.
我热爱这份工作 真的
I love this work, love it.
旁白:尽情期待下集
NARRATOR: Watch this next episode
研究生小组
about a group of grad students who
正在开发一种变革性技术:将手机摄像头移植到
are developing a game changing technology by converting a cell
显微镜中
phone camera into a microscope.

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视频概述

为什么医院要雇演员来假冒病人?这背后的原始是什么—敬请期待本期的探索者故事,为你讲述医科大学的新型训练模式

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Julia

审核员

与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcc-vLLkHSc

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