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为什么石墨烯还没有普及

Why graphene hasn’t taken over the world...yet

看起来好像不太现实
– [Cory] It may not look like it,
但我正在制作一种地球上最强大最万能的材料
but I’m creating one of the strongest and most versatile materials
石墨烯
on Earth, graphene.
你很可能听说过一些关于它的传闻
You’ve probably heard buzz about it.
石墨烯曾在2004年掀起巨浪
Graphene made big waves back in 2004,
从那时起 它就已经开始在科学界传播起来了
and it’s knocked aroundscience news ever since.
一场全球性的石墨烯运动
– A global race for graphene.
你也知道 这不仅仅局限于一件小小的事物
– You know, it’s not justlimited to one little thing.
21世纪最伟大的发现之一
– One of the greatestdiscoveries of the 21st century.
对于很多引人瞩目的科技来说
– [Man] Graphene could be the key
石墨烯将成为关键
to a lot of mind blowing technology.
但是那都是在15年前了
– But that was almost 15 years ago.
那些我们曾经承诺的石墨烯如今又在哪里呢?
Where are all of the graphenewonders that we were promised?
防弹装备 石墨烯电路
The bulletproof armor,the graphene circuitry,
超光速飞机 石墨烯疗法
the ultra light airplanes,the graphene medicine,
甚至太空电梯?
a space elevator?
所以下一次人类踏上月球的时候
– [Female Voiceover] So thenext time man walks on the moon,
有可能他是乘坐的电梯
maybe he’ll take theelevator to get there.
显然 大多数的传言没有扩散开来
– Clearly, a lot of thebuzz never went anywhere.
但是石墨烯确实存在
But graphene does exist.
工程师们试图先做出一小块
Engineers have gone tomaking one fleck at a time,
然后发展技术进行批量生产
to producing it by the barrelful.
你想试着拿起来吗?
– Do you want to try to pick it up?
当然
– Sure.
所以我们承诺过的石墨烯革命
– [Cory] So the graphenerevolution we were promised
可能已经在进行了
may already be in motion.
你可以拉伸并使之延展
– You can stretch and pull on it,
当然了 如果想明显地看到石墨烯的延展的话
and in fact, a good way to visualize it,
最好的办法还是
is that if you had a
你能得到一大块石墨烯
big enough sheet of pure graphene,
你能在一层薄薄的原子膜上
you could hold up a soccer ball
放上一个足球
on just one atomic layer,
太令人难以置信了
and that’s insane.
Joseph Meany是一位分析化学家
– [Cory] Joseph Meany isan analytical chemist,
曾经参与合著一本关于石墨烯预言的书
who coauthored a book aboutthe promise of graphene.
他向大众解释石墨烯其实就是碳元素
He explained to us thatgraphene is just carbon,
就像煤炭 石墨 以及钻石
like coal, or graphite, or diamond.
不同之处在于碳原子的排列方式
The difference is in how the carbon atoms are bonded together,
以及不同材料展现出来的独有的形状
and in the unique shape the material takes.
[Joseph]所以石墨烯仅仅是一层原子膜
– [Joseph] So it’s justa single atom sheet,
在石墨烯中根本不存在z坐标轴
there’s no z dimensionto speak of in graphene.
而这些碳原子连锁排列着
And these atoms of carbonare arranged in interlocking
或者呈六边形排列 有点像鸡肉纤维那样
or tessellated hexagons,kind of like a chicken wire.
碳原子之间的连结
The bonds between the carbon atoms
作用力是非常强的
are actually extremely strong.
早在2004年 英国的研究学者们发现
– Back in 2004, researchersin the UK discovered
他们可以用一些极其普通的工具制造出石墨烯来
that they could produce graphene with some shockingly simple tools.
一大块特殊形状的石墨 加上一些普通的胶带
A hunk of a particular type if graphite, and some standard issue tape.
[Joseph]没错 石墨块很大
– [Joseph] Yeah, it wasjust a very large hunk
你完全可以把它拿在手里
that you could hold in your hand,
然后他们撕开一节胶带
and they took the tape
贴在石墨的表面
and put it down onto thesurface of the graphite,
然后把胶带撕下来
and just lifted it off.
然后 科学家们用化学药品溶解胶带
– From there, they used chemicalsto dissolve away the tape,
最后得到那些神奇的小石墨烯碎片
and they were left with tiny flakes of graphene with remarkable properties.
石墨烯很轻 但作用十分强大
It’s impossibly light,yet incredibly strong.
硬度小易弯曲 而且是电的良导体
It’s flexible, and it’s a highly efficient conductor of electricity.
这些科学家们在2010年获得了诺贝尔奖
The researchers won a Nobel Prize in 2010,
如今 在2018年 毫不夸张地讲
and today in 2018, literallyeverything around us
石墨烯在慢慢改变着我们身边的一切事物
