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为什么我们还未找到癌症的治疗方法

Why Haven't We Cured Cancer Yet?

嗨 你们好!
Hey there!
欢迎来到品生活
Welcome to Life Noggin.
很多人都请求过我做一期关于癌症的视频
A lot of people have requested that I do a video on cancer,
我知道这是一个
and i know it’s a pretty
非常沉重的话题 不过我觉得我们可以学到很多
heavy subject, but I think we can learn alot.
我大概了解了一下
Just reading up about it,
发现今年在美国 大约有
I found that in the United States this year, an estimated
一百七十万人被确诊为癌症
1.7 million people will be diagnosed
大约有六十万人会
with cancer and an estimated 600,000 people will
死于癌症
die of cancer?
还将有50亿美元被投入到国家癌症研究所
There will also be $ 5 billion spent funding the National Cancer Institute,
这是
which is the
美国癌症研究和培训的主要机构
United States’ main agency for cancer researchand training.
既然所有资金都被用于研究
With all that money being used in research,
我们是否近乎找到治愈方法了呢?
are we close to finding a cure?
现在看来 似乎有望看到一些新型的治疗方法
It turns out that there are some newer treatments that seem promising,
我们马上会
and we’ll talk about
谈论到这个 但是首先 什么是癌症呢?
those in a minute, but first, what is cancerexactly?
值得注意的是 癌症不仅仅是一种疾病
It’s important to note that cancer is not just one disease —
这个术语被我们用来
it’s a term we use that
代指超过100种疾病
refers to a collection of over 100 diseases,
包括乳腺癌
including breast cancer, which is one of the
在美国女性中最常见的一种癌症
most common cancers in women in the United States,
以及眼癌 一种罕见的眼部癌症
and retinoblastoma, a rare eye cancer
通常在五岁或更小的孩子身上发病
that usually affects children 5 years or younger.
当细胞产生恶性变异时癌症就开始了
Cancers start off when cells go bad,
特定的基因突变不断累积 失控地分裂
accumulating specific genetic mutations, dividing out of control,
不再凋亡
and evading death.
在大多数癌症中 体内会形成肿块
In most cancers, this can result in lumps,
或肿瘤 侵袭附近的组织
or tumors, that invade nearby tissue.
大多数症状都取决于癌症类型
Most symptoms vary depending on cancer type.
比如说 皮肤癌经常
For instance, skin cancer is often associated
与皮肤表面的异常增生有关
with abnormal growths on the surface of the skin,
包括肿块 变色 损伤 或现有痣的改变
including bumps, discoloration, lesions,or changes to existing moles.
而肺癌的特征包括持续性咳嗽
While indications for lung cancer include a persistent cough,
呼吸浅短
shortness of breath, and
胸口痛等
chest pain, among others.
每种癌症可能都需要不同的治疗方法
And each type of cancer may require a different treatment or cure.
为了帮助对抗它
To help fight it,
可以使用高剂量辐射 化疗药物之类的东西
you can use things like high doses of radiation, chemotherapy drugs,
以及靶向疗法
and targeted therapy.
但是即使采用这些疗法
But even with these methods,
在治疗过程中 癌细胞还是可以找到隐藏
cancer cells can still find ways to hide or build a resistance
或产生抗性的方法
to treatment.
这是最新治疗与研究的任务所在
Here’s where the newer treatments and researchcomes in.
今年早些时候
Earlier this year,
一项在老鼠身上进行的研究发现了两种新方法
a study performed on mice found two new ways that could overcome resistance
来克服对某种靶向治疗药物的抵抗力
to a certain targeted therapy drug.
这种抵抗似乎是由于胰岛素的增加而导致的
The resistance seems to be caused by an increase in insulin,
一种调节血糖的
a hormone that regulates blood
激素
sugar.
研究发现 当联合使用
The researchers found that when giving the drug
高脂肪 生酮饮食
in conjunction with either a high-fat,
或普通治疗2型糖尿病的药物时
ketogenic diet or with a common drug used to treat type 2 diabetes,
癌细胞萎缩程度
they saw greater
比仅仅使用靶向治疗药物时更大
tumor shrinkage than with just the targetedtherapy drug alone.
还有一种新的治疗方法 叫做免疫疗法
There’s also a newer treatment method called immunotherapy,
它会帮助免疫系统
which helps the immune system
与癌细胞抗争
fight cancer cells.
最近的一项研究测试了免疫治疗药物帕博利珠单抗
A recent study tested the effects of the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab,
也被称为“帕博利珠单抗注射液”
also known as Keytruda,
对一种常见类型肺癌患者的影响
on patients with a common type of lung cancer.
这种药物
This drug works
通过阻断一种令癌细胞免受免疫细胞攻击的特异性蛋白质相互作用
by blocking a specific protein interaction that lets cancer cells instruct
而发挥作用
immune cells to ignore them.
研究人员发现
Used in combination with chemotherapy,
与化疗联合使用 患者死亡几率
researchers found that patients were 51 percent less likely
比接受安慰剂的化疗患者死亡率低51%
to die compared to chemo patients receivinga placebo.
癌症治疗方面的进展有助于患者寿命的延长
Advancements like these in cancer treatment has helped patients live longer lives.
从1991到2015年
From 1991 to 2015,
癌症相关死亡率下降了26%
the rate of cancer related deaths dropped by a total of 26 percent, translating
即挽救了超过230万人的生命
to over 2.3 million lives saved. So,
虽然进展缓慢
while progress may be slow,
但我们确实在朝着正确的方向前进
we are definitely moving in the right direction.
如果你有任何
If you have any stories,
关于这个话题的故事或经历 并且乐于分享的话
or experiences related to this subject, and you feel comfortable
请在下方的评论区中让我们了解更多
with sharing, let us know more in the commentsection below!
要表达支持
Be supportive.
友好 可在描述中查看更多链接以获取更多资源
Be kind, and check out some links in the description for more resources.
想知道精神分裂症是如何影响大脑的吗?
Curious to know how schizophrenia affectsthe mind?
看看这个视频
Check out this video!
精神分裂症被描述为
Schizophrenia is described
一种严重的慢性精神障碍 它会影响
as a severe and chronic mental disorder that can affect different
一个人的各个方面
parts of a person’s life,
比如他们的思考 感受以及做决定
such as how they think, feel, and make decisions.
像往常一样 我叫Blocko 这里是品生活
As always, my name is Blocko, this has been Life Noggin,
别忘记保持思考
don’t forget to keep on thinking!

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视频概述

介绍癌症是什么,以及癌症治疗的最新进展

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GotM6CbOjnU

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