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为什么德国人这么能说 – 译学馆
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为什么德国人这么能说

Why Germans Can Say Things No One Else Can

语言是人们传情达意的一种非常重要的工具
We’re hugely dependent on language to help us express what we really think and feel
相较其它语言来说 某些语言更能恰到好处地表述出一些情感
but some languages are better than others at crisply naming important feelings.
德意志人在发明长单词 或者说“复合词”方面可谓才华横溢
Germans have been geniuses at inventing long or what get called “compound words”
这些词总是轻而易举地就点出我们想要表达的感觉
that elegantly put a finger on sensations that we all know,
换作其它语言 却可能需要冗长的句子甚至段落才能描绘得清楚
but that other languages require whole clumsy sentences or paragraphs to express.
以下是我们从德语浩瀚的复合词词库里挑出的几个精选词
So, here is a small selection of the best of Germany’s extraordinary range of compound words.
“解释匮乏”
“Erklärungsnot”
字面意思是“由于无法解释而感到痛苦”
Literally, a distress at not having an explanation,
如果你的另一半被你抓到看A片
the perfect way to define what a partner might feel when they’re caught watching porn
或是你逮到他在餐厅里牵着小三的手这个词就能很完美地反映出他当时的感受
or spotted in a restaurant with the hands they shouldn’t be holding.
宽泛一些来讲 它还可以用来表达
More grandly, “Erklärungsnot” is something we feel when we realize
“当你无法回答生命的诘问时”的心情
we don’t have any explanations for the big questions of life.
这个词不仅描绘了一种莫大的羞耻感 还涉及了“存在主义焦虑”
It’s a word that defines existential angst, as much as shame.
“食物嫉妒”
“Futterneid”
假如你跟人在餐厅点餐
The feeling when you’re eating with other people
突然发现他们给自己点了菜单上你非常想吃的大菜
and realize that they’ve ordered something better of the menu that you’d be dying to eat yourself.
就算你原本打算节制饮食你现在也一定感觉快饿疯了
Perhaps you were trying to be abstemious. Now, you’re just starving.
这个词反应了多数时间里
The word recognizes that we spend much of our lives feeling
我们总觉得自己做了错误的选择这种情况不仅仅发生在餐厅里
we’ve ordered the wrong thing, and not just in restaurants.
“空中楼阁”
“Luftschloss”
按字面翻译是“在空中的一座城堡”意为“无法实现的梦”
Literally, a castle in the air, a dream that’s unnattainable
这个词揭示了德意志文化对于“伟大梦想”的过度包容
A word suggesting that German culture is deeply indulgent about big dreams,
但也略略现实地指出实现这些梦想的困难性
but also gently realistic about how hard it can be to bring them off.
“耳光脸”
“Backpfeifengesicht”
意思是“一张强烈渴望巴掌的脸”
A face that’s begging to be slapped
宽容是人与人友好交往的关键但德国人也会爽快而直白地承认
Generosity towards others is key but German is bracing and frank enough to acknowledge
有些时候我们不得不说
that there are also moments when it’s simply more honest to realize
坐在对面的人根本就是一个傻X
we may have come face to face with a dickhead.
“废墟迷恋”
“Ruinenlust”
这个词展示了德国人在“恋物”方面最特别的一面
This word shows German at its most delightfully fetishistic and particular
意为“在看见废墟时感到愉悦”
meaning the delight one can feel at seeing ruins.
倒塌的宫殿和瓦解的庙宇非但没有让你感到焦虑
Collapsed palaces and the rubble of temples put anxieties about the present into perspective
反而呈现出一种事物消逝时特有的美丽的哀愁
and induce a pleasing melancholy at the passage of all things.
“因情绪低落长出来的肥肉“
“Kummerspeck”
字面意思是“伤心肉“简单来讲 在极度受挫时
Literally, “sorrow fat”. A word that frankly recognizes how often, when one is deeply sad,
没有什么比冲进厨房大吃一顿更能抚慰心情的了
there is simply nothing more consoling to do than to head for the kitchen and eat.
“他人羞耻”
“Fremdschämen”
这是一个充满同理心的词描述一个人在面对他人的尴尬、不幸和挫败时
A word full of empathy that captures the agony one can feel at somebody else’s
感同身受的心情
embarassing, misfortune, or failing.
能体会“他人羞耻”说明你具备了高度的道德
A capacity to feel Fremdschämen is a high moral achievement
它同时也是善意的根源
and is at the root of kindness.
“厌世”
“Weltschmerz”
字面意思是“世界伤心” 这个词描述了一种没有具体缘由的情绪低落
Literally, “world sadness”. A word that acknowledges that we are sometimes sad, not about this or that thing,
这个世界的存在本身就是你伤心的理由
but about the whole basis of existence.
这个词的存在指向一种文化 即认为乐观不是必要的 但悲剧是先决条件
The presence of the word indicates a culture that isn’t forcely cheerful, but takes tragedy as a given.
如果有人正在经历这种“厌世”
It is immensely reassuring to be able to tell a friend
想办法跟自己的朋友倾诉一下会好很多
that one is presently lined under the duvet, suffering from Weltschmerz.
“幸灾乐祸”
“Schadenfreude”
当别人遭遇失败时我们本该感到同情但是德语一针见血地指出 其实我们很开心
We’re meant to be sad when others fail, but German will wisely accept that we often feel happiness, “Freude”
对别人身上“不幸的事”感到“喜悦”
at the misfortunes, the “Schaden”, of others.
这并不是说我们很卑鄙只是当我们发现别人的生活也不是一帆风顺时
That isn’t because we’re mean, we just feel deeply reassured
会由衷的感到莫大的安慰
when we see confirmation that life is as hard for other people as it is for us.
感谢德语带来这么多精辟的词汇
We can thank German for having so many of the right words to bring dignity
让我们的烦恼与希望都有了堂皇的理由
to our troubles and hopes.
学习一门语言并不能让我们解构这个世界
Learning languages, ultimately, has little to do with discovering the world per se
它更多的是一个工具 用以挖掘内心原本无法表述的那些情感
It’s about acquiring tools to help us get a clearer grasp on the elusive parts of ourselves.

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视频概述

复合词是德语词汇的一大显著特色,数量众多,创造性强,也是德语在语义表现力上高于其他语言的原因。

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【MR】拾月

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dH1SvGMY4Qs

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