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芬兰顶尖教育水平的奥秘 – 译学馆
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芬兰顶尖教育水平的奥秘

Why Finland has the best education system in the world

So here’s what happened.
事情是这样的
Back in the day, Finland schools sucked
当年 芬兰的学校
on the level that we’re suck on.
和美国的学校一样 都很差劲
When they tested the world’s kids,
对全世界的学生测试时
both Finland and us were usually about the same,
芬兰和我们的孩子的测试结果都很糟糕
you know, somewhere down the list of nations.
名次靠后
But Finland didn’t like that.
然而 芬兰对当时的状况并不满意
So they tried some new ideas,
因此他们尝试了一些新的教育方式
and in no time, Finland shot to the top of the world,
不久 芬兰的教育水平跃居世界前列
their students were No. 1.
芬兰学生的成绩也名列前茅
How did they do that?
他们是怎么做到的?
That was the one question I wanted to answer to,
我也想知道答案
and I went straight to see the enemies’ Minister of Education.
因此我直接去拜访了芬兰的教育部长
Before I could say anything,
我还没来得及开口询问
she blurted out their top secret.
她就将“最高机密”和盘托出
They do not have homework.
他们没有家庭作业
Wait, so you reduced the homework?
什么 你们给学生减负了?
You’ve given them in schools?
在学校就做完作业了?
They should have more time to be kids,
他们应该享受童年时光
to be youngsters, to enjoy the life.
享受青少年时光 享受生活
How many hours of homework did you get last night?
你们昨晚做作业用了多长时间?
Um, about 10 minutes or something.
大概10分钟这样吧
– 10 minutes’ homework? – Yeah.
-只有10分钟? -对
Maybe 15 minutes or 20 minutes.
可能15或者20分钟
20 minutes. 20 minutes. Yeah.
20分钟 20分钟 对
Well, if I would’ve done the homework,
嗯 如果我做了作业的话
um, I think it would be like 10 minutes tops.
我觉得最多10分钟吧
Usually I don’t really do homework that much.
通常我不会做那么多作业
The whole term, homework,
家庭作业这个概念
is kind of obsolete, I think.
个人认为 已经过时了
In that way, that –
或者说
Your homework is obsolete?
你认为家庭作业是过时的?
Yeah yeah, in that way, that them, these kids,
是的 对于孩子们来说
they have a lot of other things to do after school.
他们放学后还有很多事要做
-Like what? -Like being together,
-比如什么? -比如跟朋友在一起

