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为什么枪击暴力不该成为我们的新常态 – 译学馆
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为什么枪击暴力不该成为我们的新常态

Why gun violence can't be our new normal | Dan Gross

好吧
OK, so, confession:
我要承认:我一直以来对广告有着特殊的喜好
I’ve always been weirdly obsessed with advertising.
我记得在看周六上午的卡通片时
I remember watching Saturday morning cartoons,
花在广告上的精力比节目本身都多
paying more attention to the commercials
我想搞明白广告商
than to the shows,
是怎么把想法灌输给我的
trying to figure out how they were trying to get inside my head.
结果这让我获得了梦寐以求的工作
Ultimately, that led me to my dream job.
我成了纽约一家著名广告公司的合伙人然而
I became a partner at a big New York ad agency.
在1997年2月23日 一切突然改变了
But then, all of that suddenly changed on February 23, 1997,
在帝国大厦观景台的一起枪击案中
when my little brother Matt was shot in the head
我的弟弟马特头部被子弹击中
in a shooting that happened on the observation deck
突然
of the Empire State Building.
我们全家陷入了黑暗的噩梦之中
Suddenly, my family was thrown into the middle of a nightmare,
我们被告知我的弟弟会死亡
being told that my brother was going to die,
甚至还给我们机会 当面向他道别
actually being given the opportunity to say goodbye to him,
但经过一系列紧急脑部手术之后获救
then several emergency brain surgeries
对于马特来说 他余下的一生
and now what’s amounted, for Matt,
都要与极其痛苦的脑部损伤进行勇敢的斗争
to a lifetime spent courageously recovering from a traumatic brain injury.
他绝对是我的英雄
He is definitely my hero.
但是……(掌声)是的 他值得我们的尊敬
But as much as (Applause) — yeah, deserves it —
(掌声)
(Applause)
尽管这个悲剧对我的家庭来说已经很惨痛
But as much as this tragedy was a nightmare for my family,
我仍常常会想这种情况有没有可能更糟糕;
I often think about how much worse it could have been;
事实上 对于每天90个没那么幸运的家庭来说
in fact, how much worse it is for the 90 families every day
我不知情况会有多糟糕
who aren’t as fortunate,
他们丧失了挚爱的亲人:兄弟姐妹、儿女、
who lose loved ones — brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, parents.
父母并不是每个人都能登上新闻头条或者说
They don’t all make national headlines.
大部分不能
In fact, most of them don’t.
他们大多都不被关注
They go largely unnoticed,
这个国家大概把这种可耻的全国性灾难
in a nation that’s kind of come to accept a disgraceful national epidemic
当成某种新常态了
as some kind of new normal.
于是我辞去了广告商的工作
So I quit my job in advertising
试着对这丢人的现象做点什么
to try and do something about this disgraceful national epidemic,
因为我认识到
because I came to realize
杜绝枪械暴力所带来的挑战
that the challenges to preventing gun violence
正如同我所热爱的广告一样
are actually the same ones that made me love advertising,
都是在找出如何感染他人
which is to try to figure out how to engage people.
只是广告卖的是商品
Only instead of doing it to sell products,
我们是在拯救生命
doing it to save lives.
我要找的是共同点
And that comes down to finding common ground,
也就是你我愿望的相交之处
where what I want overlaps with what you want.
你可能会讶异 提及到枪械暴力的话题
And you might be surprised to learn, when it comes to gun violence,
我们有很多相同的想法
just how much common ground there is.
举个例子 对于数百万的美国民众
Let’s look, for example, at people who love to hunt,
打猎是个大家喜爱的休闲运动
a sport enjoyed by millions across the US.
这是一个家庭的光荣传统
It’s a proud tradition. Families.
在一些地方
In some places,
打猎季的第一天学校甚至会放假
the first day of hunting season is actually a school holiday.
猎人们想要什么?
What do hunters want?