is built or enhanced with graphene. Okay,
好吧 其实并不是太多
not quite.
[Phillip]好吧 其实我认为 对于新闻媒体而言
– [Phillip] Yeah, I thinkit’s very easy for the media
捕捉任何新科学或技术进步
and for the press to seize on any new
都非常简单
scientific or technological development
它们都将带来巨大的变革能力
as something that’sgoing to be be transformative,
科学家们发现这些惊人的新材料
you know, scientists come withthese amazing new materials
可以改变世界 然而事实上并非如此
and then everything changes, and of course it never really happens that way.
[Cory]Phillip Ball是一名致力于报道宣传
– [Cory] Phillip Ball is areporter who’s written a bunch
石墨烯仪器的记者
about the graphene hype machine.
我请他进行了一些客观的报道
And I asked him to throw some cold water on the story.
[Phillip]你好?
– [Phillip] Hello?
你好 请问是Phillip Ball先生吗?
– Hi, is this Phillip Ball?
[Phillip]是的 没错
– [Phillip] It is, yes.
嗨 您最近还好吗?
– Hi, how are you doing?
我是来自Verge的Cory
This is Cory calling from the Verge,
[Phillip]嗨 你好 Cory
– [Phillip] Hi, hello, Cory.
事实上对于任何新的科技来说
Of course with any new technology,
基本上都需要很多年来发展
the reality is it generallytakes years to develop it.
奢求石墨烯在一夜之间改变人们的生活
It would be unreasonableto expect graphene
这种想法是不切实际的
to transform our lives overnight.
每一种新材料的发展过程
– The uphill battle for any new material is
都不可能超越现有的科技
that it can’t just be better than existing technology,
必须要进一步完善才行
it has to be much better.
Phillip说在电子学方面 石墨烯将会逐渐取代硅
Phillip says that’sthe issue with graphene replacing silicon in electronics.
[Phillip]事实上有很多公司
– [Phillip] Certainly there are companies
致力于探索石墨烯在导电方面的用处
who are exploring its use as a conductive electronic material.
当然我们有导电材料
But of course we alreadyhave such materials,
但是比起那些将要被替换掉的材料
and graphene has reallygot to have big advantages
石墨烯明显有更大的优势
over what we have alreadyif it’s going to displace
尽管那些材料已经很完善 成熟了
what is already wellestablished, mature, technology.
但是甚至可以说就算过了十五年
– But that’s not to say thatgraphene hasn’t gone anywhere
石墨烯也不见得可以普及
in 15 years.
我们找到了一些工程师们
We found some engineers who are making materials with graphene today,
他们正在用石墨烯制作将来可能会
materials that could one day
被用到宇宙飞船里的材料部件
even end up in space ships.
这是伏贝克材料公司 它的总裁John Lettow
The company is Vorbeck Materials, and their president, John Lettow,
给我展示了他们在石墨烯产品制造上取得的成就
showed me how far they’ve come with graphene mass production
他赠送给我一个样品
and he gave us a free sample.
毫不夸张的说 它就像漂浮在这个小瓶子里
Literally it’s like floating in the vial.
而且如果你打开盖子
– And so if you open that up,
你就可以把它拿出来
you can take out,
这个30加仑大小的袋子里装满石墨烯
this is a bag of about 1.5 kilograms
大概重1.5kg
of graphene fits in a 30 gallon container.
所以石墨烯在这种状态下很轻
So it’s very light,sort of very voluminous,
相较于它的数量而言
in it’s sort of raw state.
[Cory]Vorbeck正在介绍
– [Cory] Vorbeck is introducing
他的公司用石墨烯粉末制造出来了
its manufactured graphene powder to all sorts
各种工业用品以及其他消费产品
of industrial and consumer products,
例如无线射频识别标签 服装 甚至橡胶
like RFID tags, clothing, and even rubber.
我们把石墨烯掺在橡胶里
So you take the graphene,you blend it into rubber,
那些大家所用的橡胶制品
and the rubber they use,sort of big blenders almost,
就是橡胶被击打之后仔加入石墨烯的混合物
that beat the rubber around,mix the graphene into it,
而你得到的就是
and what you get by mixingthe graphene with the rubber
能够耐高温的橡胶材料
is very high temperature capabilities,
而且韧性也很好
and also very high strength.
想想这种材料能应用在什么地方
– Thinking about an application for this,
你是在说宇宙飞船吗?
you talked about space ships right?
没错
– Right.
在外太空的时候
– You’re going throughextremely high temperature
需要承受极高的温度
to extremely cold temperature in out er space,
我们不能用那些
you don’t want rubber that would expand and contract
