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为什么美产车在日本遭遇滑铁卢? – 译学馆
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为什么美产车在日本遭遇滑铁卢?

Why Ford And Other American Cars Don’t Sell In Japan

美国人似乎钟爱日本车
When it comes to cars,Americans seem to love the Japanese.
但日本人却并不喜欢美国车
But the Japanese don’t seemto love Americans back.
日本车在美国的销量极高
Japanese brands sellremarkably well in the United States.
好几个在美国最畅销的汽车品牌都来自日本
Several of the best-sellingautomakers in America are from Japan
而且日本车的销售和口碑也独占鳌头
and their products seem to dominate entire segments in sales and critical acclaim.
日本汽车制造商在美国的生意火爆到
Japanese automakers sell so many cars in the U.S.
他们甚至雇佣了大量的美国工人
that they actually employvast numbers of American workers
在美国各地的工厂工作
in factories around the country.
实际上 在所有产自美国的汽车中
Japanese automakers actually build
由日本汽车制造商生产的占三分之一
a third of all the vehicles made in the U.S.
但日本人对美国的SUV 小货车 大排量中型汽车
But the Japanese don’t seem to be interested in
以及任何产自底特律的汽车
in America’s SUVs, pickup trucks, muscle cars,
似乎都不感兴趣
or just about any vehicle made by Detroit.
2017年 福特彻底退出日本市场
Ford left Japan entirely in 2017.
通用汽车依旧抛头露面
General Motors keeps a presence there,
但市场份额很少——2018年 美国最大的汽车制造商
but it is tiny — the largest U.S. automaker
在日本的销量仅为700辆
sold only 700 cars in Japan in 2018.
这是为什么?是否能采取措施改善局面?
And people are divided as to why and what,
人们的想法各不相同
if anything, should be done done about it.
特朗普总统已经批判了这种不平衡
President Donald Trump has criticized the imbalance,
但美国汽车贸易协会也做出了同样的批判
but so have U.S. automotive trade associations,
他们将此归咎于日本的贸易保护主义
who blame Japanese protectionism
然而日本对从美国进口的商品是不征收关税的
while there are no Japanese tariffs on US imports.
也有许多批判者认为是各种各样的技术障碍
A number of critics say there are all kinds of technical barriers
使得美国公司在日本的销售更加困难
that make it harder forUS companies to sell in Japan.
在美国 当我们规范燃料效率或者安全性
Here in the United States when we set regulations for fuel economy or safety
以及通信标准或是其他任何事项时
or you know, communication standards or whatever,
所有在美国进行生产和销售的汽车制造商
all of the automakers that sell and produce in the United States
都能参与到法规的讨论中去
are party to that conversation.
但在日本 就遵守法规来说
In Japan, it’s a much more closed process for,
这一过程是更加封闭的
you know, regulatory compliances,
就是说 规矩就摆在你面前 你必须遵守
these are the rules and you will meet the rules.
日本的生产商和供应商在设置法规时也有所参与
Japanese producers have hadinput into that and suppliers,
但对于任何要在日本做生意的外企而言
but it’s pretty close to any external companies that
这个过程是相当不开放的
would be doing business there.
不过一些行业专家却认为这并不是症结所在
But some industry experts saythat really isn’t the problem,
相反 真正的原因在于 美国车在日本
instead, the reason isU.S. cars are so rare in Japan
这个世界第三大的汽车市场上出现得太少了
which is the world’s third-largest car market,
而这与日本消费者的喜好
have more to do with Japanese consumer tastes
部分日本人对美国车质量长久的过时成见
the abiding if outdated stereotypes that Japanese have about the quality of American cars
以及日本消费者迥异的汽车购买方式 有着更为密切的联系
and the very different waycustomers shop for vehicles in Japan.
需要提到最为重要的一点是
It is first important to note that
行驶在地方道路上的汽车几乎全是日本品牌
Japanese brands all butcompletely dominate local roads.
在日本售出的所有汽车中 有超过95%都是日本的
More than 95% of all cars sold in the country are Japanese
进口汽车只占剩余的百分之几 而且那些进口车
Imports make up the balance and most of those
大部分都是欧式高端豪华车以及跑车
are higher-end European luxury vehicles and sports cars.
产生此种情况的部分原因是日本人有着相当特殊的需求
This is partly because theJapanese have pretty specific needs.
一方面 车型要是紧凑型的
For one thing, space is incredibly tight.
在日本大受欢迎的是这些所谓的”Kei型”汽车
Wildly popular in Japanare these so-called Kei cars,
它们属于小型汽车
which are tiny vehicles preferred by drivers
为那些不得不在狭窄道路以及拥堵城市中穿行的司机所偏爱
who have to thread their way through narrow streets and crowded cities.
在日本 这种迷你车是一种独特的车型