他们要的是能打猎 他们喜爱他们的枪
Well, they want to hunt. They love their guns.
他们深深相信
They believe deeply
第二修正案赋予了他们持枪的权力
in the Second Amendment right to own those guns.
但这并不代表我和他们的想法完全相左事实上
But that doesn’t mean there isn’t common ground.
我们有很多相同之处
In fact, there’s a lot of it,
从避免枪枝落入危险的人手中的基本概念讲起
starting with the basic idea of keeping guns out of dangerous hands.
这并不代表把枪从所有人手上夺走
This isn’t about taking certain guns away from all people.
而只是针对特定的一些人
It’s about keeping all guns away from certain people,
我们对谁不该拥有枪支也有共识
and it’s the people that, it turns out, we all agree shouldn’t have guns:
暴力分子
convicted violent criminals, domestic abusers,
家暴者严重精神病患者
the dangerously mentally ill.
我们感谢
We can all appreciate
布雷迪背景调查法有效地防止
how Brady background checks have been incredibly effective
枪支落入特定人的手中
in keeping guns out of those dangerous hands.
20年内 有联邦许可证的枪支经销商依据布雷迪背景调查法
In 20 years, Brady background checks at federally licensed firearm dealers
拒绝向不符合要求的人群出售枪支
have blocked 2.4 million gun sales
交易数量高达2400万笔
to those people that we all agree shouldn’t have guns.
(掌声)
(Applause)
不论你喜不喜欢枪
And whether you love guns or hate guns, you probably also appreciate
可能都不希望在枪展或网上
that there shouldn’t be thousands of gun sales every day
看到每天有数千支枪
at guns shows or online
卖给那些未经背景审查的人
without those Brady background checks,
就像搭飞机不该有两条线
just like there shouldn’t be two lines to get on an airplane —
一条给检查过的人 另一条不过安检
one with security and one with no security.
而…
And —
(掌声)
(Applause)
而统计数字也表现了美国大众压倒性的赞成:
And the numbers show the overwhelming agreement among the American public:
90%赞成将布雷迪背景调查法
90 percent of Americans support expanding Brady background checks
扩展到任何形式的枪支买卖
to all gun sales — including 90 percent of Republicans,
这些人包含90%共和党人 过80%的拥枪者
more than 80 percent of gun owners,
过70%美国全国步枪协会会员
more than 70 percent of NRA members.
这个想法并没有争议
This is not a controversial idea.
只有6%的美国人反对
In fact, only six percent of the American public disagrees.
就大概跟认为登陆月球
That’s about the percentage of the American public
是假的的人数差不多
that believes the moon landing was a fake.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
也跟认为政府在电视讯号
And it’s also about the percentage that believes the government
加入洗脑技术的人数差不多
is putting mind-controlling technology in our TV broadcast signals.
这就是我们对背景调查的认同程度
That’s the extent to which we agree about background checks.
那么
But what about the 300 million guns
已经流入市面的3亿支枪怎么办呢?
already out there in homes across America?
首先 我们必须知道
Well first, it’s important to realize
那些枪多数都在像咱们这样
that those guns are mostly in the hands and homes
奉公守法的好公民手中
of decent, law-abiding people like you and me,
我们用枪来保卫家人安全
who want what we all want — including keeping our families safe.
这也是越来越多人选择买枪的原因10
In fact, that’s why more and more people are choosing to own guns.
年前 42% 的美国人认为
Ten years ago, 42 percent of the American public
错误地认为有枪等于安全现在
believed — incorrectly — that a gun makes your home safer.
这个数字增长到
Today, that number is 63 percent.
63%为什么?
Why?
我不怎么想这么说
I kind of hate to say it,
这是因为广告的黑暗效能
because it gets to the dark underbelly of advertising,
如果你讲一个谎话
which is if you tell a big enough lie enough times,
次数多了它最终便成为了事实
eventually that lie becomes the truth.