会热胀冷缩并且逐渐失去韧度的橡胶
and lose its strength over time.
没错
– Exactly.
这种橡胶材料不会发生那样的情况吗?
– This material won’t do that?
没错 不会的
– That’s exactly right.
[Cory]在电子学前沿科技
– [Cory] And on the electronics front,
Vorbeck发明了以石墨烯为原料的墨水
Vorbeck has created graphene based inks that can
并且能够在普通的打印机上使用
be printed en mass on standard printing presses.
如果在防水纤维上打印
When printed on water prooffabrics, they can be washed, heated,
也完全可以清洗 熨烫 折叠
ironed, wrinkled, and twisted,
而且还不会破坏它的导电性能
without damaging the circuits.
基于可穿戴的电子设备的需求 石墨烯的发展前景还是非常光明的
This is extremely promising for the future of graphene based wearable electronics,
John说我们有望在2019年实现
which John says we should be on the lookout for in 2019.
我们所希望的是
– What we really hope is
五年后 我们走进一个房间
that we can walk into a room,
房间里的大多数人
five years from now, andmost people in that room
都能够穿着有石墨烯电子器件的衣服
will have an article of clothing that has graphene wearable electronics in it.
这就是石墨烯将带来的重大变革
– So there are big thingshappening with graphene,
我们要有耐心
we just have to be patient,
我们不能一味地相信媒体所报道的
and we can’t believe everything we read about it.
一直以来 我们都在为它的使用价值努力着
And for what it’s worth,we’ve been here before.
[Philip]这是对于这种神奇的新材料的
– [Phillip] It’s this sortof long standing notion
长期探索过程
of a wonder material.
我想这个探索要追溯到
I think it does go back
十九世纪二三十年代
to the dawn of the plastic age
也就是塑料制品时代的晚期
in the 1920s and 1930s.
你也知道 有太多关于这些产品的预言
You know, you saw all the same kinds of promises made for them,
预言它们会成为可以满足一切需求
that they were going to be these wonder materials
的神奇的材料
that would do everything.
我只想对你说一个词 就一个词
– I just want to say one word to you, just one word.
是什么呢 先生?
– Yes sir?
你在听吗?
– Are you listening?
是的 先生我在听
– Yes sir, I am.
塑料
– Plastics.
[Phillip]塑料 你知道的
– [Phillip] Plastics, you know,
它们有着强大的抗挤压能力
they clearly had a huge impact
它们也可以被制作成各种各样有用的东西
and they do all kinds of useful things,
但是它们也有缺陷
but they have their limitations too.
我觉得这也算是一种参考
I guess it was really a sort
一直以来都有观点认为 存在万能神奇材料
of reference to this sort of longstanding idea of wonder materials
你知道的 就是可以解决所有问题
that were you know, going tosolve every problem.
但其实石墨烯还不如塑料更像神奇材料
– Graphene might not be a wonder material any more than plastic is,
但是John看待这个问题的角度
but the way John sees it,
是如果可以很好地开发石墨烯的优点
if graphene works well on its own merits,
就算大肆宣传也没什么大不了的
the hype won’t matter at all.
我们真的不希望顾客们
– We really don’t wantour customers to care
一味担心产品究竟是不是石墨烯
whether it’s graphene or not.
我们希望他们明白
What we want them toknow is that this thing,
他们现在用的产品设备拥有更好的性能
this device that you’reusing, works better,
无论和其他任何东西比起来都不逊色
for longer, than anythingelse you can get.
而且不管有没有石墨烯
And whether it has graphene in it,
还是他们以此做广告
whether they advertiseit and use that hype
以大肆宣传为营销手段 都有点过于跑题了
as part of the marketing or not, is sort of completely irrelevant.
这种产品只是更好了一些
It just is better.
好了各位朋友 感谢你们的收看
– Hey everyone, thanks for watching.
如果你们想知道关于某种材料的问题
If you have any ideas for a material you’d like
请在下方评论让我们知道
us to check out, please let us know in
不要忘记
the comments below and don’t forget to subscribe
订阅我们的新型边缘科学的YouTube频道
to our new Verge science YouTube channel,
我们每周都会更新视频
where we’re putting out a video every week.
谢谢收看
Thanks!

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视频概述

作为一种被宣传为神奇材料的石墨烯,是否真的像报道的那样神奇?我们又应该如何看待这种材料呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

李淼影儿

审核员

审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IesIsKMjB4Y

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