这是因为 日本的道路和停车场非常狭小

对于消费者 他们更愿意使用那种迷你车型

仅”Kei型”汽车就占据了40%的日本汽车市场
Kei Cars alone make up40% of the Japanese market,
但美国的汽车制造商并不生产这样的汽车
and U.S automakers don’t make them.
另一方面
Americans, on the other hand,
美国倾向于在生产大型车上技高一筹
tend to excel in making big vehicles,
特别是小货车及大型运动型多功能车(SUV)
particularly pickup trucks andlarge sport utilities.
近几年内 美国汽车制造商的生产规模已经相应缩小
In recent years,American automakers have scaled back
甚至完全剔除紧凑型汽车的生产线
or even entirely killed offtheir own lines of compact vehicles,
但与日本的同行相比 美国的车型还是要更大一些
which are often still biggerthan their Japanese counterparts.
事实上 很多在美国出售的日本汽车
In fact, many of theJapanese vehicles sold in America,
从箱式轿车 如丰田凯美瑞 一直到小货车
from sedans, such as the Toyota Camry,all the way up to the pickups,
在日本都不是很受欢迎
are not even particularly popular in Japan.
一共三个底特律制造商所占有的市场份额加起来不到1%
All three Detroit automakershave less than 1% market share.
最畅销的车之一——吉普
One of the bestsellers, Jeep,
在日本一年大约能卖一万辆
sells about 10,000 vehicles in Japan a year.
许多美国人还可能会对日本人的买车体验感到震惊
The Japanese car buying experience wouldalso likely shock many Americans,
他们通常将通往特许经销店的路程
who often view a trip to the dealership
视作人生中必要的罪恶之一
as one of life’s necessary evils.
日本很多商业文化都是围绕服务和热情来建立的
Much of Japanese business cultureis built around service and hospitality,
特许经销店也不例外
and auto dealerships are no exception.
日本的特许经销商提供给消费者的几乎是白手套服务
Japanese dealerships offer customersnearly white glove service,
并且日本消费者选车的方式
and the way buyers choose cars is entirely different
与美国传统的买车体验完全不同
from the traditional buying experience in the U.S.
美国的购买者通常会
Whereas American shoppers will often choose a car
从特许经销店的可购车辆中选一辆
from what is available on the dealer lot,
而日本的购买者则通常能够根据目录来定制汽车
Japanese buyers can often custom-build a car out of a catalog
并且只需几周的时间就能够完成生产
and then have it made for them in a matter of weeks.
日本消费者是完全不同的 他们更想选择他们自己的车 一辆独特的车

外部颜色 内饰颜色 导航系统他们可以定制许多项目

日本汽车制造商在当地强大的汽车供应链和工厂
A strong local supply chain and local factories
使这一操作得以实现
allow Japanese automakers to do this.
而且 他们服务的质量也是相当高的
Furthernore, quality of services is often quite high.
特许经销店通常也常常会提供便利设施
Dealerships frequently have amenities,
例如 咖啡以及免费洗车服务
such as cafes and complimentary car washes.
他们还为顾客提供后续跟进服务
They will also follow up with customers,
有些在购车后甚至持续好几年
sometimes even years after a purchase.
总体而言 外国的汽车制造商很难采取这种销售方式
Foreign automakers overallhave had difficulty adapting to this way of selling.
况且 日本人对美国车有一种长期偏见
Moreover, the Japanese havelongstanding perceptions
认为它们既耗油又不可靠
of American cars as inefficient and unreliable.
这个有点过时的观点源于20世纪60年代
This somewhat outdated view originates in the decades from the 1960s through the 1980s,
至80年代那几十年 那时日式品牌正值上升期
when Japanese brands were ascending
而美国的制造商却因批判和汽车丑闻饱受折磨
and American automakers were plagued with criticism and scandal over vehicles
包括 雪佛兰Vega和美国汽车公司Gremlin
such as the Chevrolet Vega, the AMC Gremlin,
福特Pinto以及雪佛兰Covair
the Ford Pinto, and the Chevrolet Corvair.
日本当时有大量的美国车

在当时 美国车型非常巨大

质量却一般 燃料效率也不佳

每一个日本消费者都记住了

当时那种特定的美国车辆

尽管近些年来 美国汽车制造商已经
And though American manufacturers have made
制造出了更节能的引擎
far more fuel-efficient engines in recent years,
但与其它国家生产的汽车相比
the U.S. has historically made some gas guzzlers
美国在历史上生产过一些油老虎汽车
when compared with cars made eleswhere.
我认为 美国汽车仍然存在后遗症
I think there is a hangover for American vehicles,
要知道 一辆在日本的美国车意味着什么
you know, what doesan American car say about you in Japan.
高耗油的包袱也就随之而来了
That baggage is carried with that.
同时 日本在汽车行业的崛起很大程度上得益于其良好的口碑
Meanwhile, the Japanese rose thepower in the auto industry in large part on
即生产的车可靠 高效 且不出故障
their reputation for buildingsolid, efficient cars that don’t break down.
当然 很多观察者也注意到美国汽车制造商
Of course, many observers note that American autos have done a lot
这些年来在缩小可靠度差距方面已经做出了许多努力
to close the reliability gap over the years,
单与十年前相比 如今的美国车总体上能行驶的距离就要远得多
and cars overall are able to log far more miles on the road than they did even a decade ago.
但美国汽车制造商们仍坚持认为
And U.S. Automakers are adamant that
如果日本能够消除那些造成贸易困难的壁垒
they would be better able to compete in Japan
他们就能够更好地进行竞争
if the country removes barriersthat make doing business difficult.
而底特律的问题在于 日本只不过是美国汽车制造商苦苦挣扎的
The trouble for Detroit is thatJapan is just one of the international markets
众多国际市场中的一个
where U.S. automakers have struggled.
底特律三大汽车制造商在南美和欧洲都遇到了挑战
All three Detroit automakers have hadchallenges in South America and Europe.
然而随着经济增速放缓 竞争加剧以及贸易冲突的出现
While China, which is the world’s largest car market
在中国这个全球最大的汽车市场中
could become a tougher place to do business with
贸易将会难上加难
slowing economic growth,increased competition, and trade disputes.
当下 美国想考虑的只是美国市场

他们需要关注全球市场 在全球市场中 他们也需要发展小型车辆

然后他们也能在日本市场采用这种车辆

如果再不做出改变的话
If something doesn’t change,
美国汽车制造商或许就只能成为
the U.S. automakers could become just that
把小货车和SUV卖给自己人的公司了
American companies that sell trucks and SUVs to Americans.

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美国人爱买日本车,而日本人不爱买美国车,这种现象背后的原因是什么?

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