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为什么热泵是制冷的未来

Why heaters are the future of cooling

You’re looking at a map of places that needed indoor cooling in 2019.
屏幕所示地图是2019年需要室内制冷的地区
The redder an area is, the more often temperatures were hot enough
区域颜色越红 高温天气就越频繁
that people needed some kind of cooling to be comfortable indoors.
人们就越需要某种制冷措施 以保证室内舒适
The study also charted this into the future.
此项研究同样描绘了未来趋势
When you zoom in, you can see
放大地图 就可以看到
how many places that haven’t needed to cool their buildings, will need to.
有多少现在不需要但将来需要室内制冷的地区
Like here, in Western Europe— by 2040,
比如这里 2040的西欧
and by 2070— Northern China, and Japan,
2070年的中国北部 日本
and in the Pacific Northwest of the US
以及美国太平洋西北地区
where that change is already underway.
这种变化已经开始了
“Seattle is the least air conditioned metro area in the US.”
“西雅图是美国空调最少的大都市”
“Most people in this area do not have air conditioning.”
“这里很多人都还没用上空调”
“We tried to get one, buy one, and they’re all …”
“我们也曾试着装一台 买一台 但是都……”
“Sold out of AC units.”
“空调都卖完了”
“Dozens of customers lining up at this hardware store, all leave empty handed.”
“几十个顾客在空调店门口排起长队 但都空手而归”
The world is on the brink of a massive boom in demand for air conditioning.
全球的空调需求即将呈大规模增长
The number of installed AC units is expected to skyrocket,
预计到2050年 已安装的空调数量
from 2 billion today, to almost 6 billion by 2050.
将从如今的20亿台飙升至将近60亿台
More air conditioning means more consumption of electricity,
空调数量增加意味着电力消耗增加
and more emissions that warm the planet.
温室气体排放量增加
But all of this comes with a weird twist.
但这些也带来了大转机
This increased need to cool our homes might be an unexpected opportunity
家庭制冷需求增加或许是个意外机会
to fix an even bigger problem.
能解决一个更大的问题
Fixing the way we heat them with a revolutionary device called a heat pump.
用一种叫热泵的革命性装置来改变取暖方式
The basic mechanics of air conditioning haven’t changed much since it was invented a century ago.
自一个世纪前空调问世以来 其基本工作原理并没有多大变化
A fluid called a refrigerant absorbs heat from inside the home.
一种叫做制冷剂的液体从室内吸收热量
That heat is moved and released outside the home,
所吸收的热量会被转移并释放到室外
and a fan blows out the newly cold air.
内置风扇吹出新制的冷空气
And it all runs on electricity.
这个过程都是靠电力运作的
That’s also what heat pumps do, too
这也是热泵的工作原理
— with more or less the exact same technology.
所用技术大致相同
But they can also do it in reverse:
但是热泵能反向工作
Taking heat from the air outside, and moving it inside.
从户外空气中吸收热量 并转移到室内
Heat pumps suffer from one of the worst names of all time.
热泵真是有史以来最糟糕的名字之一
A heat pump not only heats a home, but it also cools one.
热泵不仅能用于家庭取暖 还能用于家庭制冷
That’s Michael Thomas, he runs the energy research group Carbon Switch.
这是Michael Thomas 他管理着能源研究小组Carbon Switch
I can actually show you my ductless heat pump right here.
实际上我现在就能给你看看我的无管热泵
That is a heat pump working its magic on this 95 degree day here in Colorado.
这就是热泵 在科罗拉多州95华氏度的天气里发挥着它的魔力
In addition to “air source” heat pumps, that transfer heat from the outside air,
除了有从户外空气中转移热量的“空气源”热泵
there are “ground source” heat pumps, that transfer heat between a home and the earth several feet underground.
还有在住宅和地下几英尺的土地间转移热量的“地源”热泵
And “water source” heat pumps, which transfer heat between homes and nearby bodies of water.
以及在住宅和附近水域间转移热量的“水源”热泵
Heat pumps aren’t brand new technology.
热泵并不是全新的技术
You may already have one, depending on where in the world you live.
你可能已经有了一个 这取决于你住在哪
But the real opportunity with heat pumps isn’t changing how we cool our homes.
但热泵带来的真正机会并不是改变家庭制冷方式
You can sort of imagine a traditional furnace, or a boiler,
你可以想象一下传统的炉子或锅炉
like a Zippo under a pot of water in your basement,
就像你家地下室有一锅水 下面有个打火机
really inefficiently burning gas, or fuel oil, or propane,
通过低效地燃烧天然气 燃油 或丙烷
and warming that water up,
来将水加热
and sending it throughout your house and pipes,
再把热水输送到屋内的管道中
or going over a fan that’s then blowing through ducts in your house.
或者用风扇将热量通过管子吹进室内
In the US, almost two thirds of homes are heated this way:
