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为什么说蚕豆有可能杀死你 – 译学馆
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为什么说蚕豆有可能杀死你

Why Fava Beans Can Kill You

豆子 豆子 有魔力的豆子
Beans, beans, the magical fruit…
大家都知道它们富含蛋白质和其他的营养成分 当然 也会释放
They’re known for being packed with protein and other nutrients — and of course, causing
很多的气体
lots of gas.
因为某些原因 吃豆可能不止会导致肠胃气胀
But for some reason, eating beans can result in more than just bloating and flatulence.
胡豆也叫蚕豆 能引起某些特殊人群不良的身体反应
Fava beans, also known as broad beans, can cause some people to experience a sudden,
血红细胞加速分解 可能引发溶血性贫血
rapid breakdown of their red blood cells — a condition known as hemolytic anemia.
血红细胞供氧不足 会导致溶血性贫血
With fewer red blood cells to deliver oxygen to your organs, hemolytic anemia can cause
全身无力 呼吸短促 心肌梗塞 脸色发黄
fatigue, shortness of breath, gallstones and jaundice.
并且 更严重的情况 就是死亡
And also, occasionally, severe cases, death.
奇怪又可怕的是 就算你从不吃蚕豆也会有这种症状
And the weird and scary thing is, you don’t even have to eat fava beans for this to happen.
有些人因为吸入了蚕豆植物花粉产生过敏反应
Some people can get a reaction just by inhaling the pollen of the fava bean plant.
因蚕豆产生的不良反应被称为蚕豆病
This extreme response to fava beans is called favism, and is associated with low levels
同低水平的葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶(G6PD)有关
of an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, or G6PD.
蚕豆病的诱因有很多 比如你吃了多少蚕豆
There are many factors that contribute to favism — including how many of the offending
G6PD缺乏症严重程度
beans you’ve eaten, the severity of your G6PD deficiency, and other things relating
还同个人健康状况和生活环境有关
to your personal health and your environment.
但是蚕豆病 确实只是葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶缺乏症的一种
But favism, really, is just one flavor of G6PD deficiency…
全世界大约有4亿人的生物酶低于正常水平
Worldwide, there are about 400 million people who have lower-than-normal levels of the enzyme.
生物学上看 有此类症状大多数都是男性
And as it happens, most of them are biologically male.
这是因为X染色体基因决定G6PD
That’s because the gene that’s responsible for making G6PD is on the X chromosome.
女性是XX 所以她们需基因变异才会生蚕豆病
Females have two X’s, so they usually need mutations in both copies to have a deficiency
这样的情况很少
– a pretty rare event.
而男性基因中只有一个X 所以在基因复制中易出现变质
Males, on the other hand, only have one X, so all it takes is one bad copy.
人体缺乏G6PD会很危险 因为这种酶会保护红细胞
And a lack of G6PD can be dangerous, because the enzyme protects your red blood cells from
使其免受活性氧分子的破坏
molecules called reactive oxygen species.
这些分子是生命基体的一部分—-细胞产生能量并生成分子
These molecules are a natural part of life — they’re made when cells produce energy,
比如 我们的身体需要能量去保持活力
for instance, which our bodies definitely need to keep us alive.
但它们也会造成破坏 因为它们会窃取来自其他分子的电子
But they can also wreak havoc because they steal electrons from other molecules.
这种失去电子的情况叫氧化
This loss of electrons is what’s called oxidation.
如果它不受控制 那可真是坏消息 这会破坏蛋白质并撕裂
If it goes unchecked, it can be really bad news, destroying proteins and tearing apart
细胞
cells.
幸运的是 G6PD会中和氧化分子
Fortunately, G6PD is normally there to neutralize these oxidizing molecules.
但G6PD基因突变会导致身体产生较少的酶
But mutations in the G6PD gene can cause your body to produce less of the enzyme, or it
还可以改变酶本身 使它不能工作
can change the enzyme itself, so that it can’t do its job.
这意味着那些氧化分子已经达到危险警戒线
