ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

为什么在外太空生病是最糟糕的? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

为什么在外太空生病是最糟糕的?

Why Getting Sick in Space Is the Worst

[音乐]
[♩INTRO]
如果你着手设计一种用于传播疾病的完美装置
If you set out to design the perfect method of disease transmission,
你不会做出比太空船更好的东西了
you probably couldn’t do much better than a spaceship.
你和一群人挤在一个狭小的空间里
You’re crammed together in a small space with a bunch of other people.
一个人呼出的每一口空气
Every bit of air breathed out by one person
都会被另一个人吸入
is going to get breathed in by someone else.
如果这还不够坏 事实上
As if that wasn’t bad enough, actually getting sick in space
在太空中生病比在地球上生病要糟糕的多
is way worse than getting sick here on Earth.
你的免疫系统对抗感染变得更难
It’s harder for your immune system to fight off the infection,
而微生物在太空却变得更强大了
and microbes can actually get stronger in space.
所以美国国家航空航天局和像美国太空探索技术这样的公司
So with NASA and companies like SpaceX
都很慎重的考虑怎样让人类到达火星
finally thinking seriously about how to get humans to Mars,
在各种注意事项中 不让人们生病排在很高的位置
making sure people don’t get sick is pretty high on the list of priorities.
一个问题是能送到太空的
One problem is that weight and power
能量和质量非常有限
are incredibly limited for anything that gets sent into space.
能量短缺让使用医院那样的
That lack of power makes it pretty much impossible
高质量空气过滤器成为不可能的事
to use the kind of high-quality air filters found in places like hospitals.
另外一种过滤装置――地心引力
There’s another kind of filter that’s also not available on a spacecraft:
在太空中也没有用
the pull of gravity.
空气中的微粒通常会向下飘浮
Particles in the air generally drift downwards,
这就是你书架顶端的灰尘不断形成的原因
which is how that layer of dust on the top of your bookshelf keeps re-forming.
不仅仅是灰尘 想象一下当你在太空中呼吸时会发生什么
It’s not just dust, though: imagine what happens when you sneeze in space!
气体不会落在地面
Instead of falling to the ground,
你呼出的气体会聚集在周围被你再一次吸入
everything you sneezed out just floats around waiting to be breathed in again.
太差劲了
Gross.
更糟糕的是 国际空间站里
To make matters worse, places like the International Space Station
没有为不同项目而设立不同的房间
don’t really have separate rooms for different tasks.
举例来说 一个部门里包含了主控制电脑和一个温室
For example, one section contains the main control computers, a greenhouse,
一台跑步机 一台静止自行车 两个船员居住舱和一个主厨房
a treadmill, a stationary bike, two crew quarters, and the main cooking area!
这里成为了细菌的温床
That’s a recipe for a lot of germ exchange…
这些都还只是外部环境
All this is just the setup though,
对于当细菌进入宇航员的身体里
for what happens when those germs get inside the astronauts.
研究者们才刚开始明白
For reasons researchers are only beginning to understand,
像细菌这样的简单生物在太空中变得更强
simple organisms like bacteria get stronger in space,
但是人类这样的复杂生物却变得虚弱了的原因
while complex ones like us get weaker.
在太空舱里待了一天以后 宇航员们就开始流失肌肉质量和骨密度了
After just days in orbit, astronauts start losing muscle mass and bone density.
更糟糕的是 他们的免疫系统开始变弱了
And, most critically, their immune systems start to weaken.
那意味着划伤和擦伤都需要更多时间去愈合
That means cuts and bruises take longer to heal,
骨髓重生也变得困难
and bone marrow doesn’t regenerate as easily.
惊人地 被称作自然杀伤细胞的免疫细胞
The terrifyingly named natural killer cells
能够帮助击退感染―― 它们杀死的量会变少
that help fight off infections — well, they kill less.
这些症状在太空旅行中并不少见
These symptoms aren’t unique to space travel.
潜艇人员和南极洲探索者
Submarine crews and antarctic explorers
也会因为免疫系统的削弱而终止行动
can end up with weakened immune systems, too.
这些试着杀死你的因素让太空变得更加恐怖
It’s what’s trying to kill you that makes space so much scarier.
尽管人类蒙受苦难 但是微生物似乎在那里完全兴奋了