而购买枪支这件事也是这样
And that’s exactly what’s happened here.
军火商花了数十亿美元
The corporate gun lobby has spent billions of dollars
阻止疾病管制局进行
blocking the CDC from doing research into the public health epidemic
枪枝暴力研究;
of gun violence;
阻止儿科医师跟家长讲
blocking pediatricians from talking to parents
有枪在家对小孩的危险性;
about the dangers of guns in the home;
阻止发展智能枪支技术
blocking smart-gun technology and other technology
它可以有效地防止小孩使用家长的枪
that would prevent kids from firing parents’ guns
从而拯救生命
and would save lives.
他们费尽心思隐瞒事实
They’re desperate to hide the truth,
因为事实威胁到了他们的收益底线
because they view the truth as a threat to their bottom line.
正是如此
And every day,
每天都有人被枪杀
people are dying as a result.
他们中多数都是小孩在
And a lot of those people are children.
美国
Every day in the US,
每天有9名孩童无辜被杀
nine kids are just shot unintentionally.
每年有900名小孩或青少年举枪自尽而且
900 children and teens take their own lives every year.
他们多半用的是家长的枪
And here’s the thing: they’re almost all with a parent’s gun.
甚至三分之二的校园射击案的凶枪都是家里带来的
Even two-thirds of school shootings happen with a gun taken from the home,
这包含了桑迪·胡克小学枪击案
including the terrible tragedy
那场悲剧
at Sandy Hook.
我遇过太多受害者家长
I meet so many of these parents;
这是我工作最令人心碎的部分
it’s the most heartbreaking part of my job.
他们也没杀人放火
These are not bad people.
只是受到一群坏人的教唆
They’re just living with the unimaginable consequences of a very bad decision,
通过错误信息所做出的烂决定
made based on very bad information
带来了不可想象的结果
that was put into their minds by very bad people,
那群坏人知道他们造成的悲剧
who know good and well the misery that they’re causing,
但并不在乎
but just don’t care.
而结果就是这场恶梦
And the result is a nightmare —
不只像我这样的家庭
not only for families like mine,
而是最终 大家都会受到伤害
but for, really, at the end of the day, all of us.
我不是来用枪支暴力恐吓大家的
But I’m not here to talk about the nightmare of gun violence.
我是来讲一个大家都有的憧憬
I’m here to talk about our dream, and it’s a dream we all share,
一个更安全美好的未来
which is the dream of a better, safer, future.
对于我的机构和布雷德运动来说
For my organization, for the Brady Campaign,
这个梦想将是
that dream is reflected in the bold goal
在2025年之前 美国枪支致死数减半
to cut the number of gun deaths in the US in half by 2025.
而今晚我将让你了解
And I hope to leave all of you here tonight
实现这个梦想是有极大可能的因为
with a strong sense of exactly why that dream is so absolutely within reach.
诸位
Because folks,
世界历史上的每一伟大变革
for every great movement around the world,
都有一刻 能让你回首说
there’s a moment where you can look back and say,
「事情从那一刻开始不同
“That’s when things really started to change.”
」我现在要说
And I’m here to say
对于停止美国枪支暴力
that for the movement to end gun violence in America,
那一刻就是现在
that moment is here.
(掌声)
(Applause)
我们站在如此清晰的转折点上
We are so clearly at a tipping point,
美国人民前所未有的团结
because the American public has come together by the millions
大家站在相同的立场
like never before, based on that common ground,
说“够了”
to say, “Enough.”
受够了商场或电影院
Enough of the mass shootings in malls and movie theaters
或教堂或学校的大规模枪击事件
and churches and schools.
受够了每天在街头巷尾或家中
Enough of the daily terror of gun violence in homes and streets
夺走妇女和黑人少年生命的
that’s claimed the lives of women and young black men
频繁爆发的枪支暴力
in staggering proportions.
