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为什么要找到女性避孕套是件不容易的事?

Why female condoms are so hard to find

男性避孕套有各种有趣的形状 大小和口味
Male condoms come in all types of fun shapes and sizes and flavors.
有些甚至能在黑暗中发光
Some even glow-in-the-dark.
已有上百种男性避孕套
There are hundreds of male condoms that have been
得到FDA的批准
approved by the FDA.
仅亚马逊网站上就有76页不同的避孕套类型
Amazon alone has 76pages full of different options, but how
但目前美国有多少种女性避孕套呢?
many types of female condoms areavailable in the US?
结果是 只有一种
Turns out just one.
女性避孕套是唯一一种女性主动避免意外怀孕
A female condom is the only woman-initiated method of preventing unplanned
和预防性传播感染的方式
pregnancies and sexually transmittedinfections.
避孕套由一个护套和两个环组成
It’s a sheath with two rings,
一个张开 一个闭合
one open one closed,
用于阴道或肛门性交
that can be used for vaginal or anal sex.
通常它与男性避孕套一样有效
Typically it’s almost as effective as a
在性交前八小时就可以使用
male condom and it can be inserted up to eight hours before having sex. So,
所以你不必在激情时刻中停下
you don’t have to stop in the heat
笨拙地摸索避孕套包装
of the moment to fumble with a clumsy condom wrapper.
尽管其有效而且方便
Despite being effective andconvenient,
但在美国仅有小部分女性
only a small percent of women in the US
曾经使用过女性避孕套
have reportedly ever even used a female condom.
为什么这么少的女性使用它呢?
Why aren’t more women using this thing?
我们决定找出答案
We decided to find out.
所以我找了迪翁帮我
So I enlisted Dion to help me scour the
在社区找一款女性避孕套
neighborhood to find one.
你仅仅戴上套就能起到预防作用?
Can you just put a wig on and you can do it?
这里有女性避孕套吗?
Do you guys have female condoms?
你们这里有女性避孕套吗?
Do you guys have female condoms?
女性避孕套?
Female condoms?
没有
They don’t have it.
最终我们放弃了这件事的寻访
Even though we ended up getting brownie snacks
而去买了布朗尼
out of the whole thing.
我们到过的每一个商店都没有女性避孕套出售
Not a single store that we went to sold female condoms.
但是购买男性避孕套 我都不用离开办公楼的大堂
I don’t even have to leave my office lobby to buy male condoms.
在做了一些研究调查后我发现
After doing a little research I found out why
想要找到女性避孕套是不可能的
it was impossible to find a female condom.
因为便利店一般不出售女性避孕套
It turns out you can’t buy them in a store.
那糟糕透了
Well, that sucks.
是的 Veru公司曾以关注女性健康被大家所熟知
Yep. Veru Inc., formerly known as the Female Health Company,
她也是唯一一家在美国市场拥有女性避孕套
is the only company with a female condom
上市的公司
on the market in the US.
2017年他们改为处方制售卖
And they switched to a prescription based system in 2017.
如果你想要得到一个
So, if you want to get one you either have
你要么去看医生
to go see your doctor or buy it directly
要么直接从她们的网站上购买
from their website.
想象下如果一个男人需要药方才能买避孕套
Imagine if a manneeded prescriptions to buy condoms.
女性避孕套并不是新生事物
Female condoms aren’t new.
丹麦的一位学者在上19世纪80年代
A Danishinventor created a prototype in the
为应对艾滋危机创造出了最早的避孕套
early 1980s, in response to the AIDScrisis at the time.
1993年一家女性健康公司
In 1993 the Female Health Company
把设计带到了美国
brought the design to the US,
他们第一个获得FDA准可的版本毫无创意地被称为FC1
and their first FDA-approved version was unimaginatively called the FC1.
它是由聚氨胶塑料制作而成 比乳胶的柔韧性低
It was made of polyurethane plastic, which was less flexible than latex.
一些女性反馈说这种不舒服
Some women reported that it was uncomfortable,
它会发生吱吱作响的噪音
made squeaky noises
因为正确使用这种避孕套的意识不高
and because there waslittle awareness around proper use,
有时在性交的时候它还会掉出来
it sometimes fell out during sex.
媒体也因此讥讽它
The media also ridiculed it
将它的外观与海蜇 风向标以及
