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为什么欧洲不建摩天大楼

Why Europe Doesn't Build Skyscrapers | The B1M

Why aren’t there many skyscrapers in Europe?
为什么欧洲的高楼大厦不是很多?
Despite being one of the most developed,
尽管欧洲是经济最繁荣发达
densely populated and economically prosperous continents
人口最稠密的大洲之一
Europe has surprisingly few skyscrapers
欧洲的摩天大楼却少得惊人
particularly when compared to Asia and North America
尤其是和亚洲以及北美相比
Of the 218 skyscrapers constructed on the continent to date
迄今为止 欧洲共有218座摩天大楼
66 % of them are located in just five cities
其中66%仅分布在以下五个城市
London, Paris, Frankfurt, Moscow and Istanbul.
伦敦 巴黎 法兰克福 莫斯科和伊斯坦布尔
So why have other major European cities not embraced the skyscraper?
为何欧洲其他大城市不热衷于修建摩天大楼呢?
How do they thrive without the significant inner-urban space and floor areas
若没有这些巧妙的建筑所提供的城市空间
that these clever structures provide?
这些城市如何繁荣发展呢?
And is everything about to change
而随着世界日益城市化
in our increasingly urbanised world?
是否一切都会改变?
为什么欧洲不建造摩天大楼?
When skyscrapers first rose to prominence in the 19th Century
19世纪 人们先后在芝加哥和纽约
first in Chicago and later in New York
兴建高楼大厦
many European cities were already firmly established
那时 欧洲的许多城市已经建成
with grand historic buildings and public spaces
有着宏伟的历史建筑和广阔的公共空间
that left little room for large new structures
因此几乎没有空地用于建造新的大型建筑
Most of Europe’s cities around that time were also more evenly zoned
那时 欧洲大多数城市内部规划更为严整
and were not facing the high demand for floor space in key districts
在本应积极建造高楼大厦的关键区域
that typically drives high rise development
人们对高层空间需求并不高
Additionally, as the power and influence of North America began to grow
另外 随着北美地区的影响力逐渐增强
a cultural rivalry emerged between Americans
欧美之间出现了文化较量
who saw Europe’ s class system as outdated
美国人认为欧洲的阶级制度过时了
and Europeans who saw some American ideals
而欧洲人认为一些美国理想
as eroding traditions and the European way of life
侵蚀着欧洲的传统和生活方式
As a result each continent became wary of adopting the others’ concepts
所以欧美双方在接受对方观念时都很谨慎
While North America aimed to become the model for a new age,
北美致力于成为新世纪的模范
Europe sought to preserve its heritage
欧洲则力求保护其文化遗产
While this explains why skyscraper construction didn’t initially catch on in Europe,
这解释了摩天大楼没有最先在欧洲流行起来的原因
it doesn’t explain what has held the continent back since.
却解释不了欧洲在这方面为什么一直滞后
战后重建
In the wake of the Second World War
二战之后
many thought European cities would modernise
许多人认为欧洲城市会逐步走向现代化
and replicate the skyscrapers that were rising across North America.
并效仿美国 兴建摩天大楼
However, in westen Europe – where many cities lost landmark and historic structures
然而 战争摧毁了西欧许多地标建筑和古迹
an overwhelming desire to restore what had been destroyed took hold.
人们强烈地希望修复损毁的建筑
In addition, the lower population of Europe at that time
再加上战后的欧洲人口减少
meant that the demand for floor area
人们对住房建筑的需求下降
that principally drives skyscraper construction wasn’t there.
因此不需要建造高楼
As a result,modest structures replaced buildings that could not be saved or restored.
所以人们用普通建筑替代了损毁严重的房屋
Meanwhile,in Eastern Europe,
同时 在东欧
the expanding Soviet Union’s rebuild effort
日益扩张的苏联开始了重建工作
consisted largely of mid-rise repetitive structures
并建造了大量相似的中高层建筑
that sought to rehouse much of the population.
用来安置大部分人口
It was during this time that Europe saw its first skyscrapers begin to rise
这期间 欧洲首批摩天大楼在苏联崛起
not in response to growth and prosperity
这并非得益于经济的繁荣发展
but in an effort by the Soviets to indicate their power and influence
而是苏联人借机展现他们的影响力
布鲁塞尔化
While Brussels has never constructed a true skyscraper
布鲁塞尔从未建造过真正意义上的摩天大楼
it is partly responsible for the lack of skyscrapers across the continent
某种程度上也导致欧洲各地都没什么高楼大厦
Without any significant zoning regulations in place
20世纪60年代 由于缺乏有效的城市规划
the 1960s saw many buildings in the city demolished
人们拆除了许多旧建筑
to make way for large modern structures
为大型现代建筑腾出空间