受够了那些不应得到枪的人
Enough of easy access to guns
那么容易就买到枪
by the people that we all agree shouldn’t have them.
受够了少数没有担当的政客
And enough of a small group of craven politicians
背弃他的选民
putting the interests of the corporate gun lobby
而向军火利益靠拢
ahead of the people they have been elected to represent.
够了
Enough.
(掌声)
(Applause)
更令人兴奋的是不只是像我这样的一部分人
And the really exciting thing is, it’s not just the usual suspects like me
如此主张
that are saying it anymore.
支持的人数超乎想象
It’s so much bigger than that.
如果你需要证据
And if you want proof,
那么我们从最具争议的地方讲起我是说
let’s start where most conversations in the US seem to start —

with Kim Kardashian.
卡戴珊(笑声)
(Laughter)
我不是在开玩笑我是说
And here’s the thing: it’s not really a joke.
这个问题改变
I mean, think about when issues change.
是基于政治和宣传上的改变
It’s when they go from being political and advocacy issues
是多亏于成为流行文化的一部分
to being part of pop culture,
从各界发出的声音 名人们用他们的影响力
voices coming from everywhere, celebrities using their platforms,
比如音乐家
musicians, athletes.
运动员NBA
The NBA has come forward.
都响应支持你永远想不到的保守人士
Conservative pundits that you never would have imagined
已经出面
have come forward.
这是文化上的巨大改变
There’s real cultural change —
我甚至听说今年有个TED演讲以此为题
I even hear there’s a TED Talk about it this year.
这是文化改革正在发生的迹象是的
That’s the extent to which this cultural change is happening.
卡戴珊也在向三千五百万粉丝
And yes, Kim Kardashian has made an unsolicited passionate appeal
迫切呼吁
to her 35 million Twitter followers
购买枪支必须有背景调查
for expanded background checks.
让我们看看时下正热的大选
Let’s look at the political elections that are heating up.
这曾经是民主党人的经典三轨困境
This used to be the classic third-rail issue for Democrats.
大家都恨不得逃之夭夭
Couldn’t run from it fast enough.
现在候选人们正在面对它
Now candidates are running on it.
有些人曾一味地强词夺理
Some are being forced to reverse very bad positions
直到最近才被迫改变
they defended very comfortably, until very recently.
有一些像我一样的人
For somebody like me,
看著人们宣扬着他们的负面NRA评级
watching people wave around their negative NRA ratings —
看上去非常超现实
it’s almost surreal to watch.
因为有军火业的支持他们仍然比我们更有资源
We’re still outfunded, yes, by the corporate gun lobby,
但最终那需要被改变
and ultimately that needs to change.
但你要知道
But you know what?
我们更聪明 我们更有斗志我们站在真理这一边而且
We’re smarter and we’re scrappier, and we have the truth on our side.
我们处在进攻的位置上你知道
And we’re on offense.
他们说网络可以将信息变得更加民主
You know, they say that the Internet democratizes information.
社交媒体和随其而来的组织
Social media and some of the organizing tools that plug into it
让行动变得更加民主化
have democratized activism.
让我们可以展现九成的支持度有时
It’s allowed us to show what 90 percent support really looks like.
我在想
Sometimes I think of it —
我们会聚集起来并瞬间以百万的数量来攻击
you know, we’re converging and attacking instantly by the millions,
就像白细胞
kind of like white blood cells.
它让我们真正开始团结
It’s enabled us to start to really close — and this is the bottom line —
从根本上重建
close that disgraceful disconnect
美国人民的民意
between what the American public wants
和他们选出的政客之间的断层
and what our elected leaders are doing about it.
直到最近
Until recently,
国会的立场一直站在
the narrative in Congress was that calls from the other side,
百分之六的那边
from that six percent,
是我们的十分之一
outnumbered calls from our side 10 to one.
我们正在扭转局势
We’re flipping that narrative on its head.