While the humans are suffering, microbes seem downright thrilled to be up there.
比如国际空间站里的细菌
Bacteria cultivated on the ISS, for example,
有着比它们的地球同胞们更厚的细胞壁
grow thicker cell walls than their siblings back on Earth.
这让抗菌皂祛除细菌变得更难
Which makes things like antibacterial soap less effective at killing them.
而且不仅仅是每个细胞个体变得更强了
And not only do individual cells get stronger,
它们创造的大型菌落也变得更强了
the large-scale communities they create do, too!
一些细菌建造了黏滑立体的生物膜
Some kinds of microbes build slimy, 3D structures called biofilms.
旧俄罗斯空间站米尔里的细菌能够如此有效地建立生物膜
Bacteria on the old Russian space station Mir formed biofilms so effectively
以至于最终几乎每处空着的表面都被它们覆盖
that eventually nearly every available surface was covered in one.
哦这真是太糟糕了
Again, gross.
细菌这样的东西在太空中能够变得更强壮是因为它们很轻
Things like bacteria tend to get stronger in space because of the weightlessness.
在地球上 所有东西都要下落到地面 这是他们的命运
On Earth, things tend to settle out of a fluid in layers based on their density,
所以 微生物不得不和食物分离
which can separate microbes from their food.
但是在微重力情况下所有的东西都混合在一起
But in microgravity, everything will stay more evenly mixed,
所以微生物能够更轻易的得到营养
which gives microbes easier access to nutrients.
太空中的所有东西都暴露在更强的DNA变异辐射中
Everything in space is also exposed to a lot more DNA-altering radiation,
这让基因变异变得更容易
which can make simple organisms mutate faster.
米尔做了一项实验 证明在太空舱中待了四十天后
In one study carried out on Mir, after just forty days in orbit,
细菌可以获得两倍的基因变异速度
bacteria more than doubled their mutation rate.
这让我们的免疫系统对抗它们变得更难
That leads to a lot more variety for our immune systems to deal with.
美国国家航空航天局和其它的空间代理把这件事看的很重要
NASA and the other space agencies take these threats seriously.
在离开地球前 宇航员们会被隔离
Astronauts are quarantined before they leave Earth,
去太空前他们能接触的所有东西都会被消毒
and almost everything they touch is sterilized before being sent to orbit.
工作人员他们自己也由
The crews themselves are also composed
正处于全盛时期的最健康的一些人组成
of some of the healthiest human beings in the prime of their lives.
不仅如此 在一百多份太空飞行的研究结果中
Despite that, in a study of more than a hundred Space Shuttle flights,
研究人员发现二十九个疾病传染中间体
researchers identified 29 cases of infectious disease transmission
是工作人员自己的例子
between members of the crew.
对于那些不长于一个星期的任务 这不是一个很大的问题
For missions lasting no more than about a week, this wasn’t that big of a deal.
当有紧急情况发生时 国际空间站的宇航员们
And astronauts on the ISS always have capsules available
有自己的太空舱送他们回家
to get them home if there’s an emergency.
但是想想 如果不是一个星期 而是一年
But imagine finding out one week into a year-long mission
你得了很严重的感染病而且没有回到地球的途径
that you’ve got a serious infection and no chance to return to Earth.
一旦我们能够解决这个问题
Once we figure out how to deal with that,
我们就可以准备我们的第一次太阳系之旅了
we’ll be ready for our first long-term trip out into the Solar System.
谢谢观看这期的科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space,
特别是赞助商们
and thanks especially to our patrons on Patreon
是他们使这台节目的播出成为可能
who help make this show possible.
如果你想帮助我们这类节目的话
If you want to help us keep making episodes like this,
请登录patreon.com/scishow学习更多知识
you can go to patreon.com/scishow to learn more.
不要忘记到youtube.com科学秀上支持我们
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe!
[结束音乐]
[♩OUTRO]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

外太空的一些常识以及为什么在会在外太空生病生病又为什么恐怖

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

传声筒

审核员

译学馆审核员N

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQ7v2dI2RF4

相关推荐