That means that those oxidizing molecules can build up to dangerously high levels and
会伤害你的细胞
damage your cells.
尤其是你的血红细胞会处于危险之中 因为它不同于你身体中的其它细胞
And your red blood cells are especially at risk, because — unlike most of your other
他们根本没有任何其他备用方法去抵御这些有害分子
cells — they don’t have any back-up plan for fending off those hazardous molecules.
G6PD是他们的一切
G6PD is all they have.
所以 用蚕豆能做些什么呢?
So yes, what does that have to do with fava beans?
蚕豆富含促进消化的化合物 增强活性氧反应效果
Fava beans contain compounds that when digested, boost the production of reactive oxygen species.
其实人体内还有很多的有害分子
So there are even more of these threatening molecules in your body, and without their
如果没有酶的保护 血红细胞会遭受损伤并且坏死
bodyguard enzyme to protect them, your red blood cells end up sustaining a lot of damage
诱发溶血性贫血
— and prompting hemolytic anemia.
尽管它是人体中最常见的酶
There’s no treatment for G6PD deficiency, even though it’s the most common enzyme
目前还是无法治愈G6PD缺乏症
defect that humans have.
但大多数人可以通过接种疫苗和防护措施来避免并发症的发生
But most people can avoid complications by getting vaccinated and by avoiding triggers,
比如蚕豆病
like fava beans.
很巧合的是 这实际上是一种由药物引起的并发症
Coincidentally, it was actually a drug-induced complication that led to the discovery of
还发现了首例G6PD缺乏症
G6PD deficiency in the first place.
追溯到1950年 研究者发现注射过能抗疟疾的伯氨喹的一些患者
Back in the 1950s, researchers found that some patients who received primaquine — an
溶血性贫血和G6PD在他们的血液中处于
anti-malarial drug — developed hemolytic anemia and had lower levels of G6PD in their
较低的水平
blood.
这促使了一个涉及G6PD缺乏症和疟疾相关的有趣理论
Which leads to an interesting theory involving G6PD deficiency and malaria…
生活在这些国家的大多数人会缺乏酶 如非洲 中东
Most people who are deficient in this enzyme live in Africa, the Middle East, Southern
欧洲南部和亚洲东南部等疟疾地区 这一问题至今仍很普遍
Europe, and Southeast Asia — areas where malaria is — or until recently, was — common.
研究人员认为 G6PD基因突变可能已经发生在这些地区的少数民族群体中
Researchers think that G6PD mutations may have stuck around in ethnic populations from
因为基因突变能保护人们预防疟疾
these areas because the mutations might help protect people from malaria.
在少量酶扩散的时候 疟原虫在血红细胞中
Malaria parasites don’t seem to fare as well in red blood cells when less of the enzyme
也保持良好
is around.
这可能是因为 那些地区酶含量少
That’s probably because, where there’s less of the enzyme, there are more of those
氧化分子比较多
oxidizing molecules.
所有的这些氧化物能伤害寄生虫
And all of those oxidizers might harm the parasites, or injure infected cells just enough
在寄生虫没长成有害个体之前 受过感染的细胞通过免疫系统
that they’re gobbled up by the immune system — before the most dangerous forms of the
吞噬它们
parasite develop.
所以 患有G6PD缺乏症的人可能会放弃吃晚餐桌上的蚕豆
So, while people with the G6PD deficiency might have to give up fava beans at the dinner
蚊子出现时 他们也可能会安全点
table, they might be a little safer when the mosquitoes come out to bite.
谢谢观看本期SciShow 同时也感谢我们的赞助商
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, which was brought to you by all of our patrons
Patreon
on Patreon.
他们是 patreon.com/scishow上的人员
They are people who go to patreon.com/scishow.
有了他们的赞助 我们才能录制这个节目并分享给各位观众
And they give us money so that we can provide this show for everyone.
多么大方又可爱的人啊!
What generous lovely people.
如果你想成为他们中的一员 可以去patreon.com/scishow
If you wanna be one of them you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
千万不要忘记到 youtube上的 scishow点击订阅哟
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

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