like being with the family,
陪伴家人
um, like doing sports, like playing music, like reading.
嗯 做运动 演奏乐器 阅读
So they have no homework,
所以他们没有家庭作业
what if all they want to do is climb a tree?
那要是他们只想去爬树呢?
They could climb a tree, yeah,
他们当然可以去爬树啊
they can come climb a tree then they learn how to climb a tree.
他们可以在爬树的过程中学习怎样爬树
But they’ll end up
除此之外 爬树的时候
while climbing the tree, probably finding out about different insects
还可能发现很多东西 比如不同的昆虫
and they can come to the school next day tell me about what they found.
第二天他们可以来学校告诉我有何发现
Compared to the older kids, how many hours a day did the younger ones go to school?
年龄较小的孩子每天在校时间是多少?
Um, Monday 3 hours,
嗯 星期一是3个小时
Tuesday 4 hours, it varies, it’s 20 hours a week.
星期二4个小时 每天都不一样 每周20个小时
So there, oh man.
原来如此 天呐
Now does these 3 or 4 hours at school include the lunch hour?
这些时间包括午餐时间吗?
Yes.
是的
How are they learning anything?
他们怎么有时间学习呢?
How are you getting anything done?
怎么把任务都完成呢?
Your brain has to, it has to relax every now and then.
你的大脑必须时不时地放松一下
If you just constantly work work work,
如果大脑一直不停地工作
then you stop learning,
你就会学不进去了
and there’s no use of doing that for a longer period of time.
学习时间再长也没有什么用
Finland students have the shortest school days,
在所有西方国家中 芬兰学生拥有
and the shortest school years in the entire western world.
最少的在校时间和最短的学年长度
They do better by going to school less.
通过减少在校时间 他们变得更优秀
Yeah!
耶!
How many languages do you speak?
你会说多少种语言?
English, yeah, Swedish, Spanish.
英语 瑞典语 西班牙语
Finnish and Swedish.
芬兰语和瑞典语
Finnish, English and German.
芬兰语 英语和德语
French, German.
法语 德语
– Finnish and English. – English.
-芬兰语 英语 -英语
Swedish and French and Spanish.
瑞典语 法语和西班牙语
– So you’re an exchange student in US? – Yeah.
-你去美国当过交换生? -是的
When you get back here in school,
回到芬兰的学校后
what did you notice that you felt relieved about?
什么让你感觉松了口气?
Um, no more multiple choice exams, they –
考试里没有多项选择题了
No multiple choice exams here?
芬兰考试没有多项选择吗?
Or very few of them if any.
即使有也是非常少的
Cuz that all of my exams in the US –
在美国都是这种测验
How do you answer the question right if it isn’t listed as one of the four choices?
不用四个选项的形式把答案列出来怎么答题?
You write the answer.
直接把答案写上去啊
– You have to know it, actually. – Yeah.
-那意味着你必须知道正确答案 -是的
– You actually have to know it? – Yeah.
-应该直接知道答案? -当然
There was one thing I heard over and over again from the Finns,
从芬兰人那里我多次听到这样一件事
it was that America should stop teaching to a standardized test.
那就是美国应该停止应试教育
Get rid of those standardized tests.
不要再有那些标准化考试了
– National testing. – A standardized test.
-国家考试 -标准化考试
The standardized testings.
标准化考试
What you’re teaching your students is to do well on those tests
如果只教会学生如何考试
and you’re not really teaching them anything.
那其实就是什么也没教
No, we’re teaching them, we’re teaching them how to flunk a test,
不 我们教了 教他们如何不及格
and then a bunch of schools fail the test,
之后大量的学校无法通过考核
and those schools are turned into charge schools,
这些学校就转为收费学校
and then somebody makes a lot of money.
有些人因此赚的盆满钵满
But school is about finding your happiness, finding what –
但是学校要做的是教会孩子发现快乐
you know, finding a way to learn what makes you happy.
教他们找到能让自己快乐的方法
They figured out about 1/3 of the school time the students are in school
美国人发现学生大约有1/3的在校时间
is spent preparing for the standardized test,
都用来准备考试
and so they’ve eliminated a lot of things that aren’t on the test.
所以他们取消了很多与考试无关的课程
So music is gone, art is gone,
没有音乐课 没有艺术课
– poet is gone. – Art is gone?
-没有诗歌课 -没有艺术课?
Yeah, in many schools.
对 很多学校没有
Civics is even on the test, so now schools are driving civics.
甚至连公民学都在考试范围内 因此公民课出现了
– Really? – Yes.
-真的吗? -是的
– Civics, American civics. – OK.
-公民课 美国公民教育 -好吧
Unbelievable.
不可思议
We get rid of poetry.
我们取消了诗歌课
– Really? – Yeah.
-是吗? -是的
– Yeah. – Why?
-对 -为什么?
It’s a waste of time.
觉得这些课程浪费时间吧
Whatever they’re going to learn, whatever they’re going to speak
无论他们学什么 说什么
as poets when they are adults,
当他们成年时
how does that help them get a job?
靠那些怎么能找到工作?
We try to teach them everything that they need
凡是他们需要的 我们都倾囊相授
so they can actually use their brains as well as they can,
这样他们就会尽可能地开发大脑
including PE, including arts, including music,
这些课程包括体育 艺术 音乐
anything that can actually make brain work better.
任何可以增强脑力的课程
The children should be baking, they should be singing,
孩子应该学习烘焙 唱歌
they should be doing art and going natural walks and doing all these things
学艺术 去大自然中漫步 所有这类事情
because there is very short time that they’re allowed to be children.
因为对每个人来说童年都是很短暂的
[applause]
[鼓掌]