在最近发生在圣贝尔纳蒂诺的可怕悲剧之后
After that recent terrible tragedy in San Bernardino,
我们打爆了国会的电话
we jammed Congressional switchboards.
我们在24小时里给国会打了15000个电话
We put 15,000 calls into Congress in 24 hours.
然而你知道吗
And you know what?
我们通过了一项法案
We got a vote on a bill
一项没有任何人看好的法案
that nobody thought was going to see the light of day anytime soon.
我们看到过去十年因为金钱关系
We’re seeing real movement to repeal some of the most evil,
而通过的那些枪支恶法逐一被取消
ugly gun lobby legislation passed over the last dark decade.
游说不再像过去那样易如反掌
The stranglehold of the gun lobby is clearly being broken.
我们看见奥巴马总统历史性的行政命令
We’ve seen President Obama’s historic executive actions.
或许不很彻底
They don’t go all the way,
但已经足够拯救某些生命
but they are going to save lives,
背景调查法案扩展的部分
because they expand Brady background checks
将强制落实到数以千计的枪支交易当中
to thousands of gun sales that didn’t have them previously.
我们没有在等待国会有所作为
And we’re marching across the country — we’re not just waiting
因为那样毫无可能
for Congress to act; that would almost be the definition of insanity.
我们在全国游行
We’re marching across the country,
一个州接着另一个州跟婚姻平权一样
state by state, marriage-equality style.
你知道吗?
And you know what? We’re winning.
我们会赢国会总是最后一个意识到
Congress is almost always the last to wake up and realize
它们正站在历史的对面
that it’s on the wrong side of history.
它们需要美国民众来推动
And when they do, it’s always because the American public shakes them.
那也正是我们在做的事情
And that’s exactly what we’re doing right now,
因为我们处在这样一个临界点
as we’re in this tipping point.
最近我为了巡迴演讲飞遍全国
You know, recently I was flying cross-country to give a speech
虽然我的听众没有今天这么吓人
to a large group like this, although far less intimidating,
坐在我旁边的女士正在看
and the woman sitting next to me happened to be binge-watching
我最喜欢的节目《广告狂人》
one of my all-time favorite TV shows, “Mad Men,”
一个在20世纪六十年代的
a period TV show about advertising
关于广告的电视剧
in the 1960s.
当我在想如何结束我的演讲
And as I was trying to think about how to end my remarks,
我不时抬头看看她的屏幕
I’d glance up at her screen every now and then,
而每当我这么做时
and it seemed that every time I did,
屏幕里不时有人在办公室或在孩子面前或孕妇吸烟
I’d see somebody smoking in an office or around children
要不然就是酒后驾驶
or while pregnant or drinking and driving
开车不系安全带、办公室性骚扰最终
or driving without seat belts or sexually harassing a coworker.
我恍然大悟
And ultimately it dawned on me:
这对我们这些急迫想要改革枪支文化的人
what tremendous inspiration
是多么大的鼓舞
to those of us who have this dream to end gun violence.
想想看这个世界在这短短几年里
I mean, think about how much the world has changed
改变了多少
in a relatively short period of time,
那些大家曾经习以为常
how all those behaviors that were once considered commonplace or normal —
甚至觉得优雅或性感的行为
some even glamorous or sexy —
在短短一两代人的时间里变得不可想像
have become stigmatized in just a generation or two,
只要通过对话
once they became conversations about our common ground.
寻找共识就能把改变枪支暴力文化的可能性
That is the magnitude of the change we have the potential to create
变为现实
around gun violence.
这就是我的梦想
And that’s my dream,
或许在未来的某一天
that maybe someday,
某些古装剧会描绘恐怖的枪械文化
some period TV show will depict the terrible nightmare of gun violence,
而我们的下一代只能想像
and a future generation of children might only be able to imagine
那曾经是怎样恐怖的梦魇
how terrible it must have been.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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