在美国 几乎有三分之二的家庭通过这种方式取暖
burning fossil fuels right inside our homes.
即在室内燃烧化石燃料
Residential, public, and commercial buildings make up almost a third of global CO2 emissions.
住宅 公共及商业建筑产生的二氧化碳几乎占全球总排量的三分之一
And heating specifically is responsible for 45% of those building emissions worldwide.
尤其是供暖产生的排放量占到建筑总排量的45%
The impact of cooling is relatively small.
制冷在这方面的影响相对较小
But, of course, that’s growing.
当然 这种影响在逐渐增长
And that’s the opportunity.
而这就是机遇
If, instead of traditional ACs,
如果人们不再购买传统的空调
people buy electric machines that both heat and cool,
而是购买兼具取暖和制冷的电器
the need for fossil-fuel heating will go way down.
那使用化石燃料取暖的需求将会大幅下降
Heat pumps are one of the most important climate solutions that we have.
热泵是我们最重要的气候问题解决方案之一
This map shows the regions where buildings need to be cooled
此地图所显示的是夏天需要室内制冷
during some parts of the year and heated during others.
冬天需要室内供暖的区域
This is the market for heat pumps.
这就是热泵的市场
It covers a third of the world population.
覆盖了全球三分之一的人口
What gets energy experts particularly excited about heat pumps,
能源专家特别感兴趣是
is how they reduce what they call “locked-in emissions”:
热泵如何减少所谓的“锁定排放”
all of the future carbon emissions that are caused by decisions made today.
即现今的决策所导致的未来总的碳排放
The natural gas furnace that my parents installed when I was growing up
我父母在我小时候安装的天然气炉
is still kicking today.
现在还在用着
So you’re making a decision
所以你现在所做出的决定
that’s going to impact climate for 20 or 30 years.
对气候的影响将长达二三十年
One of the obstacles here is that
这里有个阻碍是
fossil-fuel heating is often subsidized by the government,
化石燃料供暖通常由政府补贴
while heat pumps can cost thousands of dollars.
而安装热泵得花上数千美元
So heat pumps represent a particular kind of climate challenge:
所以热泵也带来了特殊的气候挑战
they rely on millions of individual homeowners,
数百万个体房主每一位
each making a specific, expensive choice.
都要为它们做出具体且昂贵的选择
But that can change.
但这是可以改变的
The real solution to this problem is going to be policy change.
解决这个问题的真正方法是改变政策
We need to massively increase the production of heat pumps in this country,
我们需要大规模增加国内的热泵产量
which is going to be industrial policy;
这是产业政策
rebates and incentives, which is going to be budget reconciliation policy;
还有折扣和激励的预算调节政策
We need natural gas to be properly priced
考虑到天然气对社会的负面影响
for the negative impact that it has on society.
我们需要对其合理定价
Heat pumps alone won’t solve the climate crisis.
单靠热泵并不能解决气候危机
While they can extract warmth from the air when it’s freezing outside,
虽然它可以在天气寒冷时从空气中吸取热量
many models work less efficiently in subzero temperatures,
但许多机器在零下温度时工作效率较低
where traditional furnaces might still be needed as backup.
这就可能仍需要将传统锅炉作为备用
And until our electric grids are decarbonized,
而在电网实现脱碳之前
heat pumps will still run on electricity generated by fossil fuels.
热泵的运行仍需要靠化石燃料发电
Overall though, heat pumps present us with a rare opportunity:
不过总的来说 热泵给我们提供了一个难得的机会
to change something harmful and long-lasting about the way we live.
以改变我们生活方式中长期存在的有害方面
And they show that the big, collective changes
热泵的存在也说明 为了应对气候变化
we’ll have to make to fight climate change,
我们必须做出重大集体变革
won’t all be massive infrastructure projects.
而不只是大型基础设施项目
Some of them will be right in our homes.
其中有些就发生在我们家里
We have it in our minds that the solution to the climate crisis is,
我们认为气候危机的解决方案是
build a lot of solar farms, build a lot of wind farms,
建设大量的太阳能和风力发电场
drive electric vehicles.
驾驶电动汽车
But there’s actually a lot of sort of boring solutions,
但其实还有些较不起眼的解决方案
like heat pumps, that don’t get as much press,
比如热泵 知名度不高
and aren’t as popular in the mainstream,
在主流市场也不是很受欢迎
but it can deliver really massive carbon reductions.
但它确实能实现大幅度碳减排

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视频概述

气候危机关乎每个人,各行各业都要参与到碳减排的行动中,而这次的主题是制冷与制暖。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

简生

审核员

审核员CR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIulbHyK0bc

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