If you don’t have standardized tests in Finland,
如果芬兰没有标准化考试
how do you know which schools are the best?
你们怎么评判学校的好坏呢?
You know, people need a list.
人们需要学校排名啊
The neighborhood school is the best school.
你家附近的学校就是最好的学校
It is not different that than the school which can be,
学校之间没什么不同
for example situated in the town center,
无论它在郊区还是市中心
because all the schools in Finland, they’re all equal.
因为芬兰所有的学校都是一样的
When we move to a new city,
当我们搬到一个新城市
you never ask where the best school is,
我们从不问最好的学校在哪儿
it’s never a question.
这从来都不是个问题
So nobody has to shop for schools.
所以不必挑选
There’s nothing different in any of our schools,
我们所有的学校都没有区别
we’re all the same.
都是一样的
It is illegal in Finland to set up a school and charge tuition.
在芬兰 建私立学校并收费是违法的
That’s why for the most part private schools don’t exist.
这也是芬兰没有私立学校的主要原因
And what that means is that rich parents
所以对于富人来说
have to make sure that the public schools are great.
他们必须确保公立学校的质量
And by making the rich kids go to school with everyone else,
他们的孩子要和其他孩子一起
they grow up with those other kids as friends.
上一样的学校 共同成长
And when they become wealthy adults,
他们在成为富有的成年人后
they have to think twice before they screw them over.
如果想欺压普通人 就要再三考虑了
In United States, education is business, there’re corporations making money.
在美国 教育是生意 很多公司借此盈利
Here it’s so student-centered
芬兰以学生为中心
that when we have to redo a playground,
比如 当我们需要重新设计操场时
they have the architects come in and talk to the kids.
建筑师们会来到学校 和孩子们交流
– Will they, will they listen to them? – Yes, yes.
-他们会采纳孩子们的意见吗? -会的
There are things on our playground that the students really wanted.
现在操场上有些设施就是学生们要求的
Be in school here is more independent.
这里的学生更独立
– We were created more like adults than in the United States. – Yeah.
-比起美国 这里更把我们像成人一样培养 -对
I mean we don’t need a whole pass to go to the bathroom during class.
在课上 我们不需要得到允许就能上厕所
– Yeah. – Yeah.
-对 -对
You’ll see students commuting on the subway,
你会看到学生乘地铁上下学
even as young as seven and eight going on their own to school.
即使只有7或8岁的孩子也能独自去学校
When I started doing teacher training practice,
我接受教师培训实践的时候
back in the US,
当时在美国
I was in these certain neighborhoods teaching these kids and telling them,
我曾在某些社区教课 我告诉孩子们
you can be anything you want to be when you grow up.
长大后你可以成为任何想成为的样子
This is kind of a lie.
我知道 这是谎话
And when I came to Finland,
我来到芬兰后
a lot of my teaching is based on what the kids want
教学的很多内容是建立在孩子的需求
and what they see for their future.
和他们以后想做什么的基础上
So it doesn’t feel so false to say
我不再觉得自己在说假话
you can really be whatever you want to be when you grow up,
这里的孩子长大后确实可以成为任何想成为的人
because they’re making it happen already, they already have such power.
他们已经这样做了 已经具备这样的能力
That’s upsetting to think about that
想到我们国家的孩子不具备这种能力
that our kids don’t have that.
真是非常令人沮丧
That’s really beautiful.
那真的很美好
It’s not that we have figured out something that nobody else has done in education,
不是说我们摸索出了别人没实施过的教育方式
that’s wrong,
不是这样的
many of these things that have made Finland perform well in Education
有很多让芬兰在教育方面出色的方法
are initially American ideas.
最初都是美国提出的
We try to teach them to think for themselves
我们试着教学生独立思考
and to be critical to what they’re learning.
批判地看待他们所学的知识
We try to teach them to be happy person,
我们试着教他们成为一个快乐的人
to be, respect others and respect yourself.
尊重他人也尊重自己
– You’re concerned with their happiness? – Oh yeah.
-你在乎他们是不是开心? -当然
What the hell do you teach?
你到底是教什么的?
I teach math.
我教数学
So the math teacher says, the first thing out of your mouth,
所以数学老师认为对于孩子们来说
what you wanted these students to get out school was to be happy?
在学校里得到快乐是最重要的?
Have a happy life?
拥有快乐的生活?
Yep.

– You’re the math teacher? – Yep.
-你真的是数学老师? -是的
When do they have their time to play,
他们什么时候玩耍
and socialize with their friends,
与朋友社交
and grow as human beings?
作为真正的“人”成长起来?
Cuz there’s so much more in life around than just school.
生活除了学习还有很多东西
You want them to play?
你想要他们玩耍?
I want children to play.
我想要孩子们玩耍
And that was the principle.
这就是本质原则
I’m planting the American flag right here in the middle of your school
我要在你的学校中间插个美国国旗
and claiming this great idea for us.
让美国人也知道这个优秀的理念
Thanks for stealing it.
谢谢您的“剽窃”
– Ah, haha. – Hahaha.
-啊哈哈 -哈哈哈

– Yeah, that’s how we roll. – All right.
-是的 我们从这开始 -好的

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视频概述

芬兰教育是如何从公认的“糟糕”到成为世界第一的?快来看看吧!

听录译者

Alef

翻译译者

原初

审核员

审核员CL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHHFGo161Os

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