comparing its appearance to a jellyfish, a windsock and a plastic bag.
2009年公司提出了
In 2009 the company came up
第二个版本 FC2
with a second version, the FC2, made
此避孕套由更舒服的橡胶制成
with a softer rubber.
它更舒服与消声
It was morecomfortable and quieter, but it still
但仍然没发展起来
didn’t take off.
男性避孕套已经存在很长的一段时间
Male condoms certainlyhave been around for a lot longer
且更容易获得
and are more accessible and
老实说 人们对自己知道的事情会觉得更舒服一些
people frankly are much more comfortable with the things that they know.
这位是黎明宾汉女士
This is DawnBingham, an ob-gyn and a fellow with
妇产科和生殖健康的内科医生
Physicians for Reproductive Health.
我认为女性避孕套没有
And I think that the female condom has not
像男性避孕套一样普及
grown in popularity as the male condom has,
因为让人们认识
because it’s very easy to educate
男性避孕套会更容易
people about male condoms.
你可以用香蕉来示范如何使用男性避孕套
You can letthe people know how to use a prop,
可以让人们知道使用起来有多简单
using a banana to show how simple it is to put on a male condom and we don’t
我们没有简易的模型来示范如何使用女性避孕套
have the same accessible models for female condom to make people that comfortable.
据《日刊》的一份城市健康报道
According to a report in the Journal of Urban Health, the tampon had
卫生棉在1930年首次亮相时有着类似的挑战
similar challenges when it was firstintroduced in the 1930s.
在它进入市场前十年
In the first decade on the market,
只有4%-6%的女性使用卫生棉条
the tampon was only used by 4 to 6 % of women
而医生们也质疑其安全性和实用性
and doctors questioned its safety and usefulness.
这花了数十年的精心策划
It took decades and carefully planned
使得女性普遍认可了卫生棉
marketing campaigns to reach even modestpopularity among women.
女性避孕套在津巴布韦有着相似的经历
Female condoms had a similar trajectory in Zimbabwe.
在卫生组织努力推广
After health organizations campaigned for
避孕套是成功抗击艾滋病毒的屏障后
the condom as a successful barrier against HIV,
1997年政府才在1997年引进
the government introduced it in 1997
为了让它们更受欢迎 他们在大学 药店
To boost popularity they weremarketed across universities, pharmacies,
甚至美发沙龙进行销售
and even hair salons.
最后提高了使用率和 降低了艾滋病发生
Which eventually led to high usage rates and a decline in HIV cases.
这种避孕和防止性病发生的方式都很有效
These kind ofcontraceptive and STI prevention methods are useful,
因为这些措施可以让女性和她们的性伙伴
because they empower the woman or whoever the receptive partner
很好的保护了他们自己
is to protect themselves.
而且 使用的时候很简单
And they’resimple to use.
然而在美国仍然没有足够的意识去使用女性避孕套
But there still isn’t enough awareness around female condoms in the US yet.
FDA把女性避孕套
The FDA put the female condom
列入医学设备严格管制的类别
in the most strictly regulated category of
这将斥资巨额于额外的研究
medical devices, which requires hundredsof thousands of dollars of extra
花费大量时间得到市场的准入
research and takes a ton of time formarket approval.
但FDA正在考虑把女性避孕套重新归类
But the FDA is now considering reclassifying the female condom
命名为 “一次性内用避孕套”
and renaming it the”single-used internal condom”.
这将减轻公司的管制
This would easerestrictions on companies
让人们清楚他们不只为女性服务
and let people know they’re actually not just for women. Sure,
当然 男性避孕套是有效的
male condoms work but that doesn’t
但这不意味着是所有人唯一的可行选择
mean they should be the only accessiblechoice for everyone.

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视频概述

在超市,便利店,无人售卖性用具店里,我们可以发现随处可见的男性避孕套,但我们提及女性避孕套时,鲜有人知道女性避孕套的使用方法甚至存在,原因是大部分店里并不出售女性避孕套,这是使得女性避孕套不如男性避孕套普及度广的原因之一。

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审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XxA-4Jp7AU

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