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为什么黑格尔知道人类会有黑暗时刻? – 译学馆
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为什么黑格尔知道人类会有黑暗时刻?

Why Hegel knew there would be days like these

历史上总有些地方或时期
There have been places and periods of history,
是只有天生的乐天派 才能对人类的前途持有希望的
when only a congenital optimist could have had any hope for the future of our species.
想想雅典黄金期的终结
Think of the end of Athens’ golden age,
罗马帝国的衰落
the fall of the Roman Empire,
文艺复兴的落幕
the petering out of the Renaissance,
启蒙运动的结束
the end of the Enlightenment,
法西斯主义的兴起
the rise of fascism.
每当事情变得无望时
It’s when things look bleak indeed,
人们便会想起19世纪的德国哲学家 黑格尔
that it pays to remember the German 19th century philosopher, Hegel.
在他1830年发表的关于世界历史哲学的演讲中
In his lectures on the philosophy of world history, published in 1830,
黑格尔为我们提供了一种看待历史上黑暗时期的方式:
Hegel offered us a way of looking at the darker periods of history,
既不是遮掩疼痛 也不是拒绝放弃希望
that neither glosses over their pain nor, refuses to give up hope
而是理性地帮我们理解
but intellegently helps us to understand
为什么人类进程不是线性的
why Human progress cannot be linear,
另一方面他鼓励我们相信这一切总会发生
while encouraging us to trust that it does occur, nevertheless.
对于黑格尔来说 历史是按照他所谓的思辨方式前进的
For Hegel, history moves forward in what he termed a “Dialectical way”.
辩证法是一个用来描述论证的哲学用语 一个论证由三部分组成:
A dialectic is a philosophical term for an argument made up of three parts.
正、反、合
A thesis, an antithesis and a synthesis.
正反两面都包含了部分真理
Both the thesis and the antithesis countain parts of the truth
但它们也是对整体的夸大与扭曲
but they are also exaggerations and distortions of the whole.
因而它们才会冲突、交流 直至找出达成“合”的最佳组合
And so, need to clash and interract until the best elements find resolution in a synthesis.
简言之 我们不可能一步到位
One cannot, in short, get there in one leap.
黑格尔认为这个模型在历史中反复出现
Hegel thought this pattern constantly observable in History.
世界在从一个极端到另一个极端的过程中进步
The world makes progress by lurching from one extreme to another,
因为它对于过去的错误矫枉过正
as it seeks to overcompensate for previous mistake.
一般来说在达到最佳平衡前需要经历三步
And generally requires three moves before the right balance on any issue can be found.
比如 古雅典人发展了个性解放的思想
So, for example, the ancient Athenians discovered the idea of individual liberty.
但他们的政权却对集体纪律与组织的需求视而不见
But their regime was blind to the need for collective discipline and organisation.
古波斯人洞悉了这一点 所以才能在战场上征服雅典人
The ancient Persians knew all about that and were thereby able to conquer the Athenians on the battlefield.
然而他们自己也是自由思想的专横敌人
Yet, they were also despotic enemies of free thought
长此以往 便成了他们自己的负担
which with time, became its own liability.
人类在自由与纪律之间达到正确平衡花了数个世纪的时间
It took many centuries for the correct synthesis between liberty and discipline,
这在罗马帝国的政权上实现了
to be worked out in the form of the Roman Empire.
在黑格尔的时代 18世纪沉闷不公的继承制度
In Hegel’s own era, the stifling, unfair, 18th century system of inheritage,
以及传统的君主制 都被法国大革命彻底废除
traditionnal monarchy, had been abolished by the French Revolution.
但是 本来应该和平诞生的代表制政府
But, what should’ve been a peaceful birth of representative government
最终还是陷入无政府的混乱状态
ended up in the anarchy and chaos of the Terror.
这继而又导致了拿破仑的崛起
This, in turn, led to the emergence of Napoleon,
他恢复了秩序 自己却变成了一个军事暴君
who restored order, but became a military brute,
任意践踏他宣称热爱的自由
trampling on the liberty he had professed to love.
40年血雨腥风后 作为现代平衡器的宪法才诞生
Only after 40 years and much bloodshed, did the modern balance, Constitution, emerge.
这种安排巧妙平衡了公众代表的民意 并保证了少数群体的权利
An arrangement which more sensibly balanced up popular representation, with the rights of minorities.
或者 再举个例子 欧洲启蒙运动强调理性的重要性
Or, to take another example, the European Enlightenment had stressed the importance of reason,
但在许多方面又很空洞乏味 浪漫主义运动
but it had in many parts been sterile and reductive. The movement known as ‘Romanticism’
强调感性的重要性 但同时又过犹不及
had then swept in to assert the importance of emotion. But this had carried excesses of its own.
只有最终在合理的理性与感性需求间达到适度和谐
Only eventually had a correct reconciliation been worked out between the legitimate,
才能解决问题
competing needs of reason and emotion.
在某种进步全然失去时 黑格尔的观点
Hegel argument has a highly reassuring feel at moments when it seems
能让人稍感安慰
that one kind of progress has been entirely lost.
他时刻安慰我们只是看到了钟摆一时回摆而已
He’s on hand to reassure us that we’re merely seeing the pendulum swing back for a time.
但同时又充满智慧地建议说 这是必经之路
But also wisely counciled that this was needed,
因为最初的前行忽略了一系列重要见解:
because the initial move forward had been blind to a range of crucial insights.
事情的所有面都包含重要真理
All sides on a matter will contain important truths,
而真理置身于夸张扭曲的事实中
lodged amidst exaggerations and bombast.
但它们终会随着时间大浪淘沙 被筛选出来
Yet, these truths will eventually be sifted out through the wisdom of time.
黑格尔提醒我们 过度反应并不妨碍
Hegel reminds us that big overreactions are eminently compatible
事物沿着正确的方向大步向前发展
with events broadly moving forward, in the right direction.
黑暗时分并不是最终结局
The dark moments aren’t the end.
它们带来了挑战 但在某些方面又是构成“反”的必要部分
They are a challenging, but even in some ways necessary parts of an antithesis,
而“反”最终会找到“合”的最佳点
that will, eventually, find a wiser point of synthesis.

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视频概述

人类历史上的黑暗时刻,若以黑格尔的思辨方式来看,则是人类非线性发展的必经时刻,如同钟摆一样,只是时钟一时摆回而已 。天下分久必合,我们要心怀希望,努力探索维持社会稳定的最佳平衡点。

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q54VyCpXDH8

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