that had little regard for architectural or cultural value.
这些现代建筑缺少建筑美学和文化价值
Recognising the damage this indiscriminate redevelopment was doing to the city
意识到肆意重建对城市造成的破坏之后
many prominent figures and architects coined the term “ Brusselization ”
许多名人和建筑师创造了“布鲁塞尔化”这个词
and lobbied to introduce new planning rules
并大力宣传新的城市规划规则
These regulations significantly limited the scale of new buildings
新规则极大程度上限制了重建的规模
and required historic facades to be restored
同时要求恢复建筑的历史风貌
and incorporated into new developments preserving the cultural fabric of the city.
保护城市文化结构的计划也被纳入其中
The row in Brussels led to a general dislike for modern buildings across Europe
布鲁塞尔重建时的分歧使欧洲人很反感现代建筑
with many seeing them as bland or soulless
其中很多人认为这些现代建筑了无生气
In response, numerous cities adopted similar regulations and set aside controlled districts
许多城市采用了类似制度并划分出管制区
like Paris’La Defence to keep high-rise development away from historic centres.
在巴黎的德方斯新区 高楼不得建在历史城区
城市化时代
By the start of the 21st Century
到21世纪初
attitudes around tall buildings were softening across the continent
欧洲对高层建筑的态度逐渐缓和
as architectural trends moved away from box-like structures toward more unique designs
因为建筑结构变得独特而有设计感 不再四四方方
and as the world became increasingly globalised.
世界也日益向全球化发展
Since the early 2000s,
自21世纪初以来
major financial centres like London, Paris,
伦敦 巴黎 莫斯科 伊斯坦布尔和
Moscow, Istanbul and Frankfurt
法兰克福等主要金融中心
have seen several skyscrapers rise
对商业空间的需求加大
as demand for commercial space in their centres has increased.
因此他们在市中心建起了几座摩天大楼
By contrast, smaller European cities that have experienced more modest growth
而此时欧洲的小城市的经济发展没那么快
have turned their focus to the environment and improving living standards for citizens.
他们把重心放到改善环境和居民的生活水平上
In recent years, urban areas in Scandinavia and Central Europe
近几年 斯堪的纳维亚和中欧的城区
have consistently ranked among the highest in the world for sustainability, happiness and well-being
在可持续发展 幸福指数和社会福利方面持续位列前茅
while maintaining importance within their national economies.
同时保持着他们在国内的重要经济地位
However, skyscraper construction in the cities of today
而现在 经济增长和对商业办公场所的需求
is no longer driven purely by economic growth or the need for commercial office space
已不再是建造高层建筑的唯一驱动力
With 60 % of the global human population set to be living in urban areas by 2030
到2030年 全球60%的人口将在城区安家
residential skyscrapers are now rising in prominence
如今 高层住宅的数量急剧增加
particularly across Asia and North America
尤其是在亚洲和北美各地
As many traditional rural-based industries become automated
随着传统农业的自动化
millions are migrating into cities and major urban areas
数百万人向城镇和大都市迁移
driving significant demand for residential space that is often met with high-rise structures
推动了住房需求的大幅增长 市区高楼林立
Europe is not immune to this phenomenon
欧洲也面临同样的情况
particularly in such a heavily globalised world
尤其是在这个高度全球化的世界里
and with the continent’s desire to keep up with the progress and economic growth of China and the US
中国和美国展现了强劲的经济实力 欧洲也不甘示弱
As such, Europe could witness a skyscraper boom in the decades ahead
因此几十年后 欧洲将掀起建造摩天大楼的热潮
However, with entire urban centres now being declared historically significant
而现在 人们强调的是城市的重要历史意义
and with the desire to retain as much culture and architecture as possible
希望尽量保留更多的文化和建筑
rightly holding strong up to the present day
今天的人们仍秉持着这样的理念
the unique challenge facing future skyscraper construction in Europe
由于人们意识到了历史建筑的重要价值
is all to do with the past.
未来欧洲的城市化建设将颇具挑战
If you enjoyed this video
如果您喜欢这段视频
and would like to get more from the definitive
想通过这个专注建筑的视频渠道
video channel for construction,
了解更多关于建筑的知识
subscribe to The B1M.
欢迎订阅B1M建筑

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一起来看看为什么欧洲不建造摩天大楼

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVJ_rgEUSJE

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