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要拥有健康的骨骼 靠喝牛奶远远不够

Why healthy bones are about so much more than milk | Body Stuff with Dr. Jen Gunter

You might belive that drinking milk,
你可能觉得
with all its calcium and vitamin D
只要饮用富含钙和维生素D的牛奶
is the one thing you need for strong and healthy bones.
就能让你的骨骼强壮而健康
And it’s a really nice message
而这个美好的信息
that sold a lot milk over the years,
多年来也大大提升了牛奶的销量
but it’s just not scientifically accurate.
但这种说法在科学层面并不准确
和Jen Gunter博士一起聊聊身体那些事儿
本视频由OURA赞助播出
When we focus on milk,
如果我们只关注牛奶
we lose the big picture of bone health.
那我们就会缺少对骨骼健康的全局把握
So let’s start at the beginning.
那么 让我们从头说起
Adults have 206 bones
成年人有206块骨头
that form the main part of the skeletal system.
这些骨头是人体骨骼系统的重要组成部分
They’re the support structure or cage that protects our organs,
它们是保护我们器官的支撑结构或者说是支架
but they do so much more.
但它们的作用远不止这些
They work with our muscles to move our bodies,
它们和肌肉合作来活动我们的身体
they store important minerals,
它们储存重要的矿物质
they produce hormones,
产生荷尔蒙
and they even make our blood.
甚至制造我们的血液
Many people think of a Halloween skeleton
很多人想象骨头的样子时
when they imagine bone.
脑海里就会浮现万圣节的骷髅
but that only gives us a one-dimensional view.
但那只是一维视角
Bone actually has three layers.
骨头实际上有三层
On the outside, there’s the periosteum,
最外面是骨膜
a tough membrane that covers and protects.
一层负责覆盖和保护的坚硬的膜
Next, there’s a thick layer of compact bone,
然后是一层厚厚的密质骨
the white, hard, smooth part that most people are familiar with.
就是大多数人都熟悉的白色 坚硬 光滑的部分
But inside, there is spongy or trabecular bone,
但内部还有海绵状骨 或者说松质骨
and an inner core filled with bone marrow,
以及一个注满骨髓的内核
which contains stem cells that make blood and are constantly dividing.
里面有用于造血 不断分裂的干细胞
Most people understand
大多数人都知道
that our bones grow when we’re kids and adolescents.
我们的骨骼是在儿童和青少年时期生长的
We reach our peak bone mass in our 20s.
骨量在20多岁时达到峰值
What many people don’t know is
但很多人不知道的是
that even after we stop growing,
即便是我们的身体停止生长后
we are constantly removing old bone
旧骨仍在不断被移除
and replacing it with new.
随后被新骨替换
One estimate is enough bone is removed and replaced
据估计 每10年就会有足够的骨骼被移除和替换
that a new skeleton is made every 10 years.
从而形成一副新的骨架
After we reach our peak bone mass,
当我们的骨量达到峰值时
bone removal starts to outpace replacement.
旧骨移除的速度开始超过新骨替换的速度
This can eventually affect the integrity of the bone
这最终会影响到骨骼的完整性
and it lowers the bone mass or the amount of bone that we have.
骨骼的质量 或者说骨量会降低
The bone disease osteoporosis is an extreme version of this process.
骨质疏松症是这一过程的极端版本
Bone loss outpaces replacement,
骨质流失的速度超过了置换的速度
and combined with other changes,
再加上其他变化
this can lead to so much fragility
可能会导致骨头非常脆弱
that even small bumps or falls can create fractures.
即便是很小的碰撞或跌倒也有可能造成骨折
Another cool fact about bones is they store calcium,
另一个关于骨骼的超酷事实是 它们会储存钙
so if intake is low, meaning not enough in our diet,
所以如果钙摄入量低 即饮食中钙摄入不足
the body draws calcium from the bone.
身体就会从骨骼中吸收钙
This can also contribute to bone loss,
这同样会导致骨质流失
so we need enough dietary calcium to maintain our bone.
所以我们需要足够的膳食钙来维持骨质
Vitamin D fits into the picture
其中就有维生素D
because it helps our body absorb calcium.
因为它能够帮助我们的身体吸收钙
When we think of calcium and vitamin D,
当我们想到钙和维生素D时
many of us picture a frosty glass of milk.
很多人会联想到一杯冰冻牛奶
Milk is not the only good source of calcium out there.
牛奶并不是钙的唯一理想来源
Humans are creative omnivores.
人类是创造性的杂食者
We can get calcium from a lot of other sources —
我们可以从很多其他来源获得钙
yogurt and cheese, for example —
比如 酸奶和奶酪
but also look for leafy greens like spinach and kale,
也可以吃绿叶菜 如菠菜和甘蓝
cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and cabbage,
十字花科蔬菜 如花椰菜和卷心菜
and proteins like tofu, nuts, beans, eggs and fish.
以及蛋白质 如豆腐 坚果 豆类 鸡蛋和鱼
Fortified cereals and orange juice are also good too,
强化谷物和橙汁也是不错的选择
and chia seeds.
还有奇亚籽
And vitamin D is plentiful in fatty fishes,
脂肪丰富的鱼类富含维生素D
and our skin makes it from the sun.
我们的皮肤也会从阳光中获取维生素D
However, some people may need supplements.
但可能还是有些人需要补充维生素D
Another important factor for bone health is exercise.
另一个影响骨骼健康的重要因素是锻炼
Mechanical loading stimulates the cells that build bone
机械负荷会刺激骨骼细胞
and muscles pulling on the bone may do this as well.
肌肉对骨骼的拉动也会起到同样的作用
In fact, any activity that puts stress on your bones,
事实上 任何对骨骼造成压力的活动
like walking, jogging, dancing, racket sports,
比如散步 慢跑 跳舞 球拍类运动
even strength training like doing weights,
甚至像举重这样的力量训练
stimulates extra deposits of calcium and growth of new bone.
都会刺激额外的钙积累和新骨骼的生长
In addition, stronger muscles can help with balance.
此外 强壮的肌肉可以帮助身体的平衡
And one of the best ways to prevent a hip fracture?
预防髋部骨折最好的方法是什么呢?
Reducing falls with better balance.
用更好的平衡感来减少跌倒
If milk is your thing, that’s completely OK,
如果你喜欢喝牛奶 完全没问题
but don’t forget
但不要忘记
that bone health is so much more than just milk.
骨骼健康不是只靠牛奶就可以维持

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视频概述

强健骨骼不是一杯牛奶就可以搞定的,Jun Gunter博士来告诉你怎样才能拥有健康的骨骼。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Zh045